Nieuport 14

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Nieuport 14
WW1 Nieuport 14 aircraft.jpg
Role Reconnaissance aircraft
National origin France
Manufacturer Nieuport
First flight September 1915
Introduction 1916
Primary user Aéronautique Militaire
Number built 100
Nieuport 14

The Nieuport 14 was a military reconnaissance sesquiplane produced in France during the First World War. When the French Army deployed it in 1916, they found its performance inadequate, and the type was quickly withdrawn from front-line service.[1][2]

Development[edit]

Developed in response to an order by the Aéronautique Militaire in the summer of 1915, it was to have been a two-seat reconnaissance machine capable of making a flight of 180 km (97 nmi; 110 mi) and back while carrying a load of bombs.[3] Nieuport's design started with the Nieuport 12 reconnaissance aircraft, but had its fuselage stretched to balance out the single nose mounted Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine and its wingspan increased by the addition of an additional bay.[3][4] Protracted development that saw some refinement in the engine installation and the wing area increased from 28 square meters to 30 resulted in it entering service only in late 1916.

Further development, with a larger engine and a further enlarged and refined airframe would result in the Nieuport 15.

Three additional airframes possibly connected to the Nieuport 14 were built, all featuring a nose radiator, single bay wings and a deeper hunchback fuselage. One had cut-outs in its wing to improve visibility and was fitted with a 180 hp (130 kW) Lorraine-Dietrich 8A engine, another with a 150 hp (110 kW) Hispano-Suiza engine, and a third with a 220 hp (160 kW) Hispano-Suiza engine and a crescent-shaped wing.[4]

With its failure as a combat aircraft, a dedicated trainer variant was developed, the Nieuport 14 École with dual controls, nosewheels to guard against nose-over accidents, and an 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhone 9C rotary engine in the place of the original V-8.[4] It is possible that these airframes had been left over from the original production.[4] When further refined, the trainer version was redesignated the Nieuport 82 E.2 and nicknamed Grosse Julie ("Big Julie").[4]

Operational history[edit]

Deliveries to three reconnaissance squadrons commenced in late 1916, replacing obsolete Voisin III and V types. However, the Nieuport 14's were found to be unsatisfactory and these squadrons were re-equipped with Nieuport 17s only eighteen days later and re-deployed as fighter squadrons.[2] Production of the Nieuport 14 was halted,[3] and remaining machines were relegated to training duties and as unit hacks once improvements had been made to their side-mounted Hazet radiators.[4] While the Nieuport 14 only saw service in France, the Nieuport 82 served in France, Brazil and Japan.

Variants[edit]

  • Nieuport 14 A.2 - service designation of reconnaissance aircraft
  • Nieuport 14 E.2 - service designation of trainer
  • Nieuport 82 E.2 - dedicated trainer version with rotary engine

Operators[edit]

 France
Aeronautique Militaire
 Brazil
Aviacao Militar - 9 Nieuport 82s operated from 1919 to 1924.
 Japan
Imperial Japanese Army - Army Aviation Department

Specifications[edit]

Nieuport 14 drawing

Data from Nieuport Aircraft of World War One[4]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two, pilot and observer
  • Length: 7.90 m (25 ft 11 in)
  • Wingspan: 11.90 m (39 ft 1 in)
  • Height: 3.20 m (10 ft 6 in)
  • Wing area: 30.0 m2 (323 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 620 kg (1,400 lb)
  • Gross weight: 970 kg (2,100 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8 liquid-cooled V-8 piston engine, 100 kW (140 hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 155 km/h (97 mph)
  • Endurance: 4 hours

Armament

  • 1 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in rear cockpit for observer
  • small load of bombs

  • References[edit]

    1. ^ Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. p. 697.
    2. ^ a b The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Orbis Publishing. p. 2598.
    3. ^ a b c Hartmann, Gérard (2006). "Les Nieuport de la guerre" (PDF). La Coupe Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques hydravions et moteurs. p. 12. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
    4. ^ a b c d e f g Sanger, Ray (2002). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One. Ramsbury: Crowood. pp. 41–44, 71.