Night Trap is an interactive movie video game developed by Digital Pictures and originally released by Sega for the Sega CD in 1992. The game is presented primarily through the use of full motion video (FMV). In Night Trap, the player takes the role of a special agent tasked to watch over teenage girls having a sleepover (starring Dana Plato) visiting a house which, unbeknownst to them, is full of danger. The player watches live surveillance footage of the house and triggers traps to capture anyone seen endangering the girls. The player can freely switch their view between different cameras to keep watch over the girls and eavesdrop on conversations to follow the story and listen for clues.
The origins of Night Trap can be traced back to a 1986 prototype game developed by Axlon to demonstrate their Control-Vision game console to Hasbro. The system used VHS tape technology to present movie-like gaming experiences. With the system picked up by Hasbro, production of Night Trap commenced. The video footage was recorded the following year in 1987 and was followed by six months of editing and game programming. Hasbro suddenly canceled the Control-Vision in 1989, which prompted the game's executive producer, Tom Zito, to purchase the film footage and found Digital Pictures to complete its production. Night Trap was eventually released as the first interactive movie on the Sega CD in 1992, five years after filming.
The game received mixed reviews. Critics praised the game's B movie-esque quality, warped humor, and smooth video animation, but criticized the shallow gameplay. The game was one of the principal subjects of a 1993 United States Senate committee hearing on violent video games, along with Mortal Kombat. Night Trap was cited during the hearing as promoting gratuitous violence and sexual aggression against women, prompting toy retailers Toys “R” Us and Kay-Bee Toys to pull the game from shelves that December, and Sega to cease its production entirely the following month. The Senate hearing eventually led to the creation of the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), the North American video game ratings board still used today. After the controversy subsided, Night Trap was re-released and ported to other consoles. These later ports received more harsh reviews due to the aging appeal of full motion video as a game medium. Night Trap was re-released in 2017, commemorating its 25th anniversary.
Night Trap is an interactive movie video game that uses full motion video (FMV) to present the story and gameplay. The player is instructed by the in-game police squad to watch live surveillance footage of the Martin household and trigger traps to capture anyone that is seen endangering the house guests. Cameras are situated in eight locations in and around the house: the entryway, living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, driveway, and two hallways. A map is available as well so the player can see how the rooms are connected. The player can freely switch between viewing the different cameras to keep up with house activities and pick up clues from conversations. Kelli, an undercover agent, will also provide clues to the player. The player must avoid trapping her, any other agent, or the house guests.
When someone is within range of a trap, a sensor bar will move into a red zone. Activating the trap at this moment will capture them. If the trap is activated when the bar is not in the red zone, the trap will not work and will become disabled for a short period of time. The traps will also only work if the access code is correct. There are six possible access codes, and the player must eavesdrop into the conversations to find out when the Martins change the code. When a new code is learned, the player must wait until the speaker leaves the room before changing the access code to the correct color to maintain control of the traps. Counters on the screen indicate how many perpetrators have entered the house and how many have been captured.
The opening exposition to Night Trap is presented to the player by Lt. Simms of the Sega Control Attack Team (S.C.A.T.) on Sega CD, or Special Control Attack Team in other versions. He explains that the team was alerted to the disappearance of five teenage girls who were last seen at the Martin winery estate. The Martin family consists of Victor Martin, his wife Sheila, their children Jeff (Andras Jones) and Sarah, and cousin Tony. The missing girls were reportedly invited to stay for the night. Police questioned the Martin family, but they claimed the girls had left safely, and they refused to let the police search the property. The police then handed over the case to S.C.A.T., which investigated the house and discovered a series of traps, security cameras, and an operational unit in the basement to control the apparatus. The S.C.A.T. agents spliced an override cable onto the control system and connected it to a control panel in the back hallway of the house. The player is given the role of an internal S.C.A.T. operative charged with controlling the traps and cameras from this back hallway.
Five more teenage girls head towards the estate, Kelli, Ashley, Lisa, Cindy, and Megan. S.C.A.T. was able to place agent Kelli Medd (Dana Plato)[a] within the group as an undercover agent. The girls are not aware of her true identity. Also with the girls is Danny, Lisa's younger brother. What the gang does not know is the house is infested with Augers, vampiric beings that need blood to survive. The Martin family themselves are in the process of becoming vampires. The following events that take place and the ending vary widely depending on which characters the player is able to save from the Augers.
Rob Fulop, developer of Demon Attack (1982) and other Atari games, began working with Atari founder Nolan Bushnell at his company Axlon shortly after the video game crash of 1983. James Riley was also working with Bushnell at the time on a series of interactive retail advertising campaigns. Riley received a call from Fulop, his neighbor, who explained that an engineer presented an interesting device to another one of Bushnell's employees, Tom Zito. The system used VHS technology to create movie-like gaming experiences and allowed four video tracks to be played simultaneously. The team dubbed this system "NEMO" (Never Ever Mention Outside).
Zito wanted to put together some demos to present the technology to Hasbro. Riley wanted to create an environment the player could move freely about, leading to the idea of surveillance cameras. Fulop and Riley were inspired by the play Tamara (1981) which ran parallel stories running in 13 different rooms. The audience would need to decide for themselves which stories they wanted to follow. Fulop and Riley watched the play three times over the course of a weekend in 1985. Fulop and Riley liked the design model and thought it would make a good basis for an interactive media experience. A prototype game titled Scene of the Crime was produced to demonstrate the new technology to Hasbro and test the surveillance camera gameplay. It was a short five-minute demo where the player follows suspicious characters around a house to find who stole a stash of money. The player switches between cameras to observe the characters and eavesdrop on their conversations; all the characters have a plot to steal the money. At the end of the game, the player must guess who stole the money. In December 1986, the team flew to Hasbro headquarters in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and pitched the technology to Hasbro CEO Stephen Hassenfeld and a boardroom of 22 executives who liked the system and gave funding to support further development for the technology and games.
Ready to begin work on a full game, the NEMO team returned to the idea of surveillance cameras but wanted to make a more interactive and engaging experience. Zito originally had a plan for an interactive movie based on the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series. After negotiations with the film studio fell through, Zito hired Terry McDonell to write an original script. A cross-functional team of writers, directors, game designers, and programmers discussed how to blend the art of film with the interactivity of video games to create a compelling interactive narrative. The initial idea was to take the basis of Scene of the Crime to an extreme with a billionaire leaving an extremely large sum of money alone in a large house, guarded by a state-of-the-art security system. In this concept, the billionaire's daughter is staying at the house with her teenage friends when the house is attacked by ninja burglars who are attempting to steal the money. Through much deliberation, the game evolved into the final vampire concept seen in Night Trap. Hasbro was concerned that the game may feature "reproducible violence". As a result, Hasbro did not want the vampires, later dubbed Augers, to bite or move too quickly. In addition, the device used by the Augers to drain blood from their victims was purposely designed to pass Hasbro's non-reproducible violence requirements.
Production and release
Night Trap was developed over six months and was part movie shoot and part programming. The film was shot on 35 mm film in Culver City, CA across 16 days in 1987, with editing taking another few months. The film was directed by James Riley. The director of photography was Don Burgess, who later went on to shoot the award-winning Forrest Gump (1994). Originally the set was going to be darker, but it was made brighter for fear the footage would pixelate in-game. The script was unusual because it was built around the multi-linear gameplay. Riley was focused on timing the shoots correctly to sync the movement of actors among the rooms. There were four scenes occurring simultaneously at any given time, although there were eight rooms (the other four being still images). Dana Plato was the most famous actor involved, known for her work on the American sitcom Diff'rent Strokes (1978–86). Plato's career was spiraling downward at the time, partially due to her personal problems with drugs and alcohol. At first, she was eager to work on Night Trap, but later she became more problematic though Fulop said he had no problems with her on set and the two enjoyed working together. She reportedly made little effort to hide the fact that doing this project was a huge step down from her previous popularity. The Augers were played by stuntmen. They developed a hobbling walk so that they would always be prepared to fall when the traps dropped under their feet. The software was developed concurrently with the filming and editing. Through developing Night Trap, Fulop and his team came to realize their old-fashioned development methods did not always work with interactive movies. The team could not go back and "tweak" on-screen elements and other assets, such as inserting new scenes or changing the time an actor comes into view. They had to work with the video footage they were handed over.
Night Trap was ready for the launch of the NEMO in 1989 alongside another interactive movie, Sewer Shark. Both games had a combined budget of about US$4.5 million ($1.5 for Night Trap, and $3 million for Sewer Shark) making them two of the most expensive video games of the era. However, just before the launch of the NEMO in early 1989, which was now called the Control-Vision, Hasbro canceled the system release. The company cited high hardware costs as the reason. The system was originally intended to sell for $199, but the high manufacturing costs of the system's DRAM drove it to US$299 (equivalent to $624.25 in 2020). In contrast, the market-leading Nintendo Entertainment System sold for around $100 in 1989. Riley also cited the high cost of filmmaking for deterring Hasbro. Disappointed by the whole affair, Fulop went on to form PF Magic, which later created the Petz virtual pet simulation series. Zito purchased the rights to the abandoned Control-Vision games, and after learning that Sony was considering Sewer Shark for a release on its forthcoming Super NES CD-ROM, he founded his own company to bring them to the system, Digital Pictures. When the Super NES CD-ROM failed to materialize, Zito began working with Sega for a release on the Sega CD. Night Trap transitioned from VHS to CD-ROM and was released in 1992 for the Sega CD, five years after it was originally filmed. Sega also released the Sega CD version in Japan on November 19, 1993.
United States congressional hearings
|"Video Game Violence", US Senate Governmental Affairs & Judicial Subcommittees (December 9, 1993)|
On December 9, 1993, a United States Senate committee held a hearing on the subject of video game violence. The hearing was led by senators Joe Lieberman and Herb Kohl and was covered in major newspapers including USA Today, The Washington Post and The New York Times. Throughout the hearing, the committee scrutinized Night Trap along with Midway's Mortal Kombat (1992). Lieberman, who admitted never playing the game, claimed Night Trap featured gratuitous violence and promoted sexual aggression against women. One game over scene considered particularly offensive involved the nightgown-clad character Lisa being captured by Augers attempting to drain her blood. Tom Zito attempted to explain the context of the nightgown scene in defense of the game, but he claims he was silenced. In the short documentary Dangerous Games (included with PC versions), the producers and some members of the cast explain that the plot of the game was to in fact prevent the trapping and killing of women. In addition, the blood draining device was intended to look very unrealistic to mitigate the violence. There are scenes in which the girls are grabbed or pulled by enemies, but no nudity or extreme acts of violence were ever filmed or incorporated into the game.
Night Trap designer Rob Fulop was irked that his relatively tame game was being compared to Mortal Kombat, which is based on such ultraviolent gore as ripping the heart out of an opponent. Nintendo Of America senior vice president Howard Lincoln testified in front of the committee, stating Night Trap would never appear on a Nintendo system because it did not pass the guidelines they enforced at the time. Fulop later explained that Lincoln was referring to Nintendo's technical lack of a CD-ROM drive but had made it sound as if the game was unworthy of Nintendo's moral standards. Critics noted this as a deliberate move from Nintendo to distance itself from the scandal and make Sega look unfavorable.
As a result of the publicity generated by the hearings, retailers sold 50,000 copies of Night Trap the following week. Two weeks before Christmas, the game was removed from store shelves in the United States' two largest toy store chains, Toys "R" Us and Kay-Bee Toys, after receiving numerous complaints that were suspected to be part of an organized telephone campaign. Both stores continued to stock Mortal Kombat. The Night Trap box art was also criticized by interest groups for what many believed to be a sexist depiction. In January 1994, Sega withdrew Night Trap from the market. Bill White, Sega Vice President of Marketing, stated that Night Trap was pulled because the continued controversy surrounding it prevented constructive dialogue about an industry-wide rating system. He also stated that the game was misunderstood and was developed as a parody of vampire melodramas. Sega also announced in January the upcoming release of a censored version. The hearings led to the creation of the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) in 1994, the video game ratings board in North America still used today. After the controversy subsided, the game was ported to the 3DO, Sega 32X, MS-DOS, and Mac OS, each with a different cover from the original. Virgin Games released the 3DO version in Japan on June 25, 1994.
|Electronic Games||89% (SCD)[e]|
|Sega Zone||58% (SCD)|
|Sega Force||84% (SCD)|
|Mean Machines Sega||78% (SCD)|
Initial reviews for Night Trap on the Sega CD were mixed. It is notable for being the first interactive movie on the system and was thus seen as breaking new ground in both genre and technology. Critics were quick to point out the game's B movie qualities that were reminiscent of teen horror movies. The staff at Sega Force said that playing the game was like "directing your own B movie. Night Trap makes you feel part of the game." Critics identified the "warped" and "tacky" sense of humor as helping the game's appeal and adding to its charm. From a technological perspective, the video was praised for being high-quality and smooth, although the Sega CD's low color capabilities were identified as a weakness. The most common point of complaint was the gameplay. Some critics cited it for being boring and shallow because it mostly involved pressing one button at the right time to trap the enemies. The staff at Computer and Video Games said Night Trap was reminiscent of Dragon's Lair (1983) and Space Ace (1984) and shared the same issues those games had with gameplay just being a matter of hitting buttons in the right moments.
Ports of Night Trap to other platforms received more harsh reviews; critics said the game did not age well. Staff at GamePro said it was "innovative at one time, but Trap's graphics and sounds now play like standard stuff." Reviewers at GameFan blamed the game's extensive publicity for making it seem better than it truly was, saying "it's a so-so game that got a lot more attention than it deserved." Critics overwhelmingly found the game to be boring and dull. Next Generation called it "one of the most crashing bores ever released...this is a nongame." Critics agreed that the 3DO and 32X provided a larger color palette and higher-quality video than the Sega CD original. Night Trap was a commercial success, with sales totaling 400,000 copies by 1998.
In retrospect, Night Trap is viewed negatively and is mostly remembered for the controversy it stirred. It was ranked the 12th worst video game of all-time by Electronic Gaming Monthly editor Seanbaby in 2001. He and other game journalists also featured the game in a 2007 episode of Broken Pixels, a comedy web series that covers bad and obscure games. Yahoo! Games listed it among the most controversial games of all-time in 2007, saying: "If it weren't for controversy...this throwaway Sega CD game would have drifted into obscurity as merely another failed attempt at marrying gameplay with live-action video." Game Informer listed the game among the worst horror games of all time in 2008. It was ranked number 59 on GamesRadar's 100 worst games of all time in 2014, in which they believed it was "less of a game and more a test of patience". In 1996, Computer Gaming World listed Night Trap at number six of 50 worst games of all time, saying that it was "the ultimate experience of FMV gone bad".
In May 2014, Night Trap designer James Riley announced that he was in talks to re-release the game with improved resolution and gameplay. That August, a Kickstarter campaign appeared for the game's original creators, who formed a company titled Night Trap LLC. The developers said that if the campaign was successful, they would be looking into re-releasing other Digital Pictures titles. Furthermore, the company was also considering making a sequel to the original game. The Kickstarter failed, only gaining $39,843 of its $330,000 goal.
Two years later, in May 2016, game developer Tyler Hogle created a tech demo of Night Trap being played on a smartphone. Hogle had previously worked on official ports for two other Digital Pictures games, Double Switch (1993) and Quarterback Attack (1995). He posted a short video of his Night Trap demo online anonymously, and some gaming websites published stories on the video and contacted Tom Zito to ask if he was involved. Hogle got into contact with Zito, and the two began working towards a full release. The original source code and 1987 master footage are lost. Riley, however, possessed a copy of the timed master footage and provided it to Hogle. Because the footage was already timed, it was easier for Hogle to develop; however, he had to replay the original game multiple times to learn what actions triggered which scenes.
Night Trap: 25th Anniversary Edition was announced in April 2017 to commemorate the game's 25th anniversary. The game was released on PlayStation 4 and Microsoft Windows on August 15, 2017, with an Xbox One release planned for the future. The game was developed and published by Hogle's Screaming Villains, and a limited-edition physical release by Limited Run Games was made available for the PlayStation 4 with three different cover art variations available that mimic the packaging of the original Sega CD release, the later Sega CD release, and the 32X version. The ESRB gave the re-release a "Teen" rating, a grade lower than the original's "Mature" rating. The anniversary edition of Night Trap uses the full uncompressed video footage with various new additions: deleted scenes including an introduction and a death scene featuring Danny, a behind-the-scenes developer commentary, a "theater mode" to watch all the story-related videos, a "survivor mode" which places Augers randomly in the house, and a playable version of Scene of the Crime.
The anniversary edition was released on the Nintendo Switch on August 24, 2018. The irony was noted by several journalists, as former Nintendo of America president Howard Lincoln had stated during the 1993 congressional hearings that "Night Trap will never appear on a Nintendo system." A version for the PlayStation Vita was also released.
- The spelling of the character's first name has been published in different forms. The game's end credits list it with a "y"; the instruction manual spells it with an "i".
- GamePro component scores for SCD version were 5.0 for graphics, 5.0 for sounds, 5.0 for control, and 4.0 for fun factor. (out of 5)
- GamePro component scores for 3DO version were 4.0 for graphics, 4.0 for sounds, 4.0 for control, and 2.5 for fun factor. (out of 5)
- GamePro component scores for 32X version were 3.5 for graphics, 3 for sound, and 2.5 for control and fun factor. (out of 5)
- Electronic Games provided component scores of 95% for graphics, 92% for sound, and 86% for playability, with a score of 89% overall.
- "Night Trap to get surprise rerelease, complete with physical PS4 edition". Polygon. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "Controversial Interactive Movie Game". www.gamerevolution.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Night Trap instruction manual. Digital Pictures. 1992. pp. 1–10.
- Night Trap instruction manual. Digital Pictures. 1994. pp. 2–7.
- Night Trap. Digital Pictures. 1992.
- Digital Pictures (1993). Night Trap (Mega CD and 3DO). Sega. Scene: End credits.
- Fry, Dwite (September 19, 2009). "Hardcore Gaming 101: Night Trap". www.hardcoregaming101.net. Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
- Riley, James; Hogle, Tyler (July 27, 2017). "Night Trap: 25 Years Later :: Documentary" (video) (Interview). Interviewed by Coury Carlson and Marc Duddleson. My Life in Gaming. Archived from the original on July 27, 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- "The Making of: Night Trap" (PDF). Retro Gamer: 54–57. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 3, 2014.
- Russell, Jamie (April 24, 2012). "The Origins of Night Trap: An Excerpt from Generation Xbox". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on June 20, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Digital Pictures (1993). Night Trap (Mega CD). Sega. Scene: End credits.
Pawtucket, RI...December, 1986...
- Kent, Steven L. (2010). The Ultimate History of Video Games. Crown/Archetype. pp. 274, 453–454, 478. ISBN 9780307560872. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016.
- "VHS: The Future of Gaming". GameSpy. March 23, 2007. Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "ナイトトラップ [MD]". Famitsu (in Japanese). Enterbrain. Archived from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
- "Video Game Violence". C-SPAN.org. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "Sega to Withdraw, Revise 'Night Trap'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Digital Pictures (1995). Dangerous Games. Retrieved May 7, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Mertz, Elizabeth; Ford, William K.; Matoesian, Gregory (January 1, 2016). Translating the Social World for Law: Linguistic Tools for a New Legal Realism. Oxford University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780199990559 – via Google Books.
- "Major Stores Pull Night Trap". GamePro (56). IDG. March 1994. p. 184.
- The Milwaukee Journal, March 9, 1995
- "Was Night Trap Banned?". Sega Visions. No. 18. April 1994. p. 11.
- "ナイト・トラップ [3DO]". Famitsu (in Japanese). Enterbrain. Archived from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
- "Night Trap". Computer and Video Games (138): 70–71.
- Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia & Lesser, Kirk (July 1993). "The Role of Computers" (PDF). Dragon (195): 58. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 21, 2016.
- Edge staff (March 1994). "Night Trap review (3DO)". Edge. No. 6. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- "Night Trap". GameFan. Vol. 2 no. 3. February 1994. pp. 19, 110.
- "Sega CD Pro Review: Night Trap". GamePro (41): 62–63. December 1992.
- "ProReview: Night Trap". GamePro. IDG (56): 118. March 1994.
- "ProReview: Night Trap". GamePro. No. 69. IDG. April 1995. p. 60.
- Camron, Marc (December 1992). "Night Trap". Electronic Games. 1 (3): 99. Archived from the original on April 8, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "32X Ratings: Night Trap". Next Generation. No. 5. May 1995. p. 91.
- "Night Trap". Sega Zone (8): 30–31. June 1993.
- "Night Trap". Sega Force (18): 64–66. June 1993.
- "Night Trap". Mean Machines Sega (7): 60–63. April 1993.
- Kent, Steve (February 1998). "Retroview". Next Generation. No. 38. p. 37.
- "EGM's Crapstravaganza: The 20 Worst Games of All Time (#12: Night Trap)". Seanbaby.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2002. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "Broken Pixels Episode 08 from GameVideos". Gamevideos.1up.com. May 4, 2007. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Ben Silverman (September 17, 2007). "Controversial Games". Yahoo! Games. Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- Juba, Joe (October 2008). "The Wrong Kind of Scary: Worst Horror Games Ever". Game Informer. No. 186. p. 121. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "The 100 worst games of all time". GamesRadar. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Staff (November 1996). "150 Best (and 50 Worst) Games of All Time" (PDF). Computer Gaming World. No. 148. p. 88. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Sarkar, Samit (May 19, 2014). "Night Trap creator planning to rerelease the game". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- McElroy, Justin (August 11, 2014). "Night Trap ReVamped aims to reanimate the FMV classic via Kickstarter". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- "Night Trap ReVamped". Kickstarter. Archived from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Romano, Sal (April 25, 2017). "Night Trap: 25th Anniversary Edition announced for PS4, Xbox One". Gematsu. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Walker, Alex (July 29, 2017). "Of All Things, Night Trap Comes Out Next Month". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- "Night Trap! Watch out behind you!". Limited Run Games. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Ponder, Stacie (August 15, 2017). "25 Years Later, 'Disgusting' Night Trap Is Incredibly Tame". Kotaku. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- "Night Trap Gets Official Digital Release Date For Nintendo Switch". Comicbook. August 13, 2018. Archived from the original on August 15, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- McWhertor, Michael (April 20, 2018). "Nintendo once vowed Night Trap would never be on its systems, but things change". Polygon. Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "'Night Trap: 25th Anniversary Edition' Creeping Its Way To PlayStation Vita". Comicbook. October 28, 2018. Archived from the original on November 26, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- "LIMITED RUN #193: NIGHT TRAP CLASSIC EDITION (VITA)". Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2019.