Night-vision device

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A US Navy aviator uses a pair of helmet-mounted AN/AVS-6 vision goggles. The effect on the natural night vision of the eye is evident
A standard telescopic sight augmented with a night-vision device in front on the M110. Note that in addition to the image intensifier, the NVD gathers much more light by its much larger aperture
A 1PN51-2 night-vision reticle with markings for range estimation

A night-vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night-vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. The image may be a conversion to visible light of both visible light and near-infrared, while by convention detection of thermal infrared is denoted thermal imaging. The image produced is typically monochrome green, because it was considered to be the easiest color to look at for prolonged periods in the dark.[1] NVDs are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies, but are available to civilian users. The term usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs include a protective sacrificial lens,[2] or optical components such as telescopic lenses or mirrors. An NVD may have an IR illuminator, making it an active as opposed to passive night-vision device. They are often used in conjunction with IR laser sights which project a beam onto the target that is only visible through an NVD.[3]

Night-vision devices were first used in World War II and came into wide use during the Vietnam War.[4][5] The technology has evolved greatly since their introduction, leading to several "generations" of night-vision equipment with performance increases and price reductions. Consequently, they are available for a wide range of applications, e.g. for gunners, drivers and aviators.


US manufacturers, through the US government, have introduced a retrospective classification of NVDs into "generations".[citation needed] Under this periodization, the period prior to the end of World War II has sometimes been described[by whom?] as Generation 0.

In 1929 Hungarian physicist Kálmán Tihanyi invented an infrared-sensitive electronic television camera for anti-aircraft defense in the UK.[6]

Night-vision devices were introduced in the German Army as early as 1939 and were used in World War II. AEG started developing the first devices in 1935. In mid-1943, the German Army began the first tests with infrared night-vision (German: Nachtjäger) devices and telescopic rangefinders mounted on Panther tanks. Two different arrangements were constructed and used on Panther tanks. The Sperber FG 1250 ("Sparrow Hawk"), with a range of up to 600 m, had a 30 cm infrared searchlight and an image converter operated by the tank commander.

An experimental Soviet device called the PAU-2 was field-tested in 1942.

From late 1944 to March 1945 the German military conducted successful tests of FG 1250 sets mounted on Panther Ausf. G tanks (and other variants). Before World War II ended in 1945, approximately 50 (or 63) Panthers had been equipped with the FG 1250 and saw combat on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. The "Vampir" man-portable system for infantry was used with StG 44 assault rifles.[7]

Parallel development of night-vision systems occurred in the US. The M1 and M3 infrared night-sighting devices, also known as the "sniperscope" or "snooperscope", saw limited service with the US Army in World War II[8] and in the Korean War, to assist snipers.[4] These were active devices, using a large infrared light source to illuminate targets. Their image-intensifier tubes used an anode and an S-1 photocathode, made primarily of silver, cesium, and oxygen, and electrostatic inversion with electron acceleration was used to achieve gain.[9]


  • PAU-2
  • PNV-57A tanker goggles
  • SU49/PAS 5
  • T-120 Sniperscope, 1st model (World War II)
  • M2 Sniperscope, 2nd model (World War II)
  • M3 Sniperscope, 4th model (Korean War)
  • AN/PAS-4 (early Vietnam War)

After World War II Vladimir K. Zworykin developed the first practical commercial night-vision device at Radio Corporation of America, intended for civilian use. Zworykin's idea came from a former radio-guided missile.[10] At that time infrared was commonly called black light, a term later restricted to ultraviolet. Zworykin's invention was not a success due to its size and cost.[11]

United States[edit]

Generation 1[edit]

An M16A1 rifle fitted with the AN/PVS-2 Starlight scope

First-generation passive devices developed in the 1960s, introduced during the Vietnam War and patented by the US Army, were an adaptation of earlier active GEN 0 technology and relied on ambient light instead of using an extra infrared light source. Using an S-20 photocathode, their image intensifiers produced a light amplification of around 1000,[12] but they were quite bulky and required moonlight to function properly. Examples:

  • AN/PVS-1 Starlight scope
  • AN/PVS-2 Starlight scope
  • PAS 6 Varo Metascope

Generation 2 (GEN II)[edit]

A cut-open and depotted AN/PVS-5, showing the components of a night-vision device. This device was manufactured in 2nd generation (5A to 5C) and 3rd generation (5D)

Second-generation devices developed in the 1970s, featuring an improved image-intensifier tube using micro-channel plate (MCP)[13] with an S-25 photocathode,[9] and resulting in a much brighter image, especially around the edges of the lens. This led to increased illumination in low ambient-light environments, such as moonless nights. Light amplification was around 20000.[12] Also improved were image resolution and reliability.


Later advances in GEN II technology brought the tactical characteristics of "GEN II+" devices (equipped with better optics, SUPERGEN tubes, improved resolution and better signal-to-noise ratios)[16] into the range of GEN III devices, which has complicated comparisons.

Generation 3 (GEN III)[edit]

An early development version of the AN/PVS-7 goggle

Third-generation night-vision systems, developed in the late 1980s, maintained the MCP from Gen II, but used a photocathode made with gallium arsenide, which further improved image resolution. In addition, the MCP is coated with an ion barrier film for increased tube life. However, the ion barrier causes fewer electrons to pass through, diminishing the improvement expected from the gallium-arsenide photocathode. Because of the ion barrier, the "halo" effect around bright spots or light sources is larger too. The light amplification is also improved to around 3000050000.[12] Power consumption is higher than in GEN II tubes.



The ATG function was designed[by whom?] to improve the Bright-Source Protection (BSP)[clarification needed] feature, to be faster, and to keep the best resolution and contrast at all times. It is particularly suitable for aviator's night-vision goggles, for operations in urban areas or for special operations. ATG is a unique feature that operates constantly, electronically reducing the "duty cycle" of the photocathode voltage by very rapidly switching the voltage on and off. This maintains the optimal performance of the I² tube, continuously revealing mission-critical details, safeguarding the I² tube from additional damage and protecting the user from temporary blindness.

The benefits of ATG can easily be seen not only during day–night–day transitions, but also under dynamic lighting conditions when rapidly changing from low-light to high-light conditions (above lx), such as sudden illumination of dark room. A typical advantage of ATG is best felt when using a weapon sight, which experiences a flame burst during shooting (see figures below showing pictures taken at the impact zone of a dropped bomb). ATG would reduce the temporary blindness that a standard BSP tube would introduce, allowing personnel to continuously maintain "eyes on target".[citation needed]

ATG provides added safety for pilots when flying at low altitudes, and especially during takeoffs and landings. Pilots operating with night-vision goggles are constantly subjected to dynamic light conditions when artificial light sources, such as from cities, interfere with their navigation by producing large halos that obstruct their field of view.

Generation 3+ (GEN III OMNI IV–VII)[edit]

"Diagram of an image intensifier."
Generation II, III and IV devices use a microchannel plate for amplification. Photons from a dimly lit source enter the objective lens (on the left) and strike the photocathode (gray plate). The photocathode (which is negatively biased) releases electrons, which are accelerated to the higher-voltage microchannel plate (red). Each electron causes multiple electrons to be released from the microchannel plate. The electrons are drawn to the higher-voltage phosphor screen (green). Electrons that strike the phosphor screen cause the phosphor to produce photons of light viewable through the eyepiece lenses.

The US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is part of the governing body that dictates the names of the generations of night-vision technologies. The NVESD was originally the Army Night Vision Laboratory (NVL), which worked within the US Army Research Labs. Although the recent increased performance associated with the GEN-III OMNI-VI/VII components is impressive,[citation needed] as of 2021 the US Army has not yet authorized the use of the name GEN-IV for these components.

GEN-III OMNI-V–VII devices developed in the 2000s can differ from standard generation 3 in one or both of two important ways:

  1. An automatic gated power supply system regulates the photocathode voltage, allowing the NVD to instantaneously adapt to changing light conditions.[20]
  2. A removed or greatly thinned ion barrier decreases the number of electrons that are usually rejected by the standard GEN III MCP, hence resulting in less image noise and the ability to operate with a luminous sensitivity at 2850 K of only 700, compared to operating with a luminous sensitivity of at least 1800 for GEN III image intensifiers.[21] The disadvantage to a thin or removed ion barrier is the overall decrease in tube life from a theoretical 20000 h mean time to failure (MTTF) for Gen III type, to 15000 h MTTF for GEN IV type. However, this is largely negated by the low number of image-intensifier tubes that reach 15000 h of operation before replacement.

While the consumer market classifies this type of system as generation 4, the United States military describes these systems as generation 3 autogated tubes (GEN-III OMNI-VII). Moreover, as autogating power supplies can now be added to any previous generation of night-vision devices, "autogating" capability does not automatically class the devices as a GEN-III OMNI-VII. Any postnominals appearing after a generation type (i.e., Gen II+, Gen III+) do not change the generation type of the device, but instead indicate improvement(s) over the original specification's requirements.[22]


  • AN/PVS-22[23]
  • NVS-22
  • Binocular Night Vision Device (BNVD) (AN/PVS-15, AN/PVS-21, AN/PVS-23, AN/PVS-31A, AN/PVS-31D)
  • Ground Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (GPNVG-18)

Figure of merit[edit]

In the late 1990s, innovations in photocathode technology significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, with newly developed tubes starting to surpass the performance of Gen 3 tubes.

By 2001 the United States federal government concluded that a tube's "generation" was not a determinant factor of a tube's global performance, making the term "generation" irrelevant in determining the performance of an image-intensifier tube, and therefore eliminated the term as a basis of export regulations.

Though image-intensification technology employed by different manufacturers varies, from the tactical point of view, a night-vision system is an optical device that enables vision in conditions of low light. The US government itself has recognized the fact that technology itself makes little difference, as long as an operator can see clearly at night. Consequently, the United States bases export regulations not on the generations, but on a calculated factor called figure of merit (FOM). A National Defense University document, "The NATO Response Force"[24] (authored by Jeffrey P. Bialos, the Executive Director of the Transatlantic Security and Industry Program at the Johns Hopkins University, and Stuart L. Koehl, a Fellow at the Center for Transatlantic Relations of the same university) briefly describes the method of FOM calculation and its implications for export.

… beginning in 2001, the US implemented a new figure of merit (FOM) system for determining the release of night vision technology. FOM is an abstract measure of image tube performance, derived from the number of line pairs per millimeter multiplied by the tube's signal-to-noise ratio.

[citation needed]

US-made tubes with a FOM greater than 1400 are not exportable outside the US; however, the Defense Technology Security Administration (DTSA) can waive that policy on a case-by-case basis.

Other technologies[edit]

A US airman tests panoramic night-vision goggles in March 2006.

The United States Air Force experimented with panoramic night-vision goggles (PNVGs), which double the user's field of view to around 95° by using four 16 mm image-intensifier tubes, rather than the more standard two 18 mm tubes. They are in service with A-10 Thunderbolt II, MC-130 Combat Talon and AC-130U Spooky aircrew,[25] and later evolved into Ground Panoramic Night Vision Goggles (GPNVG-18) that are also popular with special forces.

The AN/PSQ-20, manufactured by ITT (also known as the Enhanced Night Vision Goggle, ENVG), seeks to combine thermal imaging with image intensification, as does the Northrop Grumman Fused Multispectral Weapon Sight.[26][27]

A new technology is being introduced[when?] to the consumer market. First shown at the 2012 SHOT Show in Las Vegas, NV by Armasight.[28] this technology, called Ceramic Optical Ruggedized Engine (CORE), produces a higher-performance Gen 1 tubes. The main difference between CORE tubes and standard Gen 1 tubes is introduction of a ceramic plate instead of a glass one. This plate is produced from specially formulated ceramic and metal alloys. Edge distortion is improved, photo sensitivity is increased, and the resolution can get as high as 60 lp/mm. CORE is still considered[by whom?] Gen 1, as it does not utilize a microchannel plate.[29]

Scientists at the University of Michigan have developed a contact lens that can act as a night-vision device. The lens has a thin strip of graphene between layers of glass that reacts to photons to make dark images look brighter. Current prototypes only absorb 2.3% of light, so the percentage of light pickup has to rise before the lens can be viable. The graphene technology can be expanded into other uses, like car windshields, to improve night-driving. The US. Army is interested in the technology to potentially replace night-vision goggles.[30]

The Sensor and Electron Devices Directorate (SEDD) of the US Army Research Laboratory developed quantum-well infrared detector (QWID) technology. This technology's epitaxial layers, which result in diode formation, compose a gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide system (GaAs or AlGaAs). It is particularly sensitive to infrared waves that are mid-long lengths. The Corrugated QWIP (CQWIP) broadens detection capacity by using a resonance superstructure to orient more of the electric field parallel, so that it can be absorbed. Although cryogenic cooling between 77 K and 85 K is required, QWID technology is considered[by whom?] for constant surveillance viewing due to its claimed low cost and uniformity in materials.[31]

Materials from the II–VI compounds, such as HgCdTe, are used for high-performing infrared light-sensing cameras. In 2017 the US Army Research Labs in collaboration with Stony Brook University developed an alternative within the III–V family of compounds. InAsSb, a III–V compound, is commonly used commercially for opto-electronics in items such as DVDs and cell phones. Low cost and larger semiconductors frequently cause atomic spacing to decrease leading to size mismatch defects.[clarify] To counteract this possibility in implementing InAsSb, scientists added a graded layer with increased atomic spacing and an intermediate layer of the substrate GaAs to trap any potential defects. This technology was designed with night-time military operations in mind.[32]

The Enhanced Night Vision Goggle-Binoculars (ENVG-B), manufactured by L3Harris Technologies, provide an improved capability to observe in all weather-conditions, in addition to higher resolution, as white phosphor tubes offer a better contrast compared to the traditional green phosphor ones.[33]

Soviet Union and Russia[edit]

Active night-vision scope NSP-2 mounted on an AKML
NSPU (1PN34) 3.5× night-vision scope mounted on an AKS-74U
1PN93-2 night-vision scope mounted on a RPG-7D3

The Soviet Union, and after 1991 the Russian Federation, have developed a range of night-vision devices. Models used after 1960 by the Russian/Soviet Army are designated 1PNxx (Russian: 1ПНxx), where 1PN is the GRAU index of night-vision devices. The PN stands for pritsel nochnoy (Russian: прицел ночной), meaning "night sight", and the xx is the model number. Different models introduced around the same time use the same type of batteries and mechanism for mounting on the weapon. The multi-weapon models have replaceable elevation scales, with one scale for the ballistic arc of each supported weapon. The weapons supported include the AK family, sniper rifles, light machine guns and hand-held grenade launchers.

  • 1PN34 refractor-based night sight for a range of small arms and grenade launchers, see photo.
  • 1PN50 refractor-based night observation binoculars.[34]
  • 1PN51 reflector-based night sight for a range of small arms and grenade launchers.[35]
  • 1PN51-2 reflector-based night sight for the RPG-29.[36]
  • 1PN58 refractor-based night sight for a range of small arms and grenade launchers.[37]
  • 1PN93-2 reflector-based night sight for the RPG-7D3, see photo.
  • 1PN110, a more recent (~Gen 3) night sight for the RPG-29.[38]
  • 1PN113, a night sight similar to the 1PN110, for the SV-98 sniper rifle.[38]

The Russian army has also contracted the development of and fielded a series of so-called counter-sniper night sights [ru] (Russian: Антиснайпер, romanizedAntisnayper). The counter-sniper night sight is an active system that uses laser pulses from a laser diode to detect reflections from the focal elements of enemy optical systems and estimate their range. The vendor claims that this system is unparalleled:[39]

  • 1PN106 counter-sniper night sight for the SVD sniper rifle and its SVDS variant.
  • 1PN119 counter-sniper night sight for the PKMN and Pecheneg light machine guns.
  • 1PN120 counter-sniper night sight for the SVDK sniper rifle.
  • 1PN121 counter-sniper night sight for the ASVK large caliber sniper rifle.
  • 1PN123 counter-sniper night sight for the SV-98 sniper rifle.


  • Belgium: firearms legislation forbids any night-vision device if it can be mounted on a firearm; even if not mounted, they are considered illegal.[40]
  • Czech Republic: not regulated.[41] Previously only available for hunting.[citation needed]
  • Germany: law forbids such devices if their purpose is to be mounted on firearms.[42][43]
  • Iceland: the use of night-vision devices for hunting is prohibited, while there are no restrictions on the devices themselves.[44]
  • India: Civilian possession and trading of night-vision scopes is illegal. Permission is needed from Union home ministry for possession.[45]
  • Netherlands: the possession of night-vision devices is not regulated, nor is it forbidden to use them mounted on firearms. The usage of night-vision equipment for night-time hunting (weapon mounted) is allowed only with a special permit in certain areas (the Veluwe) for hunting wild boar.
  • New Zealand: rescue helicopter services use several sets of 3rd-generation night-vision goggles imported from the US, and the country is required to restrict access to the equipment to comply with the strict regulations regarding their export.[46] There are no prohibitions on the ownership or use of night-vision equipment for shooting non-indigenous game animals, such as rabbits, hares, deer, pigs, tahr, chamois, goats, wallabies, etc.
  • United States: a 2010–2011 summary of state hunting regulations for the use of night-vision equipment in hunting[47] listed 13 states in which the equipment is prohibited, 17 states with various restrictions (e.g. only for certain non-game species, and/or in a certain date range), and 20 states without restrictions. It did not summarize the regulations for thermal-imaging equipment.
    • California: it is a misdemeanor to possess a device "designed for or adaptable to use on a firearm which, through the use of a projected infrared light source and electronic telescope, enables the operator thereof to visually determine and locate the presence of objects during the night-time".[48] This essentially covers scopes using Gen0 technology, but not the subsequent generations. There was an effort in 1995[49] to further expand restrictions to forbid night-vision devices that did not incorporate a light source, but it did not become law.
    • Minnesota, as of 2014, "A person may not possess night vision or thermal imaging equipment while taking wild animals or while having in possession [an uncased and loaded weapon] that could be used to take wild animals."[50] There is an exception for law-enforcement and military use. The night-vision prohibition was enacted in 2007, and the thermal-imaging prohibition was added in 2014. Two bills were introduced in the Minnesota Legislature in 2016, proposing to allow night-vision and thermal-imaging equipment for, respectively, 1) "predator" or 2) "unprotected wild animal" hunting.[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Liszewski, Andrew. "The Army's New Night-Vision Goggles Look Like Technology Stolen From Aliens". Gizmodo. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  2. ^ Sacrificial lenses are mounted on the front or away from face lens on NVDs to protect original lens from damage by environmental hazards.
  3. ^ Utley, Sean (2020-06-11). "Selecting An IR Laser And Illuminator". Firearms News. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
  4. ^ a b Jeff Tyson (27 April 2001). "How Night Vision Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  5. ^ Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate – Fort Belvoir, VA. Archived February 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Naughton, Russell (10 August 2004). "Kalman Tihanyi (1897–1947)". Monash University. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  7. ^ "German Infrared Night-Vision Devices – Infrarot-Scheinwerfer". Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Bull's-eyes in the Night". Popular Science, July 1946, p. 73.
  9. ^ a b "Image Intensification Tube Technology and Evolution". Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  10. ^ Pennsylvania State University. Zworykin, Vladimir Archived 2012-08-31 at the Wayback Machine. Biographical sketch.
  11. ^ "Black-Light Telescope Sees in the Dark". Popular Science Monthly. March 1936.
  12. ^ a b c Pike, John. "Night Vision Goggles (NVG)". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  13. ^ "Night Vision Equipment by Pulsar FAQ". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  14. ^ Pike, John. "AN/PVS-4 Individual Weapon Night Sight". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  15. ^ Pike, John. "AN/PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Night Vision Area". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  17. ^ Pike, John. "AN/PVS-7 Night Vision Goggle". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  19. ^ "CANVS COLOR NIGHT VISION GOGGLES". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  20. ^ "\\Baksan\Shared Docs\For Candace\New Folder\LET.tif" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  21. ^ " / Nightvision Technology / Principles of Nightvision Devices". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  22. ^ "How Night Vision Works in night vision Goggles, Scopes, Binoculars, Riflescopes". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  23. ^ "". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  24. ^ Jeffrey P. Bialos; Stuart L. Koehl (September 2005). "The NATO Response Force". National Defense University. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  25. ^ "Main Login". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  26. ^ "Defense Tech: Army Optic Combines Heat, Light for Better Sight". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Northrop Grumman Delivers First Fused Multispectral Weapon Sight to U.S. Army". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  28. ^ "About Armasight brand". Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  29. ^ "ClearView Night Vision Glasses".
  30. ^ Scientists Develop Night Vision Contact Lens., 28 March 2014.
  31. ^ Ratches, James A, et al. “Some Recent Sensor-Related Army Critical Technology Events”. Defense and Technology Paper, Center for Technology and National Security Policy National Defense University, Feb. 2013.
  32. ^ "Researchers Develop New Material for Army Night-Time Operations". AZO materials. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  33. ^ "Enhanced Night Vision Goggle - Binocular (ENVG-B)". USA ASC.
  38. ^ a b "1PN110 and 1PN113 Night Vision Sights". Archived from the original on 2015-04-26. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  39. ^ "Anti-Sniper Special Purpose Night Vision Sights". Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  40. ^ "Wapenwet – Gecoördineerde versie | Wapenunie Online". Retrieved 2016-12-23.
  41. ^ Gawron, Tomáš (22 December 2020). "Přehledně: Jaké změny přináší novela zákona o zbraních [What changes are coming with the Firearms Act Amendment]". (in Czech). Retrieved 22 December 2020.,
  42. ^ Section 19 5a of the German Bundesjagdgesetz (BJagdG) states: "It is forbidden to use artificial light sources, mirrors, devices to illuminate or light targets, or night vision devices with image converters or electronic amplification intended for guns." These aids are not banned for observation purposes but for catching or killing game.
  43. ^ "Lust auf Nachtjagd geht nicht ohne Nachtsichtgeräte Thermalgeräte" (in German). 12 July 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  44. ^ "THERMAL VISION TECHNOLOGY A MAJOR BENEFIT TO THE HUNTING MARKET". LYNRED. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  45. ^ "Available online in India: Military-grade equipment banned for commercial sale". Hindustan Times. 14 December 2016.
  46. ^ "Seeing in the Dark", Vector, magazine of the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand, January/February 2008, pages 10–11.
  47. ^ "A 50 State guide – is night vision legal to use for hunting in my State?". High Tech Red Neck. 2010.
  48. ^ "WAIS Document Retrieval". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  49. ^ "AB 1059". Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  50. ^ "MN Statutes Section 97B.086". MN Revisor of Statutes. State of MN. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  51. ^ Orrick, Dave (2016-03-29). "Would night vision make coyote hunting safer? Divisions arise". Pioneer Press.

External links[edit]

US patents[edit]