Nightclubbing (Grace Jones album)

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Nightclubbing
Grace Jones - Nightclubbing.jpg
Studio album by Grace Jones
Released 11 May 1981
Recorded 1980–1981
Studio Compass Point, the Bahamas
Genre
Length 38:40
Label Island
Producer
Grace Jones chronology
Warm Leatherette
(1980)
Nightclubbing
(1981)
Living My Life
(1982)
Singles from Nightclubbing
  1. "Demolition Man"
    Released: February 1981
  2. "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)"
    Released: May 1981
  3. "Pull Up to the Bumper"
    Released: June 1981
  4. "Use Me"
    Released: June 1981
  5. "Feel Up"
    Released: July 1981
  6. "Walking in the Rain"
    Released: October 1981

Nightclubbing is the fifth studio album by Jamaican singer Grace Jones, released on 11 May 1981 by Island Records. Recorded at Compass Point Studios with producers Alex Sadkin and Island Records' president Chris Blackwell, as well as a team of session musicians rooted by rhythm section Sly & Robbie, the album marked her second foray into a new wave style that blends a variety of genres, including reggae, art pop, dub, synthpop and funk. The album comprises a mixture of cover versions from artists including Bill Withers, Iggy Pop and Ástor Piazzolla, and original songs, three of which were co-written by Jones.

The album received positive reviews upon its release and continues to be praised by critics, with reviewers commending the singer's unique sound and organic fusion of genres. The album entered in the top 10 in five countries, and became Jones' highest-ranking record on the US Billboard mainstream albums and R&B charts. Six singles were released from the album, including the hits "Pull Up to the Bumper" and "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)".

Critics and scholars have noted the album's influence on popular music, especially how its unique sound has been emulated by both pop and alternative acts, and how the persona Jones adopted - deeply influenced by art and fashion - has had an enduring influence in modern female pop singers. Around the time of the album's release, she adopted her characteristic androgynous look which would become popular in fashion. Nightclubbing is now widely considered Jones' best studio album[1] and the record that cemented her pop icon status.

Background and production[edit]

"When we were in the studio with Grace, there was a big picture of her – a big picture, going right across – on the wall of the studio, then she'd be standing there singing, so when we were playing and getting a groove all we could see was her. We took it on that reggae kind of trip, but always with Grace in mind."

— Drummer Sly Dunbar (of Sly and Robbie), Fact, 2014[2]

Jones was a popular fashion model and Studio 54 habituée before starting her recording career.[3] Her first three albums "were heavily influenced by disco and cemented her presence in the club scene."[4] These records "operated around the camper end of the spectrum," and built a large gay cult following around the singer.[3][5] According to Pitchfork, these albums "were fun but somewhat facile, cover-filled reflections of the druggy hedonism of the disco era". T. Cole Rachel writes: "For someone whose very image was seen as somehow deeply transgressive, Jones’ music had not yet caught up."[6] When her 1977 rendition of Edith Piaf's "La Vie en rose" was an international hit, she caught the interest of Chris Blackwell, the founder of Island Records.[3] After Jones' 1979 album Muse found little success in nightclubs and charts, he took over as her producer.[7] He sought to "treat her not as a model, but to involve her as a musician", and wanted "her to feel as though she were a member of a band, and record her the way bands used to make albums, with the singer and the players doing their thing all at once."[7] Blackwell assembled a sextet of studio ringers at his Nassau studio, Compass Point, pulling together a band that included Sly and Robbie - consisting of bass guitarist Robbie Shakespeare and drummer Sly Dunbar -, French keyboardist Wally Badarou,[8] guitarists, Mikey Chung and Barry Reynolds, and percussionist Uziah Thompson. Jones has described the group as "the united nations in the studio."[6]

As the disco backlash began in earnest, Jones veered towards the contemporary new wave style.[9] Blackwell had been impressed by Black Uhuru's 1980 album Sinsemilla and, along with engineer Alex Sadkin, decided that Jones' new sound should take elements from that record's sonority.[2] Besides reggae, the band also incorporated dance music. Sly Dunbar said, "We loved dance music, we’d listen to everything, because we were always working and wanting the reggae we did to move a bit forward, so anything that we could drag to it, we would bring that – as ideas, or as musicians coming to play with us."[2] Ditching the camp quality of Jones' previous work, Blackwell realised new forms around the likes of The Pretenders' "Private Life", Roxy Music's "Love Is the Drug" and The Normal's "Warm Leatherette"; Ian Wade of The Quietus writes: "Nightclubbing was where all these ideas coalesced into perfection."[3] The band Blackwell assembled later became known as the "Compass Point Allstars", taking up residency in the Bahamian studio and animating hits by Tom Tom Club, Robert Palmer, Joe Cocker and Gwen Guthrie, among others.[2][7]

The recording sessions "moved with disarming speed and ease"; Blackwell recounts: "If Grace or the group hadn't nailed a song by the third take, it was dropped and they'd move to the next number." Although the band was initially called upon in early 1980 to work on a single album, they ended up recording far more material than could fit one LP. As a result, these sessions resulted in two studio albums: Warm Leatherette - released in 1980 - and Nightclubbing. Final overdubs and additional songs were recorded during 1981. Wally Badarou has recognised Jones' active role in the sessions, stating: "Grace was there even during most instrumental overdubbing sessions. She was a part of the sound and the spirit that came out almost from nowhere. We all knew we were in for something quite experimental."[2]

Composition[edit]

Style[edit]

"I wanted a rhythmic reggae bottom, aggressive rock guitar, atmospheric keyboards in the middle, and Grace on top."

— Producer Chris Blackwell, The Pitchfork Review, 2015[7]

Continuing the orientation of Jones' previous release Warm Leatherette, Nightclubbing is a pop album that forays into new wave[9][10][11] and dance,[2][12] while in terms of rhythm it is, ostensibly, a reggae record.[13] John Daniel Bull of The Line of Best Fit felt the album "[pinpointed] the peak of [Jones'] Jamaican influences, by way of reggae rhythms blended with R&B beats."[14] However, Treble writes: "in terms of atmosphere and melody, there's nothing roots or rude-boy about it."[13] The magazine also considered Nightclubbing to be an important exponent of sophisti-pop, placing it "somewhere between art-pop and dub"; it also described its sonority as "a lush landscape of surrealist synth-pop."[13] The Style Con's Erich Kessel felt the album was an influential exponent of art-pop.[15] Nightclubbing also incorporates elements of electro, and New York club music.[2]

A post-disco album,[16] Nightclubbing features a distinct and unprecedented sound that also incorporates rock, funk and post-punk music.[9][10] The Rolling Stone Album Guide reads: "Leavening their sprung riddims with a salty dash of funk, Sly and Robbie hipped Jones to rock's new wave on Warm Leatherette and Nightclubbing."[17] According to John Doran of BBC Music, Nightclubbing is a "post-punk pop" album that, "delved into the worlds of disco, reggae and funk much more successfully than most of her 'alternative' contemporaries, while still retaining a blank-eyed alienation that was more reminiscent of David Bowie or Ian Curtis than most of her peers."[18] David Bowie influences were also noted by Joe Muggs of Fact.[2]

The "languid reggae-influenced" tracks allowed Jones to showcase her singular vocal style, characterized by low alto singing and a Jamaican style of vocal delivery - "that of 'chatting' over onto tracks" - within a framework of androgyny.[12] This style of delivery has been linkened to that of The Velvet Underground's Lou Reed, Blondie's Debbie Harry, the New York City punk scene, and Gil Scott-Heron in "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised".[12] Pitchfork described Jones' voice as a "flat monotone speak-singing."[9] T. Cole Rachel, writing for the same publication, argued that Jones succeeds not by the power of her voice, but by the power of her persona, writing: "As she would go on to prove in later efforts, it was the monolithic force of her personality—imperious, feral, queer in the truest sense of the word—that would make these songs so compelling. She is, to put it simply, impossible to ignore."[6]

Songs[edit]

The original version of "Libertango" was discovered by Jones's boyfriend at the time, artist Jean-Paul Goude, and the video for the song was filmed on the outdoor terrace of Jones's penthouse apartment on 16th Street in New York. The song also features a verse sung in French: the text was translated for Jones by Blackwell's girlfriend, actress Nathalie Delon, for which Delon received a writing credit.[19] Two of the album's tracks, "I've Done It Again" and "Demolition Man" were written specifically for Jones to record on Nightclubbing.[20] The latter song was written by Sting and would also be recorded in a more uptempo style by his band The Police for their album Ghost in the Machine, released six months after Nightclubbing.

The remaining three new compositions on the record were all co-written by Jones. "Pull Up to the Bumper" began as an instrumental track by the Compass Point Allstars rhythm section Sly and Robbie (credited on the track under their collective alias "Koo Koo Baya"), and provisionally called "Pour Yourself Over Me Like Peanut Butter". Jones's friend, singer Dana Mano, came up with the song's new title, which inspired the two women to write a set of suggestive lyrics for the track.[21] Despite this, Jones denied that the lyrics were explicitly sexual, insisting that she felt the words were just written to suit the music, but stated that she was happy to accept whatever interpretation someone might put on the lyrics, saying, "I don't want to sing sweet things, though I don't mind sweetness so long as it has a little sour meaning underneath". Jones admitted that "Art Groupie" was highly autobiographical as many of her boyfriends had been artists and she was attracted to the whole art scene.[22]

Artwork[edit]

Cover[edit]

Nightclubbing's iconic artwork is a 1981 painted photograph titled Blue-Black in Black on Brown, created in New York by Goude.[23] This was the singular image that accompanied the original LP, as it "was concealed in a plain, black inner sleeve, no lyrics and with no photo on the back cover."[24] Composed by right angles, the photograph shows Jones cut to waist, bare chested, and dressed in an Armani man's wide shouldered suit, with an unlit cigarette aiming downward from her lip. She is shot with her signature flat top haircut and her chest bones showing; her dark skin confers upon the image a violet, blue-black colour.[12][24][25] The image is noted for its androgyny, with Jones' not only "[unpicking] some of the boundaries of unconventionality, but [choosing] to confuse such boundaries."[12] Rick Poynor writes: "Goude admired Jones for her mixture of beauty and threat, and the Nightclubbing portrait expresses this duality with absolute composure and no false histrionics."[26] Martin Piers of Uncut felt the cover was "arresting", and wrote: "the indigo mood, cool gaze and cigarette suggested Marlene Dietrich, the gender-bending a touch of Bowie."[10]

In 2015, Dazed included the album cover in an article dedicated to their "favourite Armani cult crossovers." Biju Belinky wrote:

Although Armani became known for deconstructing the suit, removing the over-the-top padding and offering a relaxed option to formalwear in American Gigolo, the cover for Grace Jones' iconic 1981 album Nightclubbing plays up with the angles like nothing else before it. Hailed as a pioneer of the androgynous look, with a cigarette dangling from her mouth and a flattop haircut, complimented by the padded shoulders of an Armani jacket, the avant-garde singer's album cover became known for years to come.[27]

Writing for DIY, Simon Russell Beale listed the album cover as one of the greatest of all time, highlighting Jones' "smouldering noir-bisexuality."[28] Graphic designer Storm Thorgerson included the picture in his 1999 book, 100 Best Album Covers.[29] Moreover, American Photo placed it in its list of The 30 Best Album Covers.[30] NME included it in its list of 20 Original Album Covers That Are Actually Works of Art, with the entry reading: "Can any other artist boast as many iconic album covers? Grace is a work of art herself, as are the covers for Island Life, Slave to the Rhythm and Living My Life, but best of all is the louche image of Nightclubbing by Jean-Paul Goude, part Tretchikoff's Green Lady, part the best advert for smoking you've ever seen."[31] Time Out listed the image as one of the "sexiest album covers of all time", with Brent DiCrescenzo writing: "[Grace Jones] was a work of art, a statue."[32] According to i-D, "it was a series of consistently stellar album artwork that helped propel [the singer] from musician to icon."[33] The artwork was held in display at the Padiglione d'Arte Contemporanea in Milan, Italy, as part of the 2016 So Far So Goude exhibition, focused on the French artist.[34]

Video[edit]

According to Barry Waters of The Pitchfork Review, "Jones' singular appearance and meticulously crafted presentation made her a natural fit for the burgeoning music video medium, especially in its early, experimental days."[7] Jean-Paul Goude directed the music videos for "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)" and "Pull Up to the Bumper", as well as the celebrated 1982 VHS release A One Man Show. The latter - a montage of still photography, concert footage and music videos - "asserted [Jones] as an astute visual artist" and was nominated for Best Long Form Music Video at the 26th Annual Grammy Awards.[7][35] Nelson George, reviewing the release for Billboard in early 1983, called it "one of the more fascinating and defiantly visual concert videos yet produced."[36] According to Ernest Hardy of CraveOnline, the film "seamlessly blends cabaret, performance art and underground nightclub cool."[37]

Release[edit]

Nightclubbing became Jones' chart breakthrough and remains one of the greatest commercial triumphs of her entire career. It entered top 5 in no less than four countries, and became the singer's highest-charting record on the U.S. Billboard mainstream albums and R&B charts. The album brought Jones from being a former disco diva with a loyal cult following but dropping sales figures to an international star with mainstream chart success. It later formed the basis of her groundbreaking concept tour A One Man Show.

Universal Music Group re-released the album on vinyl in 2009.[38]

Release of a two disc deluxe set, containing most of the 12" single versions of singles, plus two unreleased tracks from the "Nightclubbing" sessions, occurred on 28 April 2014, and Jones enjoyed a UK Top 50 chart placing the following week - her first since 2008.

To promote the album, Jones appeared on various TV shows in 1981, including the French Palmarès,[39] the Spanish Esta noche, [40] and Aktuelle Schaubude in West Germany.[41]

Singles[edit]

The lead single from the album was "Demolition Man", written by Sting. The single was not a commercial success and did not chart, although would later become one of Jones' signature songs. "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)" was released as the second single and became one of the most commercially successful songs in Jones' repertoire. It secured top 20 positions in several European countries and became another signature song for Jones.

The R&B-dance track "Pull Up to the Bumper" was a quick follow-up to "Libertango". It met with a great success on the U.S. club market, but turned out a modest hit in Europe upon original release. The song would re-emerge in Europe in 1985 as a major success, especially in the UK, where backed with "La Vie en rose" it became one of Jones' highest-charting singles in that country.

"Use Me" and "Feel Up" were then released as singles, but were unsuccessful in charts. The final single off Nightclubbing, "Walking in the Rain", was a minor chart success.

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4.5/5 stars[8]
Christgau's Record Guide B−[42]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music 3/5 stars[43]
Mojo 5/5 stars[44]
MusicHound Rock 3/5[45]
Pitchfork Media 9/10[9]
Q 4/5 stars[46]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide 3.5/5 stars[47]
Smash Hits 8/10[48]
Uncut 9/10[10]

In the UK Adrian Thrills of NME said, "I spent an otherwise-miserable weekend afternoon with the sound of Grace swirling around my little earphones, grooving on songs effortlessly sung but put together with a jeweller's eye for detail", and stated that the musicians "combine to etch out a shifting, soulful surface, an exotic ice-water backdrop for Grace's vocal veneer", noting that "the only times Grace seems ill-at-ease are as she swops Trenchtown patois with, presumably, the sharp-lipped Sly and then tries to rock out on Sting's 'Demolition Man'".[20] Melody Maker called it "an album with something for everyone: reggae, electronics, disco, blues – even a snatch of salsa funk. The incredible thing is that it all gels together so well – the common denominator is the danceability, which lasts all the way through: changes in tempo and pace only help to sustain the energy level."[49]

Andy Kellman of AllMusic praised the album in a retrospective review, stating: "Sly & Robbie provide ideal backdrops for Jones yet again, casting a brisk but not bristly sheen over buoyant structures. Never before and never since has a precisely chipped block of ore been so seductive."[8] Mark Coleman wrote in The Rolling Stone Album Guide (1992) that Sly & Robbie's introduction of new wave rock to Jones and the "throbbing polyrhythmic" covers of rock songs suited her better than the Edith Piaf-meets-Barry White routines" of her past records.[47] Robert Christgau was less enthusiastic. He was unmoved by Jones' own songs and said while the covers on Warm Leatherette were superior to the originals simply because of her "weird force of personality", she could not match "Use Me" and the title track.[42]

Nightclubbing continued to gather favorable reviews with the release of the deluxe edition in 2014. Andy Beta from Pitchfork Media labeled the album's reissue as "Best New Reissue", describing the album as "the record that further cemented her iconic status in pop culture". He also stated: "She treats each cover not as a singer tackling a song, but as an actor inhabiting the skin of a role".[9] Mojo called it "probably the greatest of Grace Jones' Compass Point trio".[44] Uncut called Nightclubbing "the album that came to define Jones as the complete performer, in her own way, as singer, muse, actress, alien and androgyne. Its sound, a sublime mix of reggae, funk, new wave and disco, was as arresting as its cover image... The indigo mood, cool gaze and cigarette suggested Marlene Dietrich, the gender-bending a touch of Bowie. No one had seen or heard anything quite like this, though."[10] In Record Collector Kris Needs said that "Nightclubbing still sounds like nothing else released during the 80s, though its colossal influence repeatedly reveals itself".[5] In Q John Harris wrote that "the music on Nightclubbing is as stripped-down and full of space as Jones's froideur demanded. Then again, when it evokes more emotional qualities, it also triumphs." The review concluded, "The fact that this music was first released 33 years ago beggars belief: it showcases great minds alighting on the future, and points the way to Madonna, Björk, Lady Gaga, Gorillaz, M.I.A. and more."[46]

Legacy[edit]

Jones performing at the West Coast Blues & Roots Festival, 2011.

Nightclubbing's distinctive amalgamation of rock, funk, post-punk, pop and reggae set Jones apart from other musical acts of the 1980s. It is considered one of the early convergences of "fashion, art, and music."[15] According to Pitchfork's Andy Beta, it "altered the face of modern pop." He further argued that the album's musical and visual influence is easily palpable in the musical landscape of the 21st century, specially among female musicians such as Lady Gaga, Rihanna, Nicki Minaj, M.I.A., Grimes, and FKA twigs, among others.[9] Other acts influenced by the record include Róisín Murphy, Janelle Monáe, Azealia Banks and Adam Lambert.[15] Beyond pop music, the template set by Jones and her Compass Point backing band was also influential to alternative music, including Massive Attack, Todd Terje, Gorillaz, Hot Chip, and LCD Soundsystem - who "emulate those rubbery yet taut grooves of Sly & Robbie and cohorts".[9] British magazine Fame called it a "groundbreaking and influential album".[50] Critic John Harris of Q wrote: "The fact that this music was first released 33 years ago beggars belief: it showcases great minds alighting on the future, and points the way to Madonna, Björk, Lady Gaga, Gorillaz, M.I.A. and more."[46] According to Molly Beauchemin, Jones "pioneered the way for Shamir, Stromae, and countless other dance mavericks of today - not just with her bewitching candor but through her use of androgynous innuendo".[7] Polari Magazine considered Nightclubbing to be "a defining moment in the history of pop music."[24]

The album further cemented Jones' pop icon status.[9] According to Erich Kessel, "[the singer's] performances were a source of rich critiques on race, gender, and blackness."[15] Her pioneering androgynous aesthetic - conceived alongside Jean-Paul Goude - had a strong impact on the pop culture of the 1980s; for example, it was a precursor to Annie Lennox's persona.[9][12] According to Abigail Gardner, "Jones was an androgynous audiovisual experience, one who sat comfortably within the context of early 1980s pop, where image had become even more central to pop performance through the emergence of MTV."[12] She further argued that the singer "problematises ideas of black feminine in performance art that contributed to a reconceptualisation of Afrocentric culture and identity."[51] Miriam Kershaw positioned Jones "not as a singer or a diva, but as a piece of art", and argued that she: "worked to destabilise racist and sexist clichés as she charted a dynamic course through the history of the Black diaspora, to celebrate its vibrant contemporary form."[51] The singer's gender-bending and unrestrained sexuality also won the acclaim of the gay community, being included in Out's "The 100 Greatest, Gayest Albums of All Time", and Attitude's "Top 50 Gay Albums of All Time".[7][18][52] i-D writes: "Jones transcended definition in almost every realm of her life. She is often referred to as a queer icon. [...] She rejects all labels of sexuality, and her musical output is similarly fluid, switching from pop and disco to dub and reggae without hesitation."[33]

In Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics' poll of 1981, Nightclubbing placed at number 31, while "Pull Up to the Bumper" was voted the year's 11th best single.[53] It also appeared in the year-end lists of Sounds,[54] Rockerilla, OOR, The Face, Melody Maker and NME - the latter considering it the best album of 1981.[52][55] Slant Magazine listed Nightclubbing as the 40th best album of the 1980s, with Henderson writing it "performs double duty, building up the singer's legend even as it makes attempts at deconstructing it."[56] NME included the album in its list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, with its entry stating: "A glimpse into the sordid disco depravities behind the velvet rope at Studio 54, Nightclubbing and its standout smash "Pull Up to the Bumper" shunted new wave, reggae and disco firmly into the seductive neon '80s with a single arse/car metaphor."[57] The Guardian listed Nightclubbing as one of the "1000 albums to hear before you die".[58]

Accolades[edit]

The information regarding lists including Nightclubbing is adapted from Acclaimed Music, except where otherwise noted.[52]

Publication Country Accolade Year Rank
Studio Brussels Belgium The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, Nominations 2015 *
Christophe Brault France Top 20 Albums by Year 1964-2004 2006 9
Gilles Verlant 300+ Best Albums in the History of Rock 2013 *
Rock & Folk The 250 Best Albums from 1966-1991 1991 *
Laut Germany Milestones *
Musik Express/Sounds The 50 Best Albums from the 80s 2003 24
RoRoRo Rock-Lexicon Most Recommended Albums 2003 *
Tempo The 100 Best Albums from the 80's 1989 17
Giannis Petridis Greece 2004 of the Best Albums of the Century 2003 *
Hot Press Ireland The 100 Best Albums of All Time 1989 59
Rockerilla Italy Albums of the Year 1981 13
OOR Netherlands 12
Adresseavisen Norway The 100 (+23) Best Albums of All Time 1995 87
Eggen & Kartvedt The Guide to the 100 Important Rock Albums 1999 *
Panorama The 30 Best Albums of the Year 1970-98 1999 15
Attitude United Kingdom Top 50 Gay Albums of All Time 14
The Face Albums of the Year 1981 *
GQ The 100 Coolest Albums in the World Right Now! 2005 7
The Guardian 1000 Albums to Hear Before You Die 2007 *
Melody Maker Albums of the Year 1981 9
Mojo The 80 Greatest Albums from the 80s 2007 *
Gary Mulholland 261 Greatest Albums Since Punk and Disco 2006 *
Muzik Top 50 Dance Albums of All Time 2002 34
NME Albums of the Year 1981 1
The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time 2013 211
Out United States The 100 Greatest, Gayest Albums 2008 91
Slant Magazine The 100 Best Albums of the 1980s 2012 40
Sounds Albums of the Year[54] 1981 *
The Village Voice Pazz & Jop 1981 31
(*) designates lists that are unordered.

Track listing[edit]

Side one
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "Walking in the Rain" Harry Vanda, George Young 4:18
2. "Pull Up to the Bumper" Grace Jones, Koo Koo Baya, Dana Mano 4:41
3. "Use Me" Bill Withers 5:04
4. "Nightclubbing" David Bowie, Iggy Pop 5:06
Side two
No. Title Writer(s) Length
5. "Art Groupie" Jones, Barry Reynolds 2:39
6. "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)" Ástor Piazzolla, Reynolds, Dennis Wilkey, Nathalie Delon 4:30
7. "Feel Up" Jones 4:03
8. "Demolition Man" Sting 4:03
9. "I've Done It Again" Reynolds, Marianne Faithfull 3:51
  • The two-disc deluxe remastered version states that the writer(s) of "If You Wanna Be My Lover" is unknown.

Personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from Nightclubbing's liner notes.[59]

Charts and certifications[edit]

Release history[edit]

Region Date Format(s) Label
Worldwide 11 May 1981 LP, Cassette Island
Yugoslavia Jugoton
Europe 1989 CD Island Masters
Worldwide 1990 Island
28 April 2014 2-CD deluxe edition, Blu-ray audio

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "3333. "Walking In The Rain" by Grace Jones". sadclownrep.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Muggs, Joe (2 May 2014). "I've Seen That Face Before: looking back on Grace Jones' iconic Nightclubbing with the people who made it happen". Fact. The Vinyl Factory. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wade, Ian (12 May 2014). "Grace Jones - Nightclubbing (Reissue)". The Quietus. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  4. ^ Nelson, Terry (9 May 2016). "TRIBUTE: Celebrating 35 Years of Grace Jones' 'Nightclubbing'". Albumism. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Needs, Kris (June 2014). "Review: Grace Jones – Nightclubbing (Deluxe Edition)". Record Collector. pp. 90–91. 
  6. ^ a b c Rachel, T. Cole (26 June 2016). "Grace Jones: Warm Leatherette". Pitchfork. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Waters, Barry (25 August 2015). "As Much As I Can, As Black As I Am: The Queer History of Grace Jones". The Pitchfork Review. Pitchfork. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Kellman, Andy. Grace Jones – Nightclubbing > Review at AllMusic
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Beta, Andy (1 May 2014). "Grace Jones - Nightclubbing". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Martin, Piers (June 2014). "Review: Grace Jones – Nightclubbing (Deluxe Edition)". Uncut. London, England: IPC Media. p. 90. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Robbins, Ira A., ed. (June 1983). The Trouser Press Guide to New Wave Records. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 156. ISBN 978-0684179445. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Gardner, 2012. p.87
  13. ^ a b c Terich, Jeff; Blyweiss, Adam; Bossenger, A.T.; Prickett, Sam (24 April 2014). "10 Essential Sophisti-pop albums". Treble. Treble Media. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  14. ^ Bull, John Daniel (29 April 2014). "Grace Jones – Nightclubbing [Deluxe Edition]". The Line of Best Fit. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c d Kessel, Eric (8 May 2014). "Art-Pop before 'Art Pop". The Style Con. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  16. ^ Vine, Richard (15 June 2011). "Grace Jones pulls up to the bumper". theguardian.com. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  17. ^ The Rolling Stone Album Guide: Completely New Reviews: Every Essential Album, Every Essential Artist. Random House. 27 October 1992. p. 379. ISBN 978-0679737292. >
  18. ^ a b Doran, John (2010). "Grace Clubbing - Nightclubbing review". BBC. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  19. ^ Jones, Grace; Morley, Paul (2015). I'll Never Write My Memoirs. New York, USA: Simon & Schuster. pp. 215–17. ISBN 978-1-47113-521-7. 
  20. ^ a b Thrills, Adrian (2 May 1981). "Review: Grace Jones – Nightclubbing". NME. London, England: IPC Media: 33. 
  21. ^ Jones; Morley (2015). p. 226.
  22. ^ Salewicz, Chris (25 July 1981). "In Between the Bumpers". NME. pp. 48–49. 
  23. ^ Song, Sandra (5 October 2015). "Welcome to Planet Grace Jones". Paper. Paper Communications. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  24. ^ a b c "Grace Jones' Nightclubbing: A Celebration". Polari Magazine. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  25. ^ Walters, Barry (4 April 2014). "'Nightclubbing' Again: Revisiting Grace Jones's Masterpiece". Wondering Sound. eMusic. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  26. ^ Poynor, Rick (15 September 2015). "Exposure: Grace Jones by Jean-Paul Goude". Design Observer. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  27. ^ Belinky, Biju (2015). "Charting Armani's cult crossovers". Dazed. Waddell Limited. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  28. ^ Tesco, Lucy (19 October 2010). "Top Five Album Covers: Rough Trade". DIY. Sonic Media Group. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  29. ^ Thorgerson, Storm (23 September 1999). 100 Best Album Covers. DK. ISBN 978-0751307061. 
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