COVID-19 hospitals in the United Kingdom
The COVID-19 hospitals in the United Kingdom are temporary hospitals set up in the United Kingdom and overseas territories as part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
They principally include the seven NHS England Nightingale Hospitals, NHS Scotland's Louisa Jordan hospital, NHS Wales' Dragon's Heart Hospital, and the Northern Irish Health and Social Care site at Belfast City Hospital, as well as the Florence Nightingale temporary hospital in the Europa Point Sports Complex, Gibraltar.
As the COVID-19 pandemic first took hold in the United Kingdom, its government and the public health services of the home nations started planning the creation of temporary large-scale critical care hospitals to provide cover for the projected increase in patients likely to require this type of treatment. It reflected wider NHS re-structuring to prepare for the COVID-19 pandemic and anticipated strain on NHS services 
The initiative is being carried out in coordination with the British Armed Forces' COVID Support Force, under the Military Aid to the Civil Authorities provisions, as part of Operation Rescript.
The field hospitals were intended to be used treat critical care patients regarded as being less severely ill, while the most severely ill patients would be treated in mainstream NHS hospitals.
In the early part of 2020, the hospitals saw relatively few Covid patients, and as case number dropped over the summer they were either mothballed or re-purposed.
The NHS Nightingale Hospitals are seven critical care temporary hospitals established by NHS England as part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic in England. The hospitals were named after Florence Nightingale, who came to prominence for nursing soldiers during the Crimean War and is regarded as the founder of modern nursing.
The NHS Nightingale Hospital London opened first on 3 April 2020. As of 5 May 2020[update], six of the seven planned hospitals had opened, and by the following month all had been placed on standby. The Harrogate and Exeter hospitals were repurposed as diagnostic clinics in June and July respectively.
In the event, almost all of the increased demand for critical care was met by expanding capacity in existing hospitals. By June, all the temporary hospitals had been placed on standby. Only two had admitted patients: 54 were treated at NHS Nightingale Hospital London (all of them in April) and just over 100 at Manchester.
In early June, the Department of Health and Social Care estimated the combined set-up costs of the hospitals to be £220 million, and stated that running costs for the month of April (for the five which opened during that month) were approximately £15m. In November, during the second wave of infections in England, only the Exeter and Manchester hospitals admitted patients.
The Tesco supermarket chain planned pop-up branches of its convenience stores in the NHS Nightingale hospitals to provide shopping facilities for hospital staff. It opened the first one in Birmingham Nightingale on 13 April. Technology companies Cisco and BT volunteered to build the hospital's medical-grade computer networks.
Apart from London and Sunderland which were to remain open as vaccination centres, and Exeter which was to continue to be used for diagnostics, all other Nightingales were scheduled to close by April 2021.
On 27 March, chief executive of NHS England Sir Simon Stevens announced a temporary facility providing up to 5,000-beds at Birmingham's National Exhibition Centre would open in mid-April. The hospital became operational on 10 April, with an initial 804 beds followed within 2 weeks by an additional 384 beds. It was officially opened as NHS Nightingale Hospital Birmingham by Prince William, using a video link, on 16 April. The hospital was designed as a 'step down facility', for patients recovering from COVID-19 or those not suitable for ventilation. It was reported a supporting temporary mortuary was being constructed near Birmingham airport.
On 5 May, it was announced that the 1188 bed hospital would be stood down to standby, having admitted no patients.
On 3 April, NHS England announced that a hospital for the Bristol area was to be built in University of the West of England (UWE). The hospital is stated to have a planned capacity of up to 300 beds and is located in the Exhibition and Conference Centre on UWE Bristol's Frenchay campus. Spare student accommodation is also to be made available for doctors and nurses at the Frenchay campus. The hospital was to have space for up to 1,000 beds, if needed.
This hospital was officially opened on 27 April 2020, in a virtual ceremony, by Matt Hancock (health secretary), Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and the chief executive of NHS England, Simon Stevens. It has the capacity to care for 60 patients, with the ability to scale up to 300 if required.
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: There is possibly need to check or confirm the current status of these centres.(October 2020)
On 1 April 2020, it was reported that leisure centres in Cumbria, including the Whitehaven Sports Centre, the Carlisle Sands Centre, the Penrith Leisure Centre, Kendal Leisure Centre and Furness Academy in Barrow were confirmed field hospital sites. Work started on 1 April and when complete there would be 500 beds.
On 10 April, it was announced that a temporary hospital would be provided in Exeter. The hospital, originally expected to be built in the Westpoint Arena near Clyst St Mary, and provide 200 beds, was due to be ready for use in early May. With the number of COVID-19 cases in the catchment area being lower than first expected, the decision was taken to switch to a smaller site at a former Homebase retail outlet in Sowton. The site was initially leased for nine months, and 116 beds were provided.
From 6 July 2020, the hospital was used for cancer screening, and was open for twelve hours each day. It has also been used for vaccine trials. On 26 November the hospital received its first COVID-19 patients, who were transferred from the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital as it was "very busy".
On 3 April, a hospital for Harrogate, Yorkshire was announced by NHS England, with a 500-bed capacity, in the Harrogate Convention Centre. Tom Moore, a 99-year-old army veteran who had raised more £27M to support health service workers, officially opened the hospital on 21 April 2020.
On 12 October 2020, amidst a rise in cases in Northern England, the hospital was placed on standby to admit COVID-19 patients.
In March 2021, it was confirmed the hospital would close.
On 24 March 2020, the UK Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock, who is responsible for the NHS in England, announced that ExCeL London would be the first field hospital. It was planned to initially have 500 beds, with the capacity for 4,000–5,000 beds across its two wards if necessary later.
It was reported a large mortuary was also being constructed on Wanstead Flats, a few miles to the north of the hospital. It was also reported that the hospital would be the largest critical care unit in the world.
On 4 May 2020, it was announced that the hospital would be stood down to standby, and would not admit any new patients.
On 12 October 2020, amidst a rise in cases in Northern England, the hospital was placed on standby to admit COVID-19 patients.
On 10 April, it was announced that a 460-bed facility would be built in Washington, Tyne and Wear. The hospital, at the Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Advanced Manufacturing, was expected to be ready for use within two weeks and be operated by Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
The hospital was officially opened on 5 May 2020, in a virtual ceremony, by Matt Hancock (Secretary of State for Health). The opening ceremony also featured television celebrities Ant and Dec, football pundit Alan Shearer and cricketer Ben Stokes.
On 12 October 2020, amidst a rise in cases in Northern England, the hospital was placed on standby to admit COVID-19 patients.
As of April 2020[update], the SEC Centre in Glasgow was converted to the NHS Louisa Jordan, a temporary hospital serving Scotland. Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said the facility would have a 300-bed capacity but with the potential to raise it beyond 1,000 beds. The facility was named NHS Louisa Jordan after the World War I nurse Louisa Jordan.
On 27 March 2020, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board CEO Len Richards announced that the Principality Stadium would be turned into a temporary hospital with 2,000 beds. It was to be the third largest hospital in the United Kingdom, after the Nightingale Hospital at the Excel Centre London and the Nightingale Hospital at Birmingham's National Exhibition Centre.
After the last patient left the hospital on 4 June, it was reported that the hospital was placed on a standby status. In September it was reported that the hospital is to be replaced by a smaller facility nearby, next to the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff.
Regional temporary hospitals
In addition, work has begun to provide 340 bed spaces at Llandarcy Academy of Sport in Neath and 150 beds at a council facility in Ty Trevithick in Abercynon, while Parc y Scarlets in Llanelli is to be used to provide 500 beds, with Rodney Parade in Newport being turned into a testing station. In northern Wales, Venue Cymru in Llandudno was prepared to receive 350 beds, Deeside Leisure Centre in Flintshire to have 250 beds, with an extra 80 beds at Glan Clwyd Hospital in Bodelwyddan, Denbighshire, while Bangor University was to be prepared to receive 250 beds.
The Bay Field Hospital, Swansea
In April 2020, Bay Studios on the site of the former Swansea Bay Motor Factory located on the outskirts of Swansea City Centre was announced by Swansea Council to be the chosen site for a 1,000-bed hospital. Within 1 month 420 beds and 80 discharge seats were made available, and the facility was handed over to the Swansea Bay University Health Board on 10 May 2020. Swansea Council funded the Swansea Bay Hospital injecting £50 million of available funds in to the project which was set aside for the new indoor arena which is currently being built in the City Centre.
Rationalisation, autumn 2020
During the earlier part of 2020, a total of 19 'field hospitals' were constructed across Wales (one source gives '17 and 2 community discharge units'). These included conversions of existing health facilities as well as purpose-built hospitals and conversions of stadia and other leisure facilities. In September 2020, it was announced that these would be rationalised down to a total of 10 such special facilities.
HSC Northern Ireland
HSC Northern Ireland is also using the "Nightingale" name for its hospitals.
On 2 April it was reported that the tower block of Belfast City Hospital was being converted into the first Nightingale in Northern Ireland. The block was to become a 230-bed unit staffed by a team drawn from across Northern Ireland.
The same report also stated that First Minister Arlene Foster had revealed that a Nightingale hospital could be based at the Eikon Exhibition Centre in Balmoral Park, and that the Department of Health was assessing its potential as a second Nightingale facility in preparation for a possible second wave later in 2020.
Gibraltar Health Authority (GHA)
A "Nightingale" field hospital was completed in Gibraltar at the Europa Point Sports Complex, during the week of 3 April 2020. In May it was described as being about to be progressively mothballed, with its equipment to be kept stored and the facility to be available for use at 5–7 days' notice.
Nursing leaders expressed concern about where the extra workers to staff the new hospitals would be found. The government issued a call for airline cabin crew to volunteer to be cross-trained as specialist health assistants.
List of actual and planned hospitals
|Authority||Hospital||Site location||Max. Capacity||Official announcement||(planned), Opened/ first patients||'Standby', Autumn 2020||Ref|
|NHS England||NHS Nightingale Hospital London||ExCeL London, England||4,000–5,000||24 March 2020||3 April / 7 April 'Mothballed' 4 May Closed 15 May|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital Birmingham||National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham, England||496 (initial)
800 (phase 1)
2,000 (phase 2)
4,000 beds (worst-case scenario).
|27 March 2020||10 April 2020/ N/A|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital North West||Manchester Central Convention Complex, Manchester, England||1,000||27 March 2020||13 April 2020/ 'late June, Standby'||12 October 2020|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital Bristol||UWE Bristol Exhibition and Conference Centre, Bristol, England||1,000||3 April 2020||27 April/ N/A||'Dormant' 8 October|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital Yorkshire and the Humber||Harrogate Convention Centre, North Yorkshire, England||500||3 April 2020||21 April/ 4 June (radiology outpatients)||12 October 2020|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital NE||Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, City of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England||460||10 April 2020||5 May 2020/||12 October 2020|||
|NHS Nightingale Hospital Exeter||Former Homebase store, Sowton Industrial Estate, Exeter, England||116||10 April 2020||('late May')/ 6 July 2020 (diagnostic screening)||[Partly] repurposed 5 October; taking Covid patients (December)|||
|Cumbria field hospitals||Leisure centres in Whitehaven, Carlisle, Penrith, Kendal, and Furness Academy in Barrow, England||500||1 April 2020|||
|HSC Northern Ireland||HSC Nightingale Hospital Belfast||Belfast City Hospital Tower Block, Belfast, Northern Ireland||230||2 April 2020||/stood down May 2020||14 October 2020; taking Covid patients (December)|||
|NHS Scotland||NHS Louisa Jordan||SEC Centre, Glasgow, Scotland||1,000||30 March 2020||19 April ready, 30 April official opening/||4 August 'stay open' over winter|||
|NHS Wales||Dragon's Heart Hospital (Ysbyty Calon y Ddraig)||Principality Stadium, Cardiff, Wales||2,000||27 March 2020||13 April/ 28 April||September: 'To be moved'|||
|New facility||next to the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff.||September 2020||September: 'To replace Dragons Heart'|||
|Rainbow Hospital (Ysbyty Enfys)||Venue Cymru, Llandudno, Wales||350||2 April 2020||by 5 May 2020/||29 Sept: beds to be on standby|||
|Hywel Dda Health Board field hospitals||Parc y Scarlets, Llanelli, Wales||500||27 March 2020||29 Sept: beds to be on standby, some at Selwyn Samuel Centre, Llanelli|||
|Bluestone National Park||144||2 April 2020||29 Sept: beds to be on standby|||
|Betsi Cadwaladr Health Board field hospitals- Rainbow Hospitals (Ysbytai Enfys)||Venue Cymru, Llandudno||350||2 April 2020||by 5 May 2020/||29 Sept: beds to be on standby|||
|Brailsford Centre, Bangor University||250||2 April 2020||by 5 May 2020/||29 Sept: beds to be on standby|||
|Ysbyty Enfys Deeside, Deeside Leisure Centre||250||2 April 2020||by 5 May 2020/||29 Sept: beds to be on standby|||
|Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan||80||2 April 2020|||
|Cwm Taf Morgannwg Health Board field hospitals||Welsh Rugby Union centres in Hensol and Abercynon, Wales, amongst others||900||2 April 2020||29 Sept: Harman Becker unit, Bridgend Industrial Estate on standby|||
|Swansea Bay University Health Board field hospitals||Bay Studios, Fabian Way, Swansea, Wales||1,000||2 April 2020||7 May 2020/||Expanded September 2020|||
|Llandarcy Academy of Sport, Llandarcy, Neath Port Talbot, Wales||340||2 April 2020||Beds transferred to Bay Studios Sept. '20||Closed returned to former use|||
|Gibraltar Health Authority||Florence Nightingale Field Hospital, Gibraltar||Europa Point, Gibraltar||300||Completed 'in under 3 weeks'||Opened Week of 3 April/||16 May running down but available at 5 days' notice|||
|Jersey Health & Community Services department||"Nightingale" field hospital, Jersey||A 'wing' of Jersey General Hospital, St Helier (3 km from the main part)||180||Announced 9 April||Opened 11 May||14 August: lease to run to 31 March 2021|||
- COVID-19 pandemic in England
- COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland
- COVID-19 pandemic in Wales
- COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Ireland
- Gilroy, Rebecca (30 March 2020). "More temporary hospitals announced ready for coronavirus peak". Nursing Times. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
More NHS temporary hospitals are to be opened across England, Wales and Scotland to cope with the coronavirus outbreak.
- Broom, Douglas (31 March 2020). "Take a look inside NHS Nightingale, London's new coronavirus hospital". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
The UK is creating five new hospitals to cope with the coronavirus pandemic. [...] The temporary hospitals will be in London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Glasgow and Manchester.
- Gallagher, Paul (26 March 2020). "NHS field coronavirus hospitals 'being considered' in Scotland and Manchester". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
Several more emergency NHS field hospitals could be set up across the UK [...]
- Wood, Vincent (27 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Plans continue for more 'field hospitals' in events spaces across UK". The Independent. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Rimmer, MP; Al Wattar, BH; UKARCOG Members (27 May 2020). "Provision of obstetrics and gynaecology services during the COVID‐19 pandemic: a survey of junior doctors in the UK National Health Service". BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 127 (9): 1471–0528.16313. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16313. ISSN 1470-0328. PMC 7283977. PMID 32460422.
- "COVID Support Force: the MOD's contribution to the coronavirus response". GOV.UK. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
The expansion of the NHS Nightingale project to other parts of the country is an absolute necessity at this time. The UK Armed Forces will do whatever is required to support the Scottish Government and the Health Services across the United Kingdom during this crisis, and bring this vital capability to wherever it is needed in our combined effort against coronavirus.
- "In case of emergency: The Army and civil assistance | National Army Museum". www.nam.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Campbell, Denis; Marsh, Sarah; Carrell, Severin (30 March 2020). "Nightingale hospital in London 'to treat less critical Covid-19 cases'". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Sparrow, Andrew (12 October 2020). "UK coronavirus live: Nightingale hospitals in Manchester, Sunderland and Harrogate on standby to take patients". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Nightingale Hospital opens at London's ExCel centre". BBC News. 3 April 2020.
- Sherling, Adrian (5 May 2020). "Matt Hancock insists it's fantastic the Nightingale Hospital has been put on stand-by". LBC. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- Dunhill, Lawrence (29 June 2020). "Exclusive: Mass expansion of rehab beds for covid planned". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- Carding, Nick (10 June 2020). "Revealed: Government spent more than £200m on Nightingale hospitals". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- DHSC (8 June 2020). "Freedom of Information Request Reference FOI-1223558" (PDF). WhatDoTheyKnow. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- Helm, Toby; McKie, Robin; Savage, Michael (28 November 2020). "Angry Tory MPs turn on Gove after 'overwhelmed NHS' claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Rodger, James (20 April 2020). "Tesco opens 24-hour store at Birmingham's new NHS Nightingale Hospital". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- Jahshan, Elias (7 April 2020). "Tesco eyes pop-up stores at NHS Nightingale sites". Retail Gazette.
- "NHS Nightingale: responding to urgent healthcare challenges". gblogs.cisco.com. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Covid-19: Nightingales to close, and Scottish outdoor rules to be eased — BBC News". apple.news. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- Carding, Nick (8 March 2021). "Revealed: Most Nightingales in £500m programme to close". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- "Coronavirus: Birmingham and Manchester temporary hospitals announced". BBC News. 27 March 2020.
- "Birmingham Nightingale hospital 'operational'". BBC News. 4 April 2020.
- "Birmingham NEC Nightingale Hospital 'phenomenal' effort". Express and Star. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
- Reynolds, Jordan. "Birmingham Nightingale Hospital could be used for non-coronavirus operations". Express & Star. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- Rodger, James (16 April 2020). "Birmingham's NHS Nightingale Hospital officially declared open by Prince William". Birmingham Live.
- "City's Nightingale hospital 'has no patients'". BBC News. 26 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "Work starts on Birmingham Airport Covid-19 mortuary for up to 12,000 bodies". ITV News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- "NHS Nightingale Hospital Birmingham put on 'standby' after no patients admitted". ITV News. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Bristol and Harrogate Nightingale hospitals announced". BBC News. 3 April 2020.
- "NHS Nightingale Hospital Bristol". North Bristol NHS Trust. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- "NHS to build more Nightingale Hospitals, as London set for opening". NHS England. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- DL, Steve West CBE (4 April 2020). "We have handed over the ECC plus all additional buildings required and car parking on a lease for £1.00 for as long as it is needed". @VCUWE. Retrieved 4 May 2020.[non-primary source needed]
- "Bristol's Nightingale hospital to fight against coronavirus opens at UWE campus". ITV News. 27 April 2020.
- "Field hospitals being set up across England". hsj.co.uk. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Army to convert Furness Academy into a hospital". nwemail.co.uk. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: 'Herculean effort' to provide NHS protective gear". BBC News. 10 April 2020.
- Merritt, Anita (11 April 2020). "More details revealed about Devon's Nightingale hospital". DevonLive. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- "About NHS Nightingale Hospital Exeter". NHS Nightingale Hospital Exeter. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Merritt, Anita (2 July 2020). "Take a look inside Exeter's new Nightingale Hospital". devonlive. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Exeter Nightingale to get first patients". BBC NEWS. 26 November 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Capt Tom Moore opens Harrogate NHS Nightingale hospital". BBC News. 21 April 2020.
- Hambrook, Glyn (2 June 2020). "Nightingale Hospital to provide clinical CT scans for the region". Harrogate Informer. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Covid: Harrogate Nightingale Hospital to close". BBC News. 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- Haynes, Deborah; McCann, Kate (26 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Around 10 more UK sites could become makeshift hospitals". Sky News.
- "Huge coronavirus morgue being built near to NHS Nightingale Hospital". Metro. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: NHS Nightingale becomes world's largest critical care unit". Sky News. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Davies, Caroline (3 April 2020). "Prince Charles to open NHS Nightingale to treat Covid-19 patients". The Guardian.
- "Nightingale Hospital in London 'placed on standby'". BBC News. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- "A huge new hospital in Manchester city centre is ready to take its first patients – and all this took just two weeks". Manchester Evening News. 13 April 2020.
- @MichaelMcCourt1 (13 April 2020). "1st tweet as CEO NHS Nightingale North West. Proud & thankful to be able to say we take our first patients today. In 14 days huge NHS, Army & NHS partner effort this hospital is open. A lot of attention on us but don't want to forget we are here to support an already busy NW NHS" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Coronavirus: Duchess of Cornwall opens NHS Nightingale Hospital North West". BBC News. 17 April 2020.
- Lindsay, Kali (10 April 2020). "Nightingale Hospital for coronavirus patients to open in the North East". nechronicle. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Nightingale hospital opens in Sunderland". BBC News. 5 May 2020.
- "Glasgow facility being converted into coronavirus hospital to be named after World War One nurse". ITV News. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- "Principality Stadium to be turned into 'field hospital' with 2000 beds". ITV News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Principality Stadium hospital taking shape". BBC News. 9 April 2020.
- "Ysbyty Calon y Ddraig, The Dragon's Heart Hospital". NHS Wales. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- Dragon's Heart Hospital put on standby as it shuts to patients 8 June 2020, www.itv.com, accessed 20 September 2020
- Coronavirus: New field hospital replaces Principality Stadium site 14 September 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 20 September 2020
- "Coronavirus: Where are the extra hospital beds in Wales going?". BBC News. 7 April 2020.
- "Field hospitals built in south Wales before coronavirus 'onslaught'". The Guardian. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: NHS in Wales to double capacity to cope". BBC News. 5 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Dragons, Ospreys and Scarlets help pandemic crisis". BBC Sport. 2 April 2020.
- "Stunning pictures show North Wales' new 'Rainbow' field hospital lit up at night". Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- Harries, Robert (1 April 2020). "Film studios and sports academy to be turned into field hospitals". walesonline. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- Clements, Laura (27 March 2020). "Bluestone holiday resort in Pembrokeshire to become coronavirus recovery hospital". Wales Online. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- "24/7 effort turns old factory into new hospital - in just a month". Swansea Council. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Covid: Wales' field hospitals cut from 19 to 10 29 September 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 23 October 2020
- Graham, Seanin (18 March 2020). "'Field hospitals' and refrigerated lorries as temporary mortuaries: worst case scenario plans drawn up to tackle coronavirus in Northern Ireland". The Irish News. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Venues could become field hospitals as a 'tsunami of sick people' looms for Northern Ireland". Belfast Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Mitchell, Gemma (2 April 2020). "Northern Ireland announces plans for new coronavirus hospital". Nursing Times. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus: City Hospital to host NI's first Nightingale". BBC News. 2 April 2020.
- "City hospital to be Northern Ireland's first Nightingale hospital". Health. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- Field hospital ready as Gibraltar mourns possible virus victim 3 April 2020 www.surinenglish.com, accessed 16 April 2020
- Mothballed Nightingale could be up and running within days if needed 16 May 2020 www.chronicle.gi, accessed 22 October 2020
- Coronavirus: Jersey's Nightingale hospital opens 11 May 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 18 October 2020
- "More than 16,000 staff needed to run Nightingale Hospital at full capacity". ITV News. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- Gilroy, Rebecca (27 March 2020). "Nurse leaders in the dark about NHS Nightingale workforce". Nursing Times. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Sample, Ian; Marsh, Sarah (29 March 2020). "Cabin crews drafted in to help at new coronavirus hospitals". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "First coronavirus field hospital opens in London". BBC News. 3 April 2020.
- Schraer, Rachel (24 March 2020). "Coronavirus: ExCeL Centre planned as NHS field hospital". BBC News.
- "Coronavirus: Boris Johnson spends second night in intensive care". BBC News. 7 April 2020.
- "London NHS Nightingale hospital placed on standby". 4 May 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- Ballard, Oli (3 April 2020). "UWE Bristol's Conference Centre to be used as a temporary hospital treating COVID-19 patients". Business Leader. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- What has happened to England's seven Nightingale hospitals? 8 October 2020 www.theguardian.com, accessed 23 October 2020
- "UK to set up fifth temporary hospital". Financial Times. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Harrogate Convention Centre Nightingale Hospital ready to open". conference-news.co.uk. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- Exeter’s NHS Nightingale hospital moved from Westpoint Arena to new location 25 April 2020 www.itv.com accessed 28 April 2020
- Exeter's new Nightingale hospital opened its doors today 6 July 2020, devonlive.com, accessed 7 July 2020
- Exeter's Nightingale Hospital used for Covid-19 vaccine study 5 October 2020, devonlive.com, accessed 23 October 2020
- Covid: Will variant force Nightingale hospitals to open? Nick Triggle, 22 December 2020, www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 23 December 2020
- "First photos of temporary coronavirus hospitals in Cumbria". ITV News. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- "Additional bed capacity created for Cumbrian hospitals :: University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust". www.uhmb.nhs.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- ‘Nightingale Hospital’ set up to cope with coronavirus has now been stood down May 2020 ballymenadaily.com, accessed 17 October 2020
- Belfast's Nightingale hospital to reopen as 'urgent action needed' 14 October 2020 www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk, accessed 17 October 2020
- "NHS Louisa Jordan - gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- "Temporary COVID-19 medical facility - gov.scot". www.gov.scot. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- NHS Louisa Jordan ‘to stay open’ over winter 4 August 2020, www.healthandcare.scot, accessed 23 October 2020
- "Coronavirus: Pictures of NHS Nightingale hospital show scale of expected emergency | UK News | Sky News". News.sky.com. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- First hospital beds in Principality Stadium to be ready by this weekend 8 April 2020 www.itv.com, accessed 9 April 2020
- "Coronavirus: Principality Stadium to be used as 2000-bed hospital". BBC Sport. 27 March 2020.
- "Dragon's Heart Hospital opens with 300 beds as pictures of first wards emerge". www.wales247.co.uk. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- First patient is admitted to Dragon's Heart Hospital in Principality Stadium 28 April 2020 www.walesonline.co.uk, accessed 29 April 2020
- North Wales Rainbow Hospitals to remain in place for ‘a number of months’ ahead of possible future spikes 5 May 2020 www.deeside.com, accessed 3 June 2020
- More than 5,000 extra beds to be on standby this winter- Wales 29 September 2020 www.itv.com, accessed 23 October 2020
- "Welsh NHS 'as prepared as it can be' for virus". BBC News. 5 April 2020.
- Howell, Andy (31 March 2020). "Wales rugby team's training HQ turned into 290-bed hospital". walesonline. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- One of the two Swansea Bay field hospitals is being shut down 2 September 2020 www.walesonline.co.uk, accessed 22 October 2020
- The Chief Minister visits the new Florence Nightingale Field Hospital at Europa Point 2 April 2020 www.gibraltarpanorama.gi, accessed 17 October 2020