Nikodem Caro (23 May 1871, Łódź, then Russian Empire – 27 June 1935, Rome, Italy) was an industrial chemist and entrepreneur. Caro was born in Łódź, and studied chemistry in Berlin at the Royal Technical College of Charlottenburg (now Technical University of Berlin) and got his doctorate from Rostock University. From 1895 on he worked in the Deutsche Dynamit AG with Adolph Frank on the development of calcium cyanamide as a means of fixing nitrogen, hence the Frank-Caro process. Caro became an important figure in the nitrogen fixation industry and a rival of Fritz Haber.
Caro is the author of many works about various elements, synthesis a chemical compounds actions e.g. Gewinnung von Chlor und Salzsäure (1893), Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungen (1895), Handbuch für Acetylen (1904), Die Torflager als Kraftquellen (1907).
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