Nikola Šubić Zrinski
|Nikola Šubić Zrinski
|Nikola Šubić Zrinski on a 17th-century print|
|Ban of Croatia|
24 December 1542 – 27 December 1556
|Preceded by||Petar Keglević|
|Succeeded by||Péter Erdődy|
Zrin, Kingdom of Croatia
|Died||7 September 1566
Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary
|Resting place||Pauline monastery in Sveta Jelena, Croatia|
Eva of Rosenberg
|Parents||Nikola III Zrinski
|Battles/wars||Siege of Pest (1542)
Battle of Babócsa (1556)
Battle of Moslavina (1562)
Siege of Szigetvár (1566)
Nikola Šubić Zrinski (Croatian pronunciation: [nǐkɔla ʃûbitɕ zrîːɲskiː]) or Zrínyi Miklós (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈzriːɲi ˈmikloːʃ]) (1508 – September 7, 1566) was a Croatian nobleman and general in service of Habsburg Monarchy, ban of Croatia from 1542 to 1556, and member of the Zrinski noble family. He was known across Europe for his involvement with the Siege of Szigetvár and is today seen as a hero by both Hungarians and Croats.
Nikola was born in 1508 as the son of Nikola III Zrinski and Jelena Karlović (sister of future Croatian ban Ivan Karlović) He distinguished himself at the siege of Vienna in 1529, and in 1542 saved the imperial army from defeat before Pest by intervening with 400 Croats, for which service he was appointed ban of Croatia. In 1542 he routed an Ottoman force at the Battle of Somlyo.
In 1543 he married Catherine (Katarina) Frankopan, a sister of Count Stjepan Frankopan Ozaljski ("Stephen Frankopan of Ozalj" in English), who placed the whole of her vast estates at his disposal. She bore him many children, among which was his successor Juraj IV Zrinski. The king Ferdinand I gave him large possessions in Hungary and Croatia, and henceforth the Zrinskis–Zrínyis became as much Magyar as Croatian magnates.
As a compensation for his battles with the Ottomans, he was granted the whole area of Međimurje on 12 March 1546 from King Ferdinand, hence the centre of the Zrinski family has moved from Zrin to the city of Čakovec, where he rearranged the existing castle.
In 1556 Zrinski won a series of victories over the Ottomans, culminating in the battle of Babócsa and thus preventing the fall of Szigetvár. In 1563, on the coronation of the Emperor Maximilian as king of Hungary, Zrinski attended the ceremony at the head of 3000 Croatian and Magyar mounted noblemen, in the vain hope of obtaining the dignity of palatine, vacant by the death of Tamás Nádasdy. Shortly after marrying (in 1564) his second wife, Eva of Rožmberk (Rosenberg), a great Bohemian heiress, he hastened southwards to defend the frontier, and defeated the Ottomans at Szeged.
In 1566, from August 5 to September 7, his small force (2,300 soldiers) heroically defended the little fortress of Szigetvár against the whole Ottoman host (102,000 soldiers), led by Suleiman the Magnificent in person. The Siege of Szigetvár ended with Zrinski perishing with every member of the garrison in a last desperate sortie. Suleiman the Magnificent had died by celebral hemorrhage 1 day before Ottoman won the war.
He was the great-grandfather of Croatian Ban (Viceroy) and Croatian/Hungarian poet Nikola Zrinski, as well as his younger brother Petar Zrinski. The former wrote the Hungarian epic poem, the Peril of Sziget, of which Zrinski is the hero, which has assured Zrinski's place in Hungarian culture. The epic remains in print today and is considered one of the landmarks of Hungarian literature. Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured both in Croatia and in Hungary as a national hero. A park in the Croatian capital Zagreb is named Trg Nikole Šubića Zrinskog after him. Zrinski's last battle was made the subject of a tragedy, Zrinyi: Ein Trauerspiel, by Theodor Körner. The Order of Nikola Šubić Zrinski is one of the highest Croatian national decorations.
- Pravopisna komisija (1960). Pravopis srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika. Novi Sad, Zagreb: Matica srpska, Matica hrvatska.
- The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History, Derek Sayer
- The Rise and Fall of the Hubsburg Monarchy, Victor-L. Tapie, 1972 - "One of the richest lords of the region, Nicholas Zrinsky, a Croat whose name took the form of Zrinyi in ..."
- Mucha, Dalibor Kusák, Marta Kadlečíková and Alphonse Marie Mucha, 1992
- Ferdo Šišić: Povijest Hrvata - Pregled povijesti hrvatskog naroda 1526. - 1918. - drugi dio, p. 295
- "Zrinski, Nikola IV.", Croatian Encyclopedia (in Croatian), Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža, 1999–2009, retrieved April 19, 2014
- Count Miklos Zrinyi (1508—1566), Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
- "Zrinyi, Miklós". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- Karnarutić (1866), pp. 1–83.
- Miklós Zrínyi. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 09, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/658207/Miklos-Zrinyi
- Nikola Šubić Zrinski square, as seen from the map of Zagreb
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Zrinyi, Niklas". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Lendvai, Paul: Die Ungarn: Eine tausendjährige Geschichte, C. Bertelsmann Verlag, Munich, 1999 (Title No.021/00218), Chapter 12.
- Treaty of peace with Germany: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations... ...signed at Versailles on June 28, 1919, and submitted to the Senate on July 10, 1919 - "the Slavs rescued them from a strangle-hold, namely, Nicholas Zrinsky and John Sobieski. one a Croatian and the other a Pole."
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zrinyi, Miklós, Count (elder)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Nikola Šubić ZrinskiBorn: c. 1508 Died: 7 September 1566
|Ban of Croatia