Nikolai Alekseyvich Zarudny (Russian: Николай Алексеевич Зарудный;[note 1] 13 September 1859 – 17 March 1919) was a Ukrainian-Russian explorer and zoologist who studied the flora and fauna of Central Asia.
He was born in Gryakovo, Ukraine (then part of the Russian Empire). He wrote his first ornithology book in 1896 and made five expeditions in the Caspian region between 1884 and 1892. He led other expeditions to Persia supported by the Russian Geographical Society and the Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He collected nearly 3,140 specimens of birds and 50,000 insects. After the Russian Revolution, his collection was nationalized by the Bolsheviks and moved to the museum at the University of Tashkent. For his work, the Russian Geographical Society awarded him the Przhevalsky Medal. His last work on the ornithology of Turkestan region was not completed as he died of accidental poisoning. He published 218 monographs in the course of his life and named many species. Among the species and other taxa named after Zarudny are Eumeces scneiderii zarudnyi, Zarudny's jird, Zarudny's rock shrew, Zarudny's worm lizard, Schizothorax zarudnyi, and the distinctive Asian subspecies of the desert sparrow (Passer simplex zarudnyi).
- Russian: Николай Алексеевич Зарудный, tr. Nikolay Alekseevich Zarudny. His name has been transliterated a number of other ways; especially with Sarudny or Sarudney in older works.
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- Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Zarudnyi", p. 293).
- Kirwan, Guy M.; Schweitzer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Grieve, Andrew (2009). "Taxonomy, identification and status of Desert Sparrows" (PDF). Dutch Birding. 31: 139–158. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011.
- Bobrinksy, N. A. (1940). N. A. Zarudny (1859–1919): Zoologist and Traveler (transl.) (in Russian). Moscow: Moscow Soc. Nat. Expl. Ser. Histor.
- Steinbacher, F. (1926). "N. A. Sarudny und seine letzten Arbeiten". Journal für Ornithologie (in German). 74 (2): 490–496. doi:10.1007/BF02004933. S2CID 11722450.
- Johansen, Hans (1952). "Ornithology in Russia". The Ibis. 94 (1): 1–48. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1952.tb01786.x.