Nikolaos Michaloliakos

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Nikolaos Michaloliakos

Nikolaos Michaloliakos.jpg
General Secretary of the Golden Dawn
Assumed office
1993[1]
Preceded byOffice established
Member of the Hellenic Parliament
Assumed office
28 June 2012
Member of the Athens Council
In office
1 January 2011 – 17 May 2012
Succeeded byIoannis Vouldis
Personal details
Born
Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos

(1957-12-16) 16 December 1957 (age 60)
Athens, Greece
Political partyGolden Dawn
Spouse(s)Eleni Zaroulia
ChildrenOurania Michaloliakou
Alma materNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens
OccupationPolitician
Military service
Allegiance Greece
Service/branchHellenic Army

Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos (Greek: Νικόλαος Γ. Μιχαλολιάκος, pronounced [niˈkolaos mixaloˈʎakos]; born 16 December 1957) is a Greek politician. He is the founder and leader of the far-right Golden Dawn party.

In September 2013, Michaloliakos was arrested on charges of forming a criminal organization. He was released in July 2015. As of 2018, the trial is ongoing.

Early life and education[edit]

Michaloliakos was born in Athens in 1957. According to his party, he completed his studies at the Faculty of Mathematics of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.[2]

Political involvements[edit]

At the age of 16, he joined the nationalist 4th of August Party of Konstantinos Plevris. He also participated in the Athens local organisation of EOKA-B. He was arrested for the first time in July 1974, during a protest outside the British embassy in Athens, against the stance of the United Kingdom toward the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.[2] He was arrested again for assaulting journalists covering the December 1976 funeral of Evangelos Mallios, a policeman who allegedly tortured people during the Regime of the Colonels,[3] assassinated by the Revolutionary Organization 17 November, but was released due to technical issues related to his arrest.[1][4][5][6] While he was in prison, Michaloliakos met the leaders of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.[1] After that he joined the Hellenic Army and became a commander of the Fast Attack Craft Command.[1] He was arrested again in July 1978 after he had become a member of a far-right extremist group, and sentenced to one year imprisonment in January 1979 for illegally carrying guns and explosives.[1][4] He was also dismissed from his position in the army.[2]

After he was released, he launched the Golden Dawn magazine. The politics of the magazine were, at least initially, closely aligned with National Socialist beliefs.[1][4] The publication of the magazine ceased in April 1984, when Michaloliakos joined the National Political Union, and took over the leadership of its youth section, after a personal order of Georgios Papadopoulos.[1] In January 1985 he broke away from the National Political Union and founded the "Popular National Movement - Golden Dawn".

Michaloliakos remained the leader of Golden Dawn until he announced its disbandment in November 2005.[7] He took this step due to clashes with anti-fascists.[7] In 2005–2007 he (like most members of Golden Dawn) continued his political activity through the Patriotic Alliance.[1] The party was reformed under his leadership in 2007.[8]

Golden Dawn as a political party drew public attention in the 1990s and early 2000.[1][4] In May 2012, under Michaloliakos' leadership, it garnered 21 seats in Parliament during an election conducted amid Greece's severe fiscal crisis, and was embroiled in various controversies, attracting international attention.[9] A particularly controversial point was Michaloliakos's denial of the existence of the gas chambers which the Nazis used to murder Jews, homosexuals, and other persons during World War II.[10]

Arrest[edit]

Following the fatal stabbing of left-wing rapper Pavlos Fyssas on 17 September 2013 by a supporter of his party[11], Michaloliakos was arrested in a 28 September 2013 sweep, along with numerous other Golden Dawn leaders on the charges of being involved in a criminal organisation.[12] The charge sheet includes murder, extortion, and involvement in the disappearance of up to 100 immigrants.[13] After 18 months of pretrial detention, the maximum allowed, Michaloliakos was released from jail and placed under house arrest.[14] On 29 July 2015 his house arrest was lifted but he is prohibited from leaving the Attica region.[15]

In April 2015, the trial of Michaloliakos and 68 other defendants began at the high-security Korydallos prison in Athens,[16] but was adjourned a number of times for technical reasons and to find a more suitable setting.[17]

Personal life[edit]

He is the husband of fellow Golden Dawn member Eleni Zaroulia.[18] His daughter Ourania was one of six people arrested during a motorcycle attack against immigrants; all six were later released.[19][20]

Publications[edit]

  • Enemies of the Regime (Εχθροί του Καθεστώτος), 2000
  • Against All (Εναντίον Όλων), 2001
  • The Last Loyals (Οι Τελευταίοι Πιστοί), 2002
  • For a Greater Greece in a Free Europe (Για μια Μεγάλη Ελλάδα σε μια Ελεύθερη Ευρώπη), 2000
  • Pericles Giannopoulos: The Apollonian Speech (Περικλής Γιαννόπουλος: Ο Απολλώνιος Λόγος), 2006
  • The Confession of a Heathen (Η Εξομολόγηση ενός Εθνικού), reprinted in 2008
  • From the Ashes of Berlin to Globalisation (Από τις Στάχτες του Βερολίνου στην Παγκοσμιοποίηση), 2008
  • Defending National Memory (Υπερασπίζοντας την Εθνική Μνήμη), 2009

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Το κλούβιο "αβγό του φιδιού"". To Vima. 11 September 2005.
  2. ^ a b c "Article about Michaloliakos published on Golden Dawn's website". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013.
  3. ^ athensnews.gr Archived 17 February 2013 at Archive.is
  4. ^ a b c d 2/7/1998 article published in Eleftherotypia newspaper
  5. ^ Article published on BBC News Online website
  6. ^ Greek Embassy (Consulate General, Los Angeles, USA) website Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b 01/12/05 article published by www.in.gr
  8. ^ Golden Dawn taps into voter anger and fear Archived 9 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. in Athens News
  9. ^ "Wordpress suspends Golden Dawn's blog". Ekathimerini.com.
  10. ^ Neo-Nazi chief denies gas chambers existed Independent Online (South Africa)
  11. ^ Strickland, Patrick. "Greece mourns slain anti-fascist rapper Pavlos Fyssas". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  12. ^ Lowen, Mark (28 September 2013). "Greece's Golden Dawn leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos held". BBC. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  13. ^ Channel 4 News. "Swastikas but no faces please - Golden Dawn in crisis". Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  14. ^ Skordas, Aggelos (2015-03-20). "Extreme Right Golden Dawn Leader Michaloliakos and MP Lagos Released Ahead of Trial". GreekReporter. Greece. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
  15. ^ "Golden Dawn chief, wife, released from house arrest". ekathimerini. Greece. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2015-09-25.
  16. ^ Ayiomamitis, Paris. "Trial of far-right Golden Dawn leaders starts in Greece". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  17. ^ Smith, Helena. "Golden Dawn leaders' trial adjourned until next week". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  18. ^ Rashty, Sandy (11 October 2012). "Greek neo-Nazi party on EU equality committee". Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  19. ^ Smith, Helena (7 June 2012). "Golden Dawn MP's live TV assault shocks Greece". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  20. ^ Houlakis, Pantelis; Souliotis, Yiannis (21 June 2012). "Violence against migrants in Greece intensifies". Ekathimerini. Retrieved 22 October 2012.

External links[edit]