Nikolaos Michaloliakos

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Nikolaos Michaloliakos
General Secretary of the Golden Dawn
Assumed office
Preceded by Office established
Member of the Hellenic Parliament
Assumed office
28 June 2012
Member of the Athens Council
In office
1 January 2011 – 17 May 2012
Succeeded by Ioannis Vouldis
Personal details
Born Greece
Nationality Greek
Political party Golden Dawn
Other political
4th of August Party
National Political Union
Patriotic Alliance
Spouse(s) Eleni Zaroulia
Children Ourania Michaloliakou
Alma mater National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Occupation Politician
Religion Greek Orthodox
Military service
Allegiance  Greece
Service/branch Hellenic Armed Forces

Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos (Greek: Νικόλαος Γ. Μιχαλολιάκος, pronounced [niˈkolaos mixaloˈʎakos]; born 16 December 1957) is the leader of Golden Dawn, a Greek far-right party. In September of 2013 he was arrested on charges of forming a criminal organization by orders of the Greek government at the time.

Early life and education[edit]

Michaloliakos was born in Athens in 1957. According to his party, he completed his studies at the Faculty of Mathematics of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.[2]

Political involvements[edit]

At the age of 16, he joined the nationalist 4th of August Party of Konstantinos Plevris. He also participated in the Athens local organisation of EOKA-B. He was arrested for the first time in July 1974, during a protest outside the British embassy in Athens, against the stance of the United Kingdom toward the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.[2] He was arrested again for assaulting journalists covering the December 1976 funeral of Evangelos Mallios, a policeman who allegedly tortured people during the Regime of the Colonels,[3] assassinated by the Revolutionary Organization 17 November, but was released due to technical issues related to his arrest.[4][5][6][7] While he was in prison, Michaloliakos met the leaders of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.[4] After that he joined the Army and became a commando of the special forces.[4] He was arrested again in July 1978 after he had become a member of a far-right extremist group, and sentenced to one year imprisonment in January 1979 for illegally carrying guns and explosives.[4][5] He was also dismissed from his position in the army.[2]

After he was released, he launched the Chrysi Avgi (Greek for "Golden Dawn") magazine. The politics of the magazine were, at least initially, closely aligned with National Socialist beliefs.[4][5] The publication of the magazine ceased in April 1984, when Michaloliakos joined the National Political Union, and took over the leadership of its youth section, after a personal order of Georgios Papadopoulos.[4] In January 1985 he broke away from the National Political Union and founded the "Popular National Movement - Chrysi Avgi".

Michaloliakos remained the leader of Chrysi Avgi until he announced its disbandment in November 2005.[8] He took this step due to clashes with anti-fascists.[8] In 2005–2007 he (like most members of Chrysi Avgi) continued his political activity through the Patriotic Alliance.[4] The party was reformed under his leadership in 2007.[9]

Chrysi Avgi as a political party drew public attention in the 1990s and early 2000.[4][5] In May 2012, under Michaloliakos' leadership, it garnered 21 seats in Parliament during an election conducted amid Greece's severe fiscal crisis, and was embroiled in various controversies, attracting international attention and often, condemnation. [10] A particularly controversial point was Michaloliakos's denial of the existence of the gas chambers which the Nazis used to murder Jews, homosexuals, and other persons during World War II.[11]


Following the fatal stabbing of anti-fascist, anti-racist rapper Pavlos Fyssas on 17 September 2013, Michaloliakos was arrested on 28 September 2013, along with several other Golden Dawn members on the charges of being involved in a criminal organisation.[12] The charge sheet includes murder, extortion, and involvement in the disappearance of up to 100 immigrants.[13] After 18 months of pretrial detention, the maximum allowed, Michaloliakos was released from jail and is currently under house arrest.[14] He has the right to assist parliamentary sessions.

Personal life[edit]

He is the husband of fellow Golden Dawn member Eleni Zaroulia.[15] His daughter Ourania was one of six people arrested during a motorcycle rally.[16][17]


  • Enemies of the Regime (Εχθροί του Καθεστώτος), 2000
  • Against All (Εναντίον Όλων), 2001
  • The Last Loyals (Οι Τελευταίοι Πιστοί), 2002
  • For a Greater Greece in a Free Europe (Για μια Μεγάλη Ελλάδα σε μια Ελεύθερη Ευρώπη), 2000
  • Pericles Giannopoulos: The Apollonian Speech (Περικλής Γιαννόπουλος: Ο Απολλώνιος Λόγος), 2006
  • The Confession of a Heathen (Η Εξομολόγηση ενός Εθνικού), reprinted in 2008
  • From the Ashes of Berlin to Globalisation (Από τις Στάχτες του Βερολίνου στην Παγκοσμιοποίηση), 2008
  • Defending National Memory (Υπερασπίζοντας την Εθνική Μνήμη), 2009


External links[edit]