|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Nilgiri is a very small town but replete with rich history and heritage. While its history could be traced back to paleolithic age, the modern history was more eventful owing to the growing consciousness of democracy and self-rule. At the dawn of the 20th century, peasants began to rise against the despotic king but such uprisings were crushed with brutal methods.However, those uprisings gained momentum with able leaderships and led to the first peasant movement of India.
Odisha Freedom Fighters like Balaram Raj, Shyamsundar Parida, Kailashchandra Mohanty, Banamali Das, Baishnab Patnaik, Brundaban Chandra Sadangi, Satish Chanrdra Das and Nanda Kishore Patnaik violently fought against the local prince and forced him to surrender to newly formed Indian National Government. This was the beginning of the process of 576 princely states joining Republic of India and thus the making of modern political India. In Odisha, people of Nilagiri celebrate this as "The Victorious Uprising of Nilagiri".
Panchalingeshwar is located 8 km from Nilagiri and 30 km from Baleswar. It is famous for Place of "Lord Shiva temple" and a waterfall on a hillside. Many tourists, nature lovers, and spiritual people flock here to enjoy the scenic beauty of the place and to the touch the Shiva Linga (Phalus) located in a pit under the waterfall.
There is a state tourism Pantha Nivas in Panchalingeswara for the tourists coming from outside. Panchalingeswara is surrounded by thick greenery and hillocks. Branches of the natural spring flow through the hill range which add more attraction to this place.
There is a Jagannatha Temple in Nilagiri which is one of the prominent Jagannnath temples of Odisha. Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are worshiped here. Every year Ratha Yatra is observed with all the cults of the gods.
A description of Nilgiri is incomplete without Ajodhya. It is located 15 km from Nilgiri. It is famous for its ancient 8th–9th-century temple ruins, Buddhist and Jainism relics, articles which are shown in the museum established by Govt of Odisha at Ajodhya and Maa Marichee Temple.
There are two high schools named K.C. High School and R.T. High School in the heart of Nilagiri. Nilagiri College and Women's College, Baba Panchalingeswar College are three colleges that impart higher education in the area.
"Santaragadia" mostly known as a place-based education, sometimes called pedagogy of place, place-based learning, experiential education, community-based education, education for sustainability, environmental education or more rarely, service learning, is an educational philosophy developed initially by The Oriya Society.
Nilagiri is located at  It has an average elevation of 23 m (75 ft). The area mainly comprises hills and plateaus with Laterite being the main soil type. Nilagiri receives rain from the Monsoon; while summer is humid, winter is very dry..
As of 2001[update] India census, Nilagiri had a population of 14,745. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nilagiri has an average literacy rate of 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 66%, and female literacy is 54%. In Nilagiri, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Current MLA from Nilgiri Assembly Constituency is Sukanta Kumar Nayak of BJD, who won the seat in State elections in 2014. He is from village Sangrampur. Previous MLAs from this seat were Pratap chandra sarangi (BJP) 2004,Pradipta Panda of CPI(M) in 2000, Akshaya Kumar Acharya representing INC in 1995 and Samarendra Narayan Das INC representing INC(I) in 1980, Chittaranjan Sarangi as independent candidate in 1990, Sukumar Nayak of INC in 1985, Rajendra Chandra Mardaraj of JNP in 1977.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Nilagiri
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "State Elections 2004 - Partywise Comparison for 17-Nilgiri Constituency of Odisha". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies of Odisha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2009. Retrieved 2008-09-15.