Jump to content

Nine-dash line

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nine-dash line
The nine-dash line (in green)
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese九段線
Simplified Chinese九段线
Literal meaningnine-segment line
Eleven-dash line
Traditional Chinese十一段線
Simplified Chinese十一段线
Literal meaningeleven-segment line
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetĐường chín đoạn
Literal meaningnine-segment line

The nine-dash line, also referred to as the eleven-dash line by Taiwan, is a set of line segments on various maps that accompanied the claims of the People's Republic of China (PRC, "mainland China") and the Republic of China (ROC, "Taiwan") in the South China Sea.[1] The contested area includes the Paracel Islands,[a] the Spratly Islands,[b][2] the Pratas Island and the Vereker Banks, the Macclesfield Bank, and the Scarborough Shoal. Certain places have undergone land reclamation by the PRC, ROC, and Vietnam.[3][4][5] The People's Daily of the PRC uses the term Duànxùxiàn (断续线) or Nánhǎi Duànxùxiàn (南海断续线; lit.'South Sea intermittent line'), while the ROC government uses the term Shíyīduàn xiàn (十一段線; lit.'eleven-segment line').[6][7]

A 1946 map showing a U-shaped eleven-dash line was first published by the Republic of China government on 1 December 1947.[8] In 1952, Mao Zedong of the PRC decided to remove two of the dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin amid warming ties with North Vietnam.[9][10] However, the ROC government still uses the eleven-dash line.[11][7] In 2013, some were surprised by a tenth dash to the east of Taiwan, but it had been present in PRC maps since as early as 1984.[12][13] As of 2014, the PRC government had not clarified what it specifically claims in the map.[13]

On 12 July 2016, an arbitral tribunal organized under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) concluded that China had not exercised exclusive and continuous control over the area and that certain features lie within the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, although it was not able to rule on matters of territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation.[14][16][17] Over 20 governments have called for the ruling to be respected.[18][19] It was rejected by eight governments, including China (PRC) and Taiwan (ROC).[20][21]

History of the line segments[edit]

"Location Map of South Sea Islands" (南海諸島位置圖) circa 1947

In December 1947, the Ministry of Interior of the Nationalist government released "Location Map of South Sea Islands" (南海諸島位置圖) showing an eleven-dash line.[7][22] Scholarly accounts place its publication from 1946 to 1948 and indicate that it originated from an earlier one titled "Map of Chinese Islands in the South China Sea" (中国南海岛屿图) published by the ROC Land and Water Maps Inspection Committee in 1935.[13] Beginning in 1952, the People's Republic of China (PRC) used a revised map with nine dashes, removing the two dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin. The change was interpreted as a concession to the newly independent North Vietnam; the maritime border between PRC and Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin was eventually formalized by treaty in 2000.[23][10]

After retreating to Taiwan in 1949, the ROC government continued to claim the Spratly and Paracel Islands. President Lee Teng-hui claimed[24] that "legally, historically, geographically, or in reality", all of the South China Sea and Spratly islands were ROC territory and under ROC sovereignty, and denounced actions undertaken there by the Philippines and Malaysia.[25] Taiwan and China have the same claims and have cooperated with each other during international talks involving the Spratly Islands.[26][27]

The nine-dash line map on the second page of PRC's 2009 submission to the UN[28]

In May 2009, Malaysia and Vietnam submitted claims to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their respective continental shelves.[2][13] In objection, the PRC communicated two Notes Verbales to the UN Secretary General stating:

China has indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters, and enjoys sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the relevant waters as well as the seabed and subsoil thereof (see attached map). The above position is consistently held by the Chinese government, and is widely known by the international community.

— Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China, Notes Verbales CML/17/2009 and CML/18/2009

Its submissions were accompanied by maps depicting nine dashes in the South China Sea.[13] Immediately afterwards, Malaysia and Vietnam protested China's submission. Indonesia followed suit a year later, and the Philippines two years later.[2] In 2011, the PRC submitted another note verbale to the UN conveying a similar message but without mentioning the line.[13]

Although not visible on the 2009 map, modern Chinese maps since 1984, including the vertically oriented maps published in 2013 and 2014, have also included a tenth dash to the east of Taiwan.[13] Some were nonetheless surprised when the tenth dash appeared in a 2013 map, even though it was not in the South China Sea.[12] Meanwhile, the ROC (Taiwan) has rejected all rival claims to the Paracel islands, repeating its position that all of the Paracel, Spratly, Zhongsha (Macclesfield Bank grouped with Scarborough Shoal) and Pratas Island belong to the ROC along with "their surrounding waters and respective seabed and subsoil". Taiwan views other claims as illegitimate, releasing a statement through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs stating "there is no doubt that the Republic of China has sovereignty over the archipelagos and waters".[29]

Analysis[edit]

The nine-dash line has been used by the PRC inconsistently and with ambiguity.[22][30][31] It is not clear whether the map constitute a part of China's historical claims or serve only illustrative purposes. The PRC has not clarified the line's legal nature in terms of how the dashes would be joined and which of the maritime features inside are specifically being claimed.[13][32] Analysts from the U.S. Department of State posit three different explanations—that it indicates only the islands within are being claimed, that a maritime area including other features are being claimed, or that a claim is being made as historical waters of China. A claim to only the islands and associated rights is most consistent with past PRC publications and statements, whereas the other two arguments would put China's claim at greater conflict with the UNCLOS.[13] China's actual claim likely does not include all or most of the waters in the region and appears to center around island features and whatever entitlements that are associated with them, including non-exclusive fishing rights.[33][34]

Ongoing disputes[edit]

South China Sea claims and agreements (showing the nine-dash line as well as an additional tenth dash near the island of Taiwan).

According to former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, "China's nine-dash line territorial claim over the entire South China Sea is against international laws, particularly the United Nations Convention of the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS)".[35]

Vietnam also rejects the Chinese claim, citing that it is baseless and contrary to UNCLOS.[36] The line is often referred to in Vietnam as Đường lưỡi bò (lit.'cow's tongue line').[37]

Parts of China's nine-dash line overlap Indonesia's exclusive economic zone near the Natuna islands. Indonesia believes China's claim over parts of the Natuna islands has no legal basis. In November 2015, Indonesia's security chief Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan said Indonesia could take China before an international court if Beijing's claim to the majority of the South China Sea and part of Indonesian territory is not resolved through dialogue.[38]

Researcher Sourabh Gupta questioned the applicability of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to the dispute, arguing that the convention does not support claims based on sovereignty or title, and instead supports the right to continue using the waters for traditional purpose such as fishing.[34][39]

Dash 4 location in Chinese 2009 (solid red) and 1984 maps. Dash 4 is 24 nautical miles from the coast of Malaysia on the island of Borneo and 133 nautical miles from Louisa Reef.[13] James Shoal (Zeng-mu Ansha), the "Southernmost point of China", lay 21 metres (69 ft) under the sea, according to the 1984 map.

A 2012 Chinese eighth-grade geography textbook includes a map of China with the nine-dash line and the text "The southernmost point of our country's territory is Zengmu Ansha (James Shoal) in the Nansha Islands." Shan Zhiqiang, the executive chief editor of the Chinese National Geography magazine, wrote in 2013: "The nine-dashed line ... is now deeply engraved in the hearts and minds of the Chinese people."[40]

According to a leaked diplomatic cable from September 2008, the United States Embassy in Beijing reported that a senior Chinese government maritime law expert said he was unaware of the historical basis for the nine dashes.[41]

At the Conference on Maritime Study organized by the US-based Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in June 2011, Su Hao of the China Foreign Affairs University in Beijing delivered a speech on China's sovereignty and policy in the South China Sea, using history as the main argument. However, Termsak Chalermpalanupap, assistant director for Program Coordination and External Relations of the ASEAN Secretariat, said: "I don't think that the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) recognizes history as the basis to make sovereignty claims". Peter Dutton of the US Naval War College agreed, saying, "The jurisdiction over waters does not have connection to history. It must observe the UNCLOS." Dutton stressed that using history to explain sovereignty erodes the rules of the UNCLOS.[42] It is understood that China ratified the UNCLOS in 1996.[43]

Maritime researcher Carlyle Thayer, emeritus Professor of Politics of the University of New South Wales, said that Chinese scholars using historical heritage to explain its claim of sovereignty shows the lack of legal foundation for the claim under international law.[44] Caitlyn Antrim, executive director, Rule of Law Committee for the Oceans of the US, commented that "The U-shaped line has no ground under the international law because [the] historical basis is very weak". She added "I don't understand what China claims for in that U-shaped line. If they claim sovereignty over islands inside that line, the question is whether they are able to prove their sovereignty over these islands. If China claimed sovereignty over these islands 500 years ago and then they did not perform their sovereignty, their claim of sovereignty becomes very weak. For uninhabited islands, they can only claim territorial seas, not exclusive economic zones (EEZ) from the islands".[42] Wu Shicun, president of China's National Institute for South China Sea Studies, claimed that today's international law "cannot overwrite existing facts of the past".[45]

In 2020, Voice of America reported that China has been putting out "constant reminders" of the nine-dash line in scholarly journals, maps, T-shirts, and films over the past decade.[46] Jay Batongbacal, a professor at the University of the Philippines, called them "subtle propaganda". Gregory Poling, director of the Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said the target audience is third-world countries. A researcher at the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam expressed her own observations that the publication of the nine-dash line in scientific journals has increased since 2010, namely in articles from China. According to some scholars, the inclusion of the U-shaped line in maps is required by Chinese law.[47] Nature has stated that it remains neutral regarding any jurisdictional claims published in the journal.[48] It has asked authors to depoliticize their work and mark controversial designations, and its editors reserve the right to label disputed claims.[49] Elsevier indicated that the legality of the nine-dash line is disputed.[50]

Arbitral tribunal's ruling[edit]

In January 2013, the Philippines initiated arbitration proceedings against China under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) over a range of issues, including the latter's historic rights claims inside the nine-dash line.[51][52][53] A tribunal of arbitrators constituted under Annex VII of UNCLOS appointed the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) as the registry to the proceedings.

On 12 July 2016, the tribunal ruled in favor of the Philippines on most of its submissions. While it would not "rule on any question of sovereignty over land territory and would not delimit any maritime boundary between the Parties", it concluded that China had not exercised exclusive control over the waters within the nine-dash line historically and has "no legal basis" to claim "historic rights" to the resources there.[51] It also concluded that China's historic rights claims over the maritime areas (as opposed to land masses and territorial waters) inside the nine-dash line would have no lawful effect beyond what it is entitled to under the UNCLOS.[15][54][55] China rejected the ruling, calling it "ill-founded"; its paramount leader Xi Jinping said that "China's territorial sovereignty and marine rights in the South China Sea will not be affected by the so-called Philippines South China Sea ruling in any way", but China was still "committed to resolving disputes" with its neighbors.[20][56] China's grounds for rejecting the ruling include its decision to exclude itself from the compulsory arbitration provisions of UNCLOS when it ratified UNCLOS in 2006.[57]

Immediately following the ruling, China released a number of documents reaffirming their claims in four specific areas: sovereignty over all the islands in the South China Sea; internal waters, territorial seas and contiguous zones of those islands; EEZs and continental shelfs of these islands; and historical rights. These documents did not mention the nine-dash line in relation to the claims. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute commented, "The quiet disappearance of the ‘nine-dash line’ from China's official claims is a major policy change [...] implying that China doesn't take it as a territorial demarcation line—that is, China doesn't claim 90% of the South China Sea as ‘a Chinese lake’, as is so often alleged in international media."[58]

Taiwan, which currently administers Taiping Island, the largest of the Spratly Islands, also rejected the ruling and deployed a coast guard vessel to the island/rock, with a naval frigate mission also scheduled.[21][59][60]

Academic Graham Allison observed in 2016, "None of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council have ever accepted any international court's ruling when (in their view) it infringed their sovereignty or national security interests. Thus, when China rejects the Court's decision in this case, it will be doing just what the other great powers have repeatedly done for decades."[61]

Media appearances and reactions[edit]

The DreamWorks Animation-Pearl Studio animated film Abominable included a scene with the nine-dash line, which generated controversy in the Philippines, Vietnam and Malaysia although the film was simply depicting maps as sold in China. The Philippines and Vietnam banned the film, and Malaysia followed suit after the producers refused to cut the scene.[62][63][64][65]

In 2019, an ESPN broadcast used a map that appeared to endorse China's claims to Taiwan and the nine-dash line, causing controversy.[66]

In 2021, Netflix pulled TV series Pine Gap from its Vietnamese service, following an order from the country's Authority of Broadcasting and Electronic Information, as a map with the nine-dash line was briefly shown in two episodes of the series. TV series Put Your Head on My Shoulder was also pulled from Vietnam, after the nine-dash line appeared briefly on the ninth episode of the series. The country's Authority of Broadcasting and Electronic Information released a statement that Netflix had angered and hurt the feelings of the entire people of Vietnam.[67][68]

On 12 March 2022, Vietnam Film Authority banned the movie Uncharted because it contained an image of a nine-dash line map.[69] By April 27, the Philippines followed suit.[70]

On 5 July 2023, Vietnam's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism has announced that it had ordered an inspection of the official website of IME, a talent management and event organising company based in Beijing, China, for allegedly featuring the nine-dash line in the map of East and Southeast Asia. On the following day, 6 July, Brian Chow, the CEO of IME, stated that it was an "unfortunate misunderstanding", but added that the company was committed to replace the images in question. At the time of the controversy, IME has scheduled two concerts of Blackpink (a South Korean girl band managed by YG Entertainment) in Hanoi, Vietnam, as a part of the Born Pink World Tour, and some Vietnamese netizens called for a boycott of the concerts or any event organised by IME.[71][72]

On 10 July 2023, Vietnam's Department of Cinema has ordered Netflix and FPT Telecom to remove Chinese drama series Flight to You [zh] from their platforms within 24 hours; the department found the appearances of the nine-dash line in nine episodes. FPT Telecom already blurred the maps in question for its service, but was ordered to take down the entire series nonetheless.[73][74]

Map drawing in Barbie[edit]

On 3 July 2023, Vietnam banned the live-action Barbie film, alleging that scenes in the film display the nine-dash line map over the South China Sea.[75] The Tiền Phong newspaper reported that the nine-dash line appears multiple times in the film.[76][77] Regarding one scene that features a child-like drawing of a world map with dashed lines, the film's distributor, Warner Bros., defended these claims by stating that the map is a children's drawing and has no intended meaning.[78][79] On 11 July, the Philippines' Movie and Television Review and Classification Board allowed the film to be screened in the country, but requested Warner Bros. to "blur the controversial lines in order to avoid further misinterpretations". It said the line, which was part of Barbie's journey from her fictional universe to the "real world", was not U-shaped and did not have nine dashes.[80][81][82][83][84] Other dashed lines can be seen near the United States, Greenland, Brazil and Africa.[85]

Speaking to Voice of America on Vietnam's ban of the 2023 Barbie film, Trịnh Hữu Long (founder of the research group Legal Initiatives for Vietnam) said "The Vietnamese government is surely using legitimate nationalist reasoning to strengthen its entire censorship system," while Michael Caster at the free expression group Article 19 said "Maps are political, and borders often bear historical wounds, but rather than ensuring free and open discussion, the knee jerk response to censor seldom supports historical or transitional justice".[86] Speaking to Vox, UC Berkeley professor Peter Zinoman said, "To the Chinese, the nine-dash line signifies their legitimate claims to the South China Sea," and "To the Vietnamese, it symbolizes a brazen act of imperialist bullying that elevates Chinese national interest over an older shared set of interests of socialist brotherhood."[87]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Paracel Islands are occupied by the PRC, but are also claimed by Vietnam and the ROC.
  2. ^ The Spratly Islands are disputed by the Philippines, PRC, ROC, Brunei, Malaysia, and Vietnam, who each claim either part or all the islands.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michaela del Callar (26 July 2013). "China's new '10-dash line map' eats into Philippine territory". GMA News. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Jamandre, Tessa (14 April 2011). "PH protests China's '9-dash line' Spratlys claim". Malaya. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  3. ^ "China building 'great wall of sand' in South China Sea". BBC. 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  4. ^ "US Navy: Beijing creating a 'great wall of sand' in South China Sea". The Guardian. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  5. ^ Marcus, Jonathan (29 May 2015). "US-China tensions rise over Beijing's 'Great Wall of Sand'". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  6. ^ "人民日报:中国在南海断续线内的历史性权利不容妄议和否定". 人民网. People's Daily. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2021. 人民日报:中国在南海断续线内的历史性权利不容妄议和否定
  7. ^ a b c "外交部「南海議題及南海和平倡議」講習會媒體提問紀要". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of China (Taiwan) (in Chinese). 8 April 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2021. 十一段線係出現於民國36年(1947年)12月1日由內政部公布之「南海諸島位置圖」
  8. ^ Wu, Shicun (2013). Solving Disputes for Regional Cooperation and Development in the South China Sea: A Chinese Perspective. Chandos Asian Studies Series. Elsevier Reed. ISBN 978-1780633558.
  9. ^ Horton, Chris (8 July 2019). "Taiwan's Status Is a Geopolitical Absurdity". The Atlantic.
  10. ^ a b "History the Weak Link in Beijing's Maritime Claims". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  11. ^ international Crisis Group (2012). "Appendix B" (PDF). Stirring up the South China Sea (Ii): Regional Responses. International Crisis Group. Note 373, p. 36. JSTOR resrep32231.11. Unlike Beijing, however, Taipei uses the original eleven dashes, since the other two dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin were only removed under the approval of Premier Zhou Enlai in 1953, four years after the establishment of the PRC. Li Jinming and Li Dexia, 'The Dotted Line on the Chinese Map of the South China Sea: A Note'.
  12. ^ a b Euan Graham. "China's New Map: Just Another Dash?". RUSI. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Baumert, Kevin; Melchior, Brian (5 December 2014). No. 143 China: Maritime Claims in the South China Sea (PDF). Limits in the Seas (Report). Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2020.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ "PCA Press Release: The South China Sea Arbitration (The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China) | PCA-CPA". pca-cpa.org. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  15. ^ a b c d e "PCA Case Nº 2013-19" (PDF). Permanent Court of Arbitration. 12 July 2016.
  16. ^ PCA Award, Section V(F)(d)(264, 266, 267), p. 113.[15]
  17. ^ PCA Award, Section V(F)(d)(278), p. 117.[15]
  18. ^ Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the Award rendered in the Arbitration between the Republic of the Philippines and the People's Republic of China ...
  19. ^ Arbitration Support Tracker | Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative
  20. ^ a b "South China Sea: Tribunal backs case against China brought by Philippines". BBC News. 12 July 2016. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  21. ^ a b Jun Mai; Shi Jiangtao (12 July 2016). "Taiwan-controlled Taiping Island is a rock, says international court in South China Sea ruling". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  22. ^ a b Brown, Peter J. (8 December 2009). "Calculated ambiguity in the South China Sea". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  23. ^ Beech, Hannah (19 July 2016). "Just Where Exactly Did China Get the South China Sea Nine-Dash Line From?". Time. Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  24. ^ Jadloc, M. (October 2018). Map Rights Wrong: The 1734 Murillo Velarde Map. Update Journal Volume 1-2 Number 1.
  25. ^ STRATFOR's Global Intelligence Update (14 July 1999). "Taiwan sticks to its guns, to U.S. chagrin". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  26. ^ Sisci, Francesco (29 June 2010). "US toe-dipping muddies South China Sea". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  27. ^ Pak 2000 Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, p. 91.
  28. ^ "CML/17/2009 – Submission by the PRC to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf" (PDF). United Nations. 7 May 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  29. ^ "Taiwan reiterates Paracel Islands sovereignty claim". Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Taipei Times. 11 May 2014, p. 3
  30. ^ Florian, Dupuy; Pierre, Marie (January 2013). "A Legal Analysis of China's Historic Rights Claim in the South China Sea". American Journal of International Law: 124.
  31. ^ Foreign Press Center of Vietnam (25 July 2010). "The "9-dashed line" – an irrational claim". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  32. ^ Tsirbas, Marina (2 June 2016). "What Does the Nine-Dash Line Actually Mean?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  33. ^ "80 Percent of Zero: China's Phantom South China Sea Claims". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 20 June 2024.
  34. ^ a b Sourabh Gupta, Samuels International (11 January 2015). "Why US analysis of China's nine-dash line is flawed". Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  35. ^ Bengco, Regina (2 June 2011). "Aquino mulls UN protest on Spratlys". Maritime Security Asia. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  36. ^ Hoang Viet (19 May 2009). "Is the Ox's tongue line legal?". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  37. ^ Nguyen Duy Xuan (12 November 2019). "Be careful with imported products featuring China's illegal nine-dash line". VietnamNet Global. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  38. ^ "Indonesia says could also take China to court over South China Sea". Reuters. 11 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  39. ^ Sourabh Gupta (15 December 2014). "Testing China's – and the State Department's – nine-dash line claims" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  40. ^ Zheng Wang. "The Nine-Dashed Line: 'Engraved in Our Hearts'". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  41. ^ "Analysis: China's nine-dashed line in [the] South China Sea". Reuters. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  42. ^ a b "International scholars discuss maritime security in the East Sea". vietnamne. 22 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014.
  43. ^ "Declarations or Statements upon UNCLOS Ratification". Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  44. ^ Thayer, Carlyle A. (14 July 2011). "South China Sea disputes: ASEAN and China". Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  45. ^ "China's nine-dash line came ahead of Unclos, says expert". 22 August 2014.
  46. ^ Jennings, Ralph (27 July 2020). "China Launches Propaganda for Recognition of Disputed Maritime Claims". Voice of America. U.S. Agency for Global Media. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  47. ^ Cyranoski, David (1 October 2011). "Angry words over East Asian seas". Nature. 478 (7369): 293–294. Bibcode:2011Natur.478..293C. doi:10.1038/478293a. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 22012361. S2CID 9901398.
  48. ^ Jiang, Zikun; Liu, Benpei; Wang, Yongdong; Huang, Min; Kapitany, Tom; Tian, Ning; Cao, Yong; Lu, Yuanzheng; Deng, Shenghui (19 March 2019). "Tree ring phototropism and implications for the rotation of the North China Block". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 4856. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.4856J. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41339-2. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6425038. PMID 30890749.
  49. ^ "Uncharted territory". Nature. 478 (7369): 285. 19 October 2011. Bibcode:2011Natur.478Q.285.. doi:10.1038/478285a. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 22012346. S2CID 203013009.
  50. ^ "Publisher's note". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 87 (1): 1. 15 October 2014. Bibcode:2014MarPB..87....1.. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.023. ISSN 0025-326X.
  51. ^ a b "Press Release: The South China Sea Arbitration (The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China)" (PDF). PCA. 12 July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  52. ^ "Timeline: South China Sea dispute". Financial Times. 12 July 2016. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  53. ^ Beech, Hannah (11 July 2016). "China's Global Reputation Hinges on Upcoming South China Sea Court Decision". TIME. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  54. ^ PCA Award, Section V(F)(d)(264, 266, 267), p. 113.[15]
  55. ^ PCA Award, Section V(F)(d)(278), p. 117.[15]
  56. ^ Phillips, Tom; Holmes, Oliver; Bowcott, Owen (12 July 2016). "Beijing rejects tribunal's ruling in South China Sea case". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  57. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (2023). The dragon roars back : transformational leaders and dynamics of Chinese foreign policy. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-5036-3088-8. OCLC 1331741429.
  58. ^ Zhang, Feng (14 July 2016). "Breathtaking but counterproductive: the South China Sea arbitration award". The Strategist. Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  59. ^ Chow, Jermyn (12 July 2016). "Taiwan rejects South China Sea ruling, says will deploy another navy vessel to Taiping". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  60. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon (13 July 2016). "Taiwan: South China Sea Ruling 'Completely Unacceptable'". The Diplomat.
  61. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (2023). The dragon roars back: transformational leaders and dynamics of Chinese foreign policy. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-5036-3088-8. OCLC 1331741429.
  62. ^ "Abominable: anger grows over controversial map in Chinese children's film". The Guardian. Reuters. 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  63. ^ "MTRCB bans 'Abominable' over China map–report". Agence France-Presse. 18 October 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2021 – via INQUIRER.net.
  64. ^ Ananthalakshmi, A. (20 October 2019). Gopalakrishnan, Raju (ed.). "'Abominable' film axed in Malaysia after rebuffing order to cut China map". Reuters. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  65. ^ "SPOTLIGHTLocsin: Cut nine-dash line scene on 'Abominable'". The Daily Tribune. 16 October 2019.
  66. ^ Crossley, Gabriel (10 October 2019). "ESPN criticised over China-NBA coverage for using 'nine-dash line' map". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  67. ^ Danial Martinus (5 July 2021). "Netflix pulls show from Vietnam that featured China's 'nine-dash line' in maps". Mashable Southeast Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  68. ^ Matt Nowak (2 July 2021). "Netflix Pulls NSA-Themed Show in Vietnam Over Offensive Maps". Gizmodo. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  69. ^ "'Thợ săn cổ vật' bị cấm chiếu tại Việt Nam vì có bản đồ đường lưỡi bò". Thanh Niên. 12 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  70. ^ Christia Marie Ramos (27 April 2022). "'Uncharted' pulled out from PH cinemas over nine-dash line scene". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  71. ^ Nguyen, Phuong; Vu, Khanh; Guarascio, Francesco; Yim, Hyunsu (7 July 2023). Kapoor, Kanupriya; Lawson, Hugh (eds.). "Vietnam probes Blackpink concert organiser over South China Sea map". Reuters. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  72. ^ "Blackpink Vietnam concert organiser apologises over S. China Sea map". Agence France-Presse. 6 July 2023. Retrieved 10 July 2023 – via France 24.
  73. ^ Frater, Patrick (10 July 2023). "Netflix Removes Chinese Series 'Flight to You' After Vietnam Objects to Controversial Map". Variety. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  74. ^ Sharma, Shweta (11 July 2023). "After Barbie, Vietnam now orders Netflix to remove Chinese drama over map". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  75. ^ "Vietnam bans 'Barbie' movie over South China Sea map". Reuters. 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  76. ^ "Bye bye 'Barbie': Vietnam bans new movie over South China Sea map". Agence France-Presse. 3 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023 – via France 24.
  77. ^ "Việt Nam cấm chiếu phim 'Barbie' vì có đường lưỡi bò". Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). 3 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  78. ^ Donnelly, Matt (6 July 2023). "'Barbie' Map Controversy: Warner Bros. Explains the Drawing That Got the Film Banned in Vietnam". Variety. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  79. ^ Broadway, Danielle; Richwine, Lisa (7 July 2023). Milliken, Mary; Lewis, Matthew (eds.). "Warner Bros defends 'Barbie' film's world map as 'child-like'". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  80. ^ Villaruel, Jauhn Etienne (11 July 2023). "MTRCB allows 'Barbie' screening in PH amid 9-dash line controversy". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 11 July 2023.
  81. ^ Abarca, Charie Mae (11 July 2023). "MTRCB allows screening of controversial 'Barbie' film in PH cinemas". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  82. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (12 July 2023). "MTRCB allows 'Barbie' screening". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  83. ^ Garner, Jom (11 July 2023). "MTRCB greenlights showing of 'Barbie' in Phl". Daily Tribune. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  84. ^ Bacelonia, Wilnard (11 July 2023). "MTRCB to solon: No basis to ban 'Barbie' movie". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  85. ^ "Philippines greenlights Barbie film screening, to blur dashes in South China Sea map". The Star. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  86. ^ Scott, Liam (8 July 2023). "No Barbie Girl in Vietnam's World". Voice of America. U.S. Agency for Global Media. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  87. ^ Brinkhof, Tim (13 July 2023). "How Hollywood appeases China, explained by the Barbie movie". Vox. Vox Media. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.

External links[edit]