Ningbo dialect

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Ningbo dialect
Yong-Jiang
寧波閒話
Pronunciation ȵʲɪ̀ŋ.pɜ́ʊ.ɛ́.ó~ȵʲɪ̀ŋ.póʔ.ɛ́.ó
Native to People's Republic of China
Region Ningbo & Zhoushan, Zhejiang province
Ethnicity Ningbo people (Han Chinese)
Native speakers
5-6 million[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog ning1280[1]
Linguasphere

79-AAA-dbf

(also 79-AAA-dbg on Zhoushan archipelago)
Bible in Ningpo Romanised (Genesis), published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.

The Ningbo dialect (Chinese: 宁波话/寧波話, 宁波闲话/寧波閒話) is a dialect of Wu Chinese, one subdivision of Chinese language. Ningbo dialect is spoken throughout Ningbo and Zhoushan prefectures, in Zhejiang province.


Intelligibility[edit]

Its native speakers generally understand Shanghainese, another dialect of Wu, but not vice versa. It is not mutually intelligible with Mandarin Chinese, or other subdivision of Chinese language. Ningbo dialect is considered a Yongjiang dialect or Mingzhou dialect (as both terms are synonymous), and is closely related to the Taihu Wu dialects of Zhoushan. In terms of inter-intelligibility between dialects within the Yong-Jiang subgroup, they can be more accurately described as 'accents' () as these dialects are relatively uniform and almost identical to each other aside from pronunciation differences and some minor lexical differences.

Phonology[edit]

Initial consonants[2]
  Labial Dental/Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ  
Plosive tenuis p t k
aspirated  
voiced b d ɡ  
Affricate tenuis ts
aspirated tsʰ tɕʰ  
voiced dz  
Fricative voiceless f s ɕ   h
voiced v z ʑ   ɦ
Lateral l
Vowel nuclei
Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close /i/ /ʏ, y/ /u/
Close-mid /e/ /ø/ /o/
Open-mid /ɛ/ /ə/ /ɔ/
Open /a/
Diphthong /ai, au, ɔy/
Finals[3]
Coda Open Nasal Glottal stop
Medial j w j w j w
Nucleus i i              
u u                
ʏ ʏ                
y y                
e e             jeʔ  
o o jo   joŋ     joʔ  
ø ø                
ə       əŋ          
ɛ ɛ              
ɔ ɔ     ɔ̃ jɔ̃ wɔ̃ ɔʔ    
a a ja wa ã   waʔ
ai ai   wai            
au au                
ɔy ɔy                
Syllabic continuants: [z̩] [z̩ʷ] [m̩] [n̩] [ŋ̩] [l̩]
Tones[2]
Middle Chinese tone
píng shǎng
yīn ˥˧ (53) ˧˥ (35) ˦˦ (44) ʔ˥˥ (55)
yáng ˨˦ (24) ˨˩˧ (213) ʔ˩˨ (12)

Examples[edit]

唱月亮

月亮菩薩彎彎上,彎到小姑進后堂。
后堂空,拜相公,
相公念經,打一天井,
天井隔笆,打一稻花,
稻花耘田,打一團箕。

火瑩頭

火瑩頭,夜夜紅,
阿公挑擔賣碗蔥,
新婦織麻糊燈籠,
阿婆箝牌捉牙虫,
兒子看鴨撩屙虫。

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ningbo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ a b Tang, Zhenzhu (1997). Níngbō fāngyán cídiǎn 宁波方言词典 [Ningbo dialect dictionary]. Nanjing. p. 7. ISBN 978-7-5343-3120-6. 
  3. ^ Hu, Fang (2005). A phonetic study of the vowels in Ningbo Chinese (Thesis). City University of Hong Kong.  Note that /j/ becomes [ɥ] before rounded vowels and that certain finals, such as [ɔy] and [ɔʔ] are transcribed differently here as the pronunciations in the thesis are different from the transcriptions.