|Five-leaved chaste tree|
Vitex negundo, commonly known as the Chinese chastetree, five-leaved chaste tree, or horseshoe vitex, is a large aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets. It is widely used in folk medicine, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.
Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small tree growing from 2 to 8 m (6.6 to 26.2 ft) in height. The bark is reddish brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair. The numerous flowers are borne in panicles 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) in length. Each is around 6 to 7 cm (2.4 to 2.8 in) long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.
Distribution and habitat
Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Vitex negundo are commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests.
- Assamese : Pochotia (পচতীয়া)
- Bengali : Nirgundi; Nishinda; Samalu
- Bontok : Liñgei
- Chinese : Huang jing (黄荆)
- English : Five-leaved chaste tree; Horseshoe vitex; Chinese chaste tree
- Filipino : Lagundî
- Gujarati : Nagoda; Shamalic
- Hindi : Mewri; Nirgundi; Nisinda; Sambhalu; Sawbhalu (निर्गुंडी)
- Ifugao : Dabtan
- Ilokano : Dangla
- Kannada : Bile-nekki
- Korean : jommokhyeong (좀목형)
- Malayalam : Indrani
- Marathi : Nirgunda
- Nepali: 'सिमली' 'Simali' 'Nirgundi'
- Punjabi : Banna; Marwan; Maura; Mawa; Swanjan Torbanna
- Sanskrit : Nirgundi; Sephalika; Sindhuvara; Svetasurasa; Vrikshaha (सिन्धुवार)
- Sinhala: Nika (නික)
- Konkani: Lingad
- Tamil : Chinduvaram; Nirnochchi; Nochchi; Notchi; Vellai-nochchi
- Telugu : Sindhuvara; Vavili; Nalla-vavili; Tella-vavili (వావిలి / సింధువార)lekkali
The principal constituents of the leaf juice are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p–hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose. The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil. In vitro and animal studies have shown that chemicals isolated from the plant have potential anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and analgesic activities.
Vitex negundo is used for treating stored garlic against pests and as a cough remedy in the Philippines. Roots and leaves are used in eczema, ringworm and other skin diseases, liver disorders, spleen enlargement, rheumatic pain, gout, abscess, backache; seeds are used as vermicide. This plant is also proved for its cardioprotective property. It is also used to control population of mosquitoes. In the USA, hardiness zone 6–9, its purple flowers bloom most of the summer and it is a popular plant visited by bees and butterflies.
- "Vitex negundo L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Vitex negundo". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Vitex negundo Linn. Fact Sheet (PDF). Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines.
- "Vitex negundo L. - Lagundi". Prosea Herbal Techno-Catalog. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Vitex negunda in Dr. K. M. Madkarni's Indian Materia Medica; Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1278-80.
- Dharmasiri MG, Jayakody JR, Galhena G, Liyanage SS, Ratnasooriya WD (August 2003). "Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo". J Ethnopharmacol. 87 (2-3): 199–206. PMID 12860308. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00159-4.
- Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A (September 1998). "Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties". J Ethnopharmacol. 62 (2): 173–82. PMID 9741889. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00057-9.
- Sathiamoorthy B, Gupta P, Kumar M, Chaturvedi AK, Shukla PK, Maurya R (January 2007). "New antifungal flavonoid glycoside from Vitex negundo". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17 (1): 239–42. PMID 17027268. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.09.051.
- Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ (1996). "Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa". Cytobios. 86 (346): 155–65. PMID 9022263.
- Gupta RK, Tandon VR (April 2005). "Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49 (2): 163–70. PMID 16170984.
- Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Bhawal SR (February 1999). "CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice". Indian J. Exp. Biol. 37 (2): 143–6. PMID 10641133.
- "Lagundi leaves as effective control against storage pests of garlic". Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Prasad, E. Maruthi, Ramgopal Mopuri, Md Shahidul Islam, and Lakshmi Devi Kodidhela. "Cardioprotective effect of Vitex negundo on isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in wistar rats: A dual approach study." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 85 (2017): 601-610.
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Vitex negundo (Nirgundi) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/315-nirgundi