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Nitnem (Punjabi: ਨਿਤਨੇਮ) (literally Daily Routine) is a collection of Sikh hymns (Gurbani) to be read minimally 3 different times of the day. These are mandatory and to be read by every Amritdhari Sikh[1] as expressed in the Sikh Rehat Maryada.[2] Optionally additional prayers may be added to a Sikh's nitnem. There are five hymns (Five Banis) to be done during Amrit Vela (early morning),[1] the Rehras Sahib hymn for the evening and Kirtan Sohila for the night. The morning and evening prayers should be followed by an Ardaas.[3][4]

Morning Prayer[edit]

These are known as Five Banis. These prayers are recited at dawn.

Evening Prayer[edit]

This prayer is recited at dusk and takes about 15–25 minutes to recite.[5][6]

Night Prayer[edit]

This prayer is recited at bedtime and takes about 5–8 minutes to recite.[5][7]

Additional Bani[edit]

Optionally additional prayers may be added to a Sikh's nitnem as the individual seems fit. Most commonly added include Asa Di Var, Shabad Hazare,[8] chaupai sahib,sukhmani sahib and Anand sahib

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Singh, H.S. (2005). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (Second ed.). New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-8170103011.
  2. ^ Dr. H.S. Singha (2005). Sikh Studies, Book 7. Hemkunt Press. p. 56. ISBN 9788170102458.
  3. ^ Singh Sethi, Manmohan (13 August 2017). Nitnem and Ardaas : English Transliteration: Japji, Jaap, Sawaiye, Rehras, Kirtan Sohila, Ardaas. Sukan Publishing Universe. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-502-26421-3.
  4. ^ Singh, Gurinder (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0195130249.
  5. ^ a b Haribala Rani Kaur Vaid (2007). The Sikh Religion: An Introduction (illustrated ed.). Star Publications. pp. 36–7. ISBN 9788176502306.
  6. ^ Panesar, Rajinder; Ganeri, Anita (2008). Sikh Prayer and Worship. Sea to Sea Publications.
  7. ^ Kapoor, Sukhbir (2002). Guru Granth Sahib - An Advance Study (Volume I). New Delhi: Hemkunt. p. 283. ISBN 978-8170103172.
  8. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A Complete Guide to Sikhism. Unisar Books. p. 114. ISBN 978-9815471212.