Nix imaged by New Horizons on 14 July 2015. The colors have been enhanced.
|Discovered by||Hubble Space Telescope
Pluto Companion Search Team
|Discovery date||15 June 2005|
|(340) Pluto II 134|
|Dimensions||42 × 36 km ± ? |
Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto. It was discovered along with Hydra (Pluto's outermost known satellite) in June 2005. It was imaged, along with Pluto and its other moons by the New Horizons spacecraft as it flew by the Pluto system in July 2015. The closest images of Nix have not yet been downlinked from the spacecraft, but of the four small Plutonian moons, New Horizons is expected to get the best pictures of Nix, with resolutions as high as 330 metres per pixel.
Nix was found by the Hubble Space Telescope Pluto Companion Search Team, composed of Hal A. Weaver, Alan Stern, Max J. Mutchler, Andrew J. Steffl, Marc W. Buie, William J. Merline, John R. Spencer, Eliot F. Young, and Leslie A. Young. The discovery images were taken on 15 May 2005 and 18 May 2005. Nix and Hydra were independently discovered by Max J. Mutchler on 15 June 2005 and by Andrew J. Steffl on 15 August 2005. The discoveries were announced on 31 October 2005, after confirmation by precoveries from 2002. They were provisionally designated S/2005 P 1 (Hydra) and S/2005 P 2 (Nix) and casually referred to as "P1" and "P2", respectively.
The formal name "Nix", from the Greek goddess of darkness and night and mother of Charon (ferryman of Hades), was announced on 21 June 2006 on IAU Circular 8723, where the designation Pluto II is also given. The initials N and H, for Nix and Hydra, come from "New Horizons". The original proposal was to use the classical spelling Nyx, but to avoid confusion with the asteroid 3908 Nyx, the spelling was changed to Nix. Jürgen Blunck explains it as the "Spanish translation" of the Greek name.
Orbit and rotation
Nix follows a circular orbit in the same plane as Charon. It is in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Hydra, and a 9:11 resonance with Styx (the ratios represent numbers of orbits completed per unit time; the period ratios are the inverses). As a result of this "Laplace-like" 3-body resonance, it has conjunctions with Styx and Hydra in a 2:3 ratio.
Its orbital period of 24.9 days is also close to a 1:4 orbital resonance with Charon, but the timing discrepancy is 2.8%; there is no active resonance. A hypothesis explaining such a near-resonance is that it originated before the outward migration of Charon following the formation of all five known moons, and is maintained by the periodic local fluctuation of 9% in the Pluto–Charon gravitational field strength.
As with Hydra and perhaps the other small Plutonian moons, Nix rotates chaotically; the moon's axial tilt and day length vary greatly over short timescales, to the point that it regularly flips over.
Nix has been measured to be 56.3 × 25.7 km in diameter, indicating a very elongated shape, and a very high geometric albedo. In the discovery image, Nix is 6,300 times fainter than Pluto. New Horizons determined that Nix is approximately 32 kilometers (20 mi) across.
Early research appeared to show that Nix was reddish like Pluto and unlike the other moons, but more-recent reports have been that it is grey like the remaining satellites. New Horizons spotted a large region with a distinctive red tint, probably a crater, which may explain these conflicting results.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2015)|
New Horizons is the only spacecraft that has flown through the Pluto system and hence the only one that has explored Nix. Until 13 July 2015, when NASA's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager on board New Horizons determined Nix's size, its size was unknown.
Nix as seen by New Horizons on 11 July, as it approached
Polar view of Nix, as New Horizons approached
- Jennifer Blue (2009-11-09). "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). Retrieved 2010-08-30.
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- New Horizons Captures Two of Pluto's Smaller Moons NASA, 21 July 2015
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- New Horizons flyby timeline
- IAU Circular No. 8723 naming the moons
- IAU Circular No. 8625 describing the discovery
- Blunck, Jürgen, Solar System Moons: Discovery and Mythology (2009), p. 129.
- Chang, Kenneth (3 June 2015). "Astronomers Describe the Chaotic Dance of Pluto's Moons". New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
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- Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". The Astronomical Journal 132 (1): 290. arXiv:astro-ph/0512491. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..290B. doi:10.1086/504422. . a, i, e per JPL (site updated 2008 Aug 25)
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- Satellite diameters from NASA's Hubble Finds Pluto’s Moons Tumbling in Absolute Chaos
- Brightness Difference on 2005-05-15: (5th root of 100) ^ (Nix APmag 23.38 – Pluto APmag 13.87) = 6,368x
- "How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate". NASA. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-13.
- Steffl, A. J.; Mutchler, M. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, S. A. et al. (2006). "New Constraints on Additional Satellites of the Pluto System". The Astronomical Journal 132 (2): 614–619. arXiv:astro-ph/0511837. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..614S. doi:10.1086/505424.(Final preprint)
- Nix Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- Background Information Regarding Our Two Newly Discovered Satellites of Pluto – The discoverers' website
- NASA's Hubble Reveals Possible New Moons Around Pluto – Hubble press release
- Two More Moons Discovered Orbiting Pluto (SPACE.com)
- Pluto's Newest Moons Named Hydra and Nix (SPACE.com)