Nizam al-Din Nishapuri
Nizam al-Din Hasan al-Nisaburi (d. 1328/9) (in Persian: نظام الدین حسن نیشاپوری) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, jurist, exegete, and poet. His full name was Nizam al-Din Hasan ibn Mohammad ibn Hossein Qumi Nishapuri. As the genealogy in his full name shows, his grandfather was originally from the city of Qum but Nizam was born in Nishapur.
His early education was in the city of Nishapur but he later moved to Tabriz, the capital of Il-Khanids at the time. He studied under and worked with Qutb al-Din Shirazi, who was himself a student of Nasir al-Din Tusi. He was one of the great scientists of Maragheh observatory.
Nizam al-Din Nisaburi has written in diverse fields like Quran exegesis or tafsir, mathematics, and astronomy. Some of his works include:
- Tafsir al-Gharaeb al-Quran (تفسیر الغرائب القران): Commentary on the wonders of Quran in exegesis, also known an Tasfir Nishabpuri.
- Owqaf al-Quran (اوقاف القران)
- Kashf-i Haqayeq-i Zij-i ilkhani (کشف حقایق زیج ایلخانی): (Explanation of the Facts): on the explanation of Zij-i Ilkhani by Nasir al-Din Tusi, written in Persian
- Tafsir al-Tahrir (تفسیر التحریر): (Commentary on al-Tahrir): his commentary on al-Tahrir Almagest by Nasir al-Din Tusi
- al-Basaer fi mukhtasar tanqih al-Manazer (البصائر فی مختصر تنقیح المناظر): enlightening of the topics in al-Manazer by Ibn Haytham
- Twozih al-Dhekr (توضیح الذکر): a commentary on the Tadhkara fi ilm al-hay'a (تذکرة فی علم الهیاة Compendium on the Science of Astronomy) by Nasir al-Din Tusi
- Nizam's Sharh on al-Shafia by Ibn Hajib (شرح نظام بر الشافیه)
- A treatise on mathematics
- Islam and Science: The Intellectual Career of Nizam al-Din al-Nisaburi, Robert Morrison, 2007
- زندگینامه ی ریاضیدانان دوره ی اسلامی از سده ی سوم تا سده ی یازدهم هجری، ابوالقاسم قربانی، چاپ دوم، تهران، 1375 (Biographies of the Mathematicians in the Islamic Period, from 10th to 17th century, Abulqasem Qorbani, Tehran, 1996, 2nd edition)
- Morrison, Robert (2007). "Nīsābūrī: al‐Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad ibn al‐Ḥusayn Niẓām al‐Dīn al‐Aʿraj al‐Nīsābūrī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. p. 837. ISBN 9780387310220. (PDF version)