Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

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Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Native name
Russian: Нижегоро́дский Кремль
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin at night-1.jpg
View of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Location Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Coordinates 56°19′42.61″N 44°00′9.23″E / 56.3285028°N 44.0025639°E / 56.3285028; 44.0025639Coordinates: 56°19′42.61″N 44°00′9.23″E / 56.3285028°N 44.0025639°E / 56.3285028; 44.0025639
Area 227 hectares (2.27 km2)
Built 1508–1515
Architect Pietro Francesco
Governing body kremlin.nnov.ru
Type Cultural
Country Russia
Region Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is located in Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Central Nizhny Novgorod

The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Russian: Нижегородский кремль) is a fortress in Nizhny Novgorod, the historic city center.

History[edit]

Main Demetrius Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

The first attempt to replace the wooden fort with a stone Kremlin was recorded in 1374, but construction was limited to a single tower, known as the Tower of Dmitrov (this has not survived). Under the rule of Ivan III, Nizhny Novgorod played the role of a guard city, having a permanent garrison; it served as a place for gathering troops for Moscow's actions against the Khanate of Kazan. In order to strengthen the defenses of the city, construction works on the walls began again.

Construction of the stone Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod begin in 1500 with the building of the Ivanovo Tower; the main work commenced in 1508 and by 1515 a grandiose building was completed. The oak walls that formed the old fortifications were destroyed by a huge fire in 1513. The two kilometer wall was reinforced by 13 towers (one of them - Zachatskaya - was on the shore of the Volga; not preserved, but was rebuilt in 2012). This "Stone City" had a permanent garrison with solid artillery weapons. With the fall of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin lost its military significance, and later it housed the city and provincial authorities.

The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR issued an order on January 30, 1949 for the restoration of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.[1]

View to Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

Towers[edit]

The following 13 towers survive. Counter clockwise:

Towers of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
  1. Georgievskaya Tower (Russian: Георгиевская башня, lit. 'St. George's Tower')
  2. Borisoglebskaya Tower ((Russian: Борисоглебская башня, lit. 'Tower of St. Boris and Gleb') destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century; rebuilt in 1972)
  3. Zachatskaya Tower ((Russian: Зачатская башня, lit. 'Conteption Tower') destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century; rebuilt in 2012)
  4. Belaya Tower (Russian: Белая башня, lit. 'White Tower')
  5. Ivanovskaya Tower (Russian: Ивановская башня, lit. 'St. John's Tower')
  6. Chasovaya Tower (Russian: Часовая башня, lit. 'Clock Tower')
  7. Severnaya Tower (Russian: Северная башня, lit. 'North Tower')
  8. Taynitskaya Tower (Russian: Тайницкая башня, lit. 'Secret Tower')
  9. Koromyslova Tower (Russian: Коромыслова башня, lit. 'Yoke Tower')
  10. Nikolskaya Tower (Russian: Никольская башня, lit. 'St. Nicholas Tower')
  11. Kladovaya Tower (Russian: Кладовая башня, lit. 'Pantry Tower')
  12. Dmitrovskaya Tower (Russian: Дмитровская башня, lit. 'Demetrius Tower')
  13. Porokhovaya Tower (Russian: Пороховая башня, lit. 'Powder Tower')

Other buildings and constructions[edit]

Obelisk of Minin and Pozharsky

The Kremlin contained many churches, but the only survivor is the Michael the Archangel Cathedral (the 'Archangel Cathedral'), built no later than the middle of the 16th century and rebuilt in 1628-1631. It is the oldest surviving building in the Kremlin. The cathedral contains the tomb of Kuzma Minin. In 1828, an obelisk in honor of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky was constructed in front of the Archangel Cathedral (architect Melnikov and Martos).

The house of the military governor was built in 1837-1841; it is now the Museum of Art. The Arsenal was built in 1840-1843 at the direction of Nicholas I. In 1931, the Transfiguration Cathedral was replaced by the House of Soviets; that building is now the City Council building.

Eternal Flame

In 1965, a memorial complex in honor of Nizhny Novgorod citizens who died in World War II was created, near the obelisk of Minin and Pozharsky; this included an Eternal Flame.

References[edit]

External links[edit]