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In theoretical physics, a no-go theorem is a theorem that states that a particular situation is not physically possible. Specifically, the term describes results in quantum mechanics like Bell's theorem and the Kochen–Specker theorem that constrain the permissible types of hidden variable theories which try to explain the apparent randomness of quantum mechanics as a deterministic model featuring hidden states.[failed verification – see discussion]
Instances of no-go theorems
Full descriptions of the no-go theorems named below are given in other articles linked to their names. A few of them are broad, general categories under which several theorems fall. Other names are broad and general-sounding but only refer to a single theorem.
- The no-communication theorem in quantum information theory gives conditions under which instantaneous transfer of information between two observers is impossible.
- Antidynamo theorems is a general category of theorems that restrict the type of magnetic fields that can be produced by dynamo action.
- Coleman–Mandula theorem states that "space-time and internal symmetries cannot be combined in any but a trivial way".
- Earnshaw's theorem states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges.
- Haag's theorem states that the interaction picture does not exist in an interacting, relativistic, quantum field theory (QFT).
- Nielsen–Ninomiya theorem limits when it is possible to formulate a chiral lattice theory for fermions.
- No-broadcast theorem
- No-cloning theorem
- Quantum no-deleting theorem
- No-hiding theorem
- No-teleportation theorem
- No-programming theorem
- Weinberg–Witten theorem states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy.
- It is usually interpreted to mean that the graviton () in a relativistic quantum field theory cannot be a composite particle.
- Bub, Jeffrey (1999). Interpreting the Quantum World (revised paperback ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65386-2.
- Holevo, Alexander (2011). Probabilistic and Statistical Aspects of Quantum Theory (2nd English ed.). Pisa: Edizioni della Normale. ISBN 978-8876423758.
- Cowling, T.G. (1934). "The magnetic field of sunspots". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 94: 39–48. Bibcode:1933MNRAS..94...39C. doi:10.1093/mnras/94.1.39.
- Haag, Rudolf (1955). "On quantum field theories" (PDF). Matematisk-fysiske Meddelelser. 29: 12.
- Nielsen, M.A.; Chuang, Isaac L. (1997-07-14). "Programmable quantum gate arrays". Physical Review Letters. 79 (2): 321–324. arXiv:quant-ph/9703032. Bibcode:1997PhRvL..79..321N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.321.