No.1-class landing ship
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Landing Ship No. 4 on 22 June 1944
|Name:||No.1-class landing ship|
|Preceded by:||No.1-class patrol boat|
|Type:||Landing assault ship|
|Beam:||10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||6.5 m (21 ft 4 in)|
|Speed:||22 knots (25 mph; 41 km/h)|
|Range:||3,700 nmi (6,900 km) at 18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h)|
The No.1-class landing ship (第一号型輸送艦, Dai 1 Gō-gata Yusōkan) was a class of amphibious assault ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during and after World War II. The IJN also called them 1st class transporter (一等輸送艦, 1-Tō Yusōkan).
- The IJN lost too many destroyers while employed as transporters ("Tokyo Express") in the Guadalcanal Campaign.
- Therefore, the IJN wanted the enforced transporter which could penetrate the front line. It was realized rapidly after Operation Ke.
- In April 1943, the General Staff requested a high-speed military transporter to the Technical Department. The requirements were as follows:
- Displacement: 1,250 long tons (1,270 t) standard
- Propulsion: 1 × geared turbine, 2 × boilers, single shaft
- Speed: 23 knots (26 mph; 43 km/h)
- Range: 3,500 nmi (6,500 km) at 18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h)
- Capacity: 2 × Landing craft (Daihatsu) and 200 tons freight
- Armament: 2 × 127 mm (5.0 in) or 120 mm (4.7 in) AA guns, 9 × 25 mm AA guns and 36 × depth charges
- The General Staff thought it was possible to use a variant of the Matsu-class destroyer for this plan, because they aimed to utilise mass production. In this original plan, the requirement for a slope was not considered. They thought about a Japanese version of the High speed transport (APD).
- The Technical Department, however, did not agree with this plan. They submitted a more aggressive plan to the General Staff. They increased the number of landing craft carried and with the effect of reducing the time for landing operations.
- In addition, about the mass production effect, they intended to deal with this by reducing the shipyards being used for production.
- At that time, the stern slope and operating ability of the amphibious tanks were added.
- In September 1943, the Kure Naval Arsenal finished the detailed design. Her project number was J37.
- The IJN nominated Kure Naval Arsenal as the main builder and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries as support builder.
- Lead ship (Landing ship No.1) was constructed at Mitsubishi, laid down on 5 November 1943, launched on 8 February 1944, and completed on 10 May 1944.
- The Kure Naval Arsenal completed 15 vessels, Mitsubishi completed 6 vessels.
- The Kure Naval Arsenal was earnest. They made the original sized wooden samples, and learned a work procedure. They used the Yamato's dock and repeated build 2 vessels at the same time. Therefore, most of Kure's vessels were completed within 80 days from being laid down.
- The completed vessels were sent one by one to the front.
- Their primary role was that of a transporter, however since their armaments were strong they were useful as multi-purpose ships at the front, functioning as transporters, as minelayers and as escort ships.
- Most of these vessels were sent to the Battle of Leyte and transportation duty of the Bonin Islands. By that time, the IJN already lost air superiority and thalassocracy (naval superiority) in those areas and these vessels suffered heavy losses.
- 5 vessels survived war and were surrendered to the Allies.
Ships in class
|Ship No.||Ship||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Completed||Fate|
|2901||Landing Ship No. 1||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||5 November 1943||8 February 1944||10 May 1944||Sunk by aircraft at Palau on 29 June 1944.|
|2902||Landing Ship No. 2||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||10 February 1944||6 May 1944||25 June 1944||Sunk by aircraft at Chichi-jima on 5 August 1944.|
|2903||Landing Ship No. 3||Kure Naval Arsenal||1 February 1944||20 March 1944||29 June 1944||Sunk by USS Guavina at Mindanao on 15 September 1944.|
|2904||Landing Ship No. 4||Kure Naval Arsenal||1 February 1944||20 March 1944||15 June 1944||Sunk by aircraft off Chichi-jima on 4 August 1944.|
|2905||Landing Ship No. 5||Kure Naval Arsenal||22 March 1944||25 May 1944||5 August 1944||Sunk by aircraft off Davao on 14 September 1944.|
|2906||Landing Ship No. 6||Kure Naval Arsenal||22 March 1944||25 May 1944||19 August 1944||Sunk by aircraft at Marinduque on 25 November 1944.|
|2907||Landing Ship No. 7||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||1 April 1944||3 July 1944||15 September 1944||Sunk by USN destroyer at east of Iwo Jima on 27 December 1944.|
|2908||Landing Ship No. 8||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||8 May 1944||11 August 1944||13 September 1944||Sunk by USS Case SSW of Chichi-jima on 24 December 1944.|
|2909||Landing Ship No. 9||Kure Naval Arsenal||28 May 1944||15 July 1944||20 September 1944||Survived war; decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Surrendered to United States 1947. Scrapped between 26 June 1948–1 October 1948.|
|2910||Landing Ship No. 10||Kure Naval Arsenal||28 May 1944||15 July 1944||25 September 1944||Sunk by aircraft at Marinduque on 25 November 1944.|
|2911||Landing Ship No. 11||Kure Naval Arsenal||18 July 1944||25 August 1944||5 November 1944||Heavy damaged by aircraft at Ormoc Bay on 7 December 1944; later sunk in shallow water.|
|2912||Landing Ship No. 12||Kure Naval Arsenal||18 July 1944||25 August 1944||11 November 1944||Sunk by USS Pintado at southeast of Kaohsiung on 12 December 1944.|
|2913||Landing Ship No. 13||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||5 July 1944||30 September 1944||1 November 1944||Survived war; decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union on 8 August 1947.|
|2914||Landing Ship No. 14||Kure Naval Arsenal||28 August 1944||24 October 1944||18 December 1944||Sunk by aircraft at near of Kaohsiung on 15 January 1945 during the South China Sea raid|
|2915||Landing Ship No. 15||Kure Naval Arsenal||28 August 1944||24 October 1944||20 December 1944||Sunk by USS Tautog north of Amami Ōshima on 17 January 1945.|
|2916||Landing Ship No. 16||Mitsubishi, Yokohama Shipyard||12 August 1944||10 October 1944||31 December 1944||Survived war; decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China at Qingdao on 29 August 1947; renamed Wu Yi. Decommissioned on 1 February 1950.|
|2917||Landing Ship No. 17||Kure Naval Arsenal||27 October 1944||30 December 1944||8 February 1945||Sunk by USN aircraft in the East China Sea on 2 April 1945.[not in citation given]|
|2918||Landing Ship No. 18||Kure Naval Arsenal||27 October 1944||30 December 1944||12 February 1945||Sunk by USS Springer at near of Nago on 18 March 1945.|
|2919||Landing Ship No. 19||Kure Naval Arsenal||4 January 1945||24 February 1945||16 May 1945||Survived war; decommissioned on 15 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom on 20 November 1947 at Uraga. Scrapped between October–December 1948.|
|2920||Landing Ship No. 20||Kure Naval Arsenal||4 January 1945||24 February 1945||23 April 1945||Survived war; decommissioned on 15 October 1945. Grounded at Penghu on 15 September 1946. Later scuttled.|
|2921||Landing Ship No. 21||Kure Naval Arsenal||27 February 1945||25 April 1945||15 July 1945||Sunk by aircraft at Kutsuna Islands on 10 August 1945.|
|2922||Landing Ship No. 22||Kure Naval Arsenal||27 February 1945||25 April 1945||80% complete; construction stopped on 23 June 1945. Scrapped in June 1948.|
|12 vessels||They were cancelled before being named.|
Landing Ship No. 5 w/ Kō-hyōteki No. 69 on 17 August 1944
- "Japanese Escorts". Combinedfleet.com. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Rekishi Gunzō"., History of Pacific War Vol.37, "Support vessels of the Imperial Japanese Forces", Gakken (Japan), June 2002, ISBN 4-05-602780-3
- Rekishi Gunzō, History of Pacific War Vol.51, "The truth histories of the Imperial Japanese Vessels Part.2", Gakken (Japan), August 2005, ISBN 4-05-604083-4
- The Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No.50, "Japanese minesweepers and landing ships", Ushio Shobō (Japan), April 1981
- Ships of the World special issue Vol.47, Auxiliary Vessels of the Imperial Japanese Navy, "Kaijinsha"., (Japan), March 1997
- Senshi Sōsho Vol.88, Naval armaments and war preparation (2), "And after the outbreak of war", Asagumo Simbun (Japan), October 1975
- Shizuo Fukui, FUKUI SHIZUO COLLECTION "Japanese Naval Vessels 1869–1945", KK Bestsellers (Japan), December 1994