Type C escort ship

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Japanese escort ship No17 in 1944.jpg
No.17 on 10 April 1944 at Tokyo Bay
Class overview
Name: No.1-class escort ship
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Ukuru class
Cost: 5,015,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1946
In commission: 1944–1980
Planned: 300
Completed: 56
Cancelled: 241
Lost: 28
Retired: 28
General characteristics
Type: Escort ship
Displacement: 745 long tons (757 t) standard
Length: 67.5 m (221 ft)
Beam: 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in)
Draught: 2.9 m (10 ft)
Propulsion: 2 shaft, geared diesel engines, 1,900 hp (1,417 kW)
Speed: 16.5 knots (19.0 mph; 30.6 km/h)
Range: 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) at 14 kn (16 mph; 26 km/h)
Complement: 136
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Type 22-Go radar
  • Type 93 sonar
  • Type 3 hydrophone
Armament:

The Type C escort ships (丙型海防艦, Hei-gata kaibōkan) were a class of escort ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type C" ocean defense ships, and they were the fifth class of Kaibōkan (Kai = sea, ocean, Bo = defense, Kan = ship), a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel.[1]

Background[edit]

The Type C, like the Ukuru and Mikura classes, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft and anti-submarine roles.

On 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack. The plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design. The result was the Ukuru class, and a scaled-down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes.

Design[edit]

Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type C was a further simplification of the Ukuru design. They were smaller by 200 tons and the diesel engines that propelled them were also smaller, at 1,900 shaft horsepower (1,400 kW) versus 4,200 shaft horsepower (3,100 kW) for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 knots (36.1 km/h; 22.4 mph) to 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph). The range remained the same, 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km; 7,500 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph). The number of 4.7-inch (119 mm) guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one.

Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time. The Type C escorts required approximately 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras.

Construction[edit]

The design work of the Type C ships started in March 1943, the same time as the Ukuru class. They were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and the Type D. The Type C vessels were given odd numbers, while the Type D were given even numbers. The Type C were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months. The lead ship, No.1 (CD-1) was constructed at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, laid down on 15 September 1943, and completed with No.3 (CD-3) on 29 February 1944.

Service[edit]

No.1 on 6 April 1945

The Type C escorts were assigned to the Destroyer Divisions and Escort Divisions for convoy escort operations. However, by 1944 the advantage had passed to the US, and many Type C vessels became casualties as the Japanese merchant fleet was devastated by the American submarine offensive. There were 53 finished during the war of the 300 planned, and several completed after World War II ended. 26 were sunk during the war.

Successes[edit]

  • USS Growler was sunk on 8 November 1944 by CD-19 with Chiburi and destroyer Shigure.[2]
  • USS Trigger was sunk on 28 March 1945 by CD-33 and CD-59 with Mikura.[2]
  • USS Bonefish was sunk on 19 June 1945 by Type C vessels CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 with Okinawa and CD-158.[2]
  • USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-33 and CD-29 with CD-22 on 30 October 1944.

Ships in class[edit]

Ship # Ship Builder Completed Fate
2401 No.1 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 29 February 1944 Sunk by aircraft south of Xiamen, 6 April 1945.
2402 No.3 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 29 February 1944 Sunk by aircraft northwest of Keelung, 9 January 1945.
2403 No.5 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 19 March 1944 Sunk by aircraft west of Masinloc, 21 September 1944.
2404 No.7 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 10 March 1944 Sunk by USS Ray west of Vigan City, 14 November 1944. Rebuilt in Jiangnan Shipyard, recommissioned as PLAN FFG Nanning. Decommissioned 1979.
2405 No.9 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 10 March 1944 Sunk by USS Gato in Yellow Sea , 14 February 1945.
2406 No.11 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 March 1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft in Ormoc Bay, 10 November 1944. Later scuttled.
2407 No.13 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 3 April 1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14 August 1945.
2408 No.15 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 8 April 1944 Sunk by USS Raton to west of Spratly Island, 6 June 1944.
2409 No.17 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 13 April 1944 Sunk by aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12 January 1945.
2410 No.19 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 28 April 1944 Sunk by aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12 January 1945.
2411 No.21 Nihonkai Dock Company 18 July 1944 Sunk by USS Seahorse to east of Pratas Islands, 6 October 1944.
2412 No.23 Nihonkai Dock Company 15 September 1944 Sunk by aircraft at north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12 January 1945.
2413 No.25 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 2 July 1944 Sunk by USS Springer in Yellow Sea, 3 May 1945.
2414 No.27 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20 July 1944 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14 August 1947. Later scrapped.
2415 No.29 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 8 August 1944 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Scrapped on 1 March 1948.
2416 No.31 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 21 August 1944 Sunk by USS Tirante in Yellow Sea, 14 April 1945.
2417 No.33 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31 August 1944 Sunk by aircraft to east of Aoshima, 28 March 1945.
2418 No.35 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 11 October 1944 Sunk by aircraft at south of French Indochina, 12 January 1945.
2419 No.37 Nihonkai Dock Company 3 November 1944 Decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Surrendered to United States, 4 September 1947. Scrapped on 30 November 1947.
2420 No.39 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 27 September 1944 Sunk by aircraft off Geoje Island, 7 August 1945.
2421 No.41 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16 October 1944 Sunk by USS Sea Owl at Tsushima Strait, 9 June 1945.
2422 No.43 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 31 July 1944 Sunk by aircraft off Cape Padaran, 12 January 1945.
2423 No.45 Nihonkai Dock Company 23 December 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
2424 No.47 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 2 November 1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14 August 1945.
2425 No.49 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16 November 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United States, 1 September 1947. Scrapped on 1 February 1948.
2426 No.51 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 21 September 1944 Sunk by aircraft at north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12 January 1945.
2427 No.53 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 28 November 1944 Sunk by USS Besugo at east of Cam Ranh Bay, 7 February 1945.
2428 No.55 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16 July 1947. Later scrapped.
2429 No.57 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 13 January 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Converted to breakwater at Ube, May 1948.
2430 No.59 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 2 February 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Collided with Hyūga and sunk at Kure, 30 July 1946. Salvaged and scrapped on 9 November 1947.
2431 No.61 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 15 September 1944 Decommissioned on 3 May 1947. Later scrapped.
2432 No.63 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 October 1944 Decommissioned on 30 September 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
2433 No.65 Nihonkai Dock Company 13 February 1945 Sunk by aircraft at Muroran, 14 July 1945. Salvaged and scrapped in July 1947.
2434 No.67 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 12 November 1944 Decommissioned on 25 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 6 July 1947, and renamed Yingkan. Renamed Rui'an (PF-73) 1952. Decommissioned 1963.
2435 No.69 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 20 December 1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft off Hainan Island, 9 March 1945. Sank on 16 March 1945.
2436 No.71 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 12 March 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-43 (1947), oceanographic research ship West (1948), renamed Ostrovnoy (1953). Decommissioned on 31 January 1964 and scrapped.
2437 No.73 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 5 April 1945 Sunk by USS Sunfish at southeast of Iwate, 16 April 1945.
2438 No.75 Nihonkai Dock Company 21 April 1945 Sink off 23 August 1945.
2439 No.77 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31 March 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-45 (1947), target ship "TsL-45 (1948), repair ship PM-63 (1955). Decommissioned on 25 January 1969 and scrapped.
2440 No.79 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 6 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-39 (1947), target ship TsL-39 (1948), oceanographic research ship Sozh (1949). Decommissioned on 30 August 1960 and scrapped.
2441 No.81 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 15 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 29 August 1947, and renamed Yuan. Escape to People's Liberation Army 13 February 1949, and renamed Shengyang. Decommissioned 1980.
2442 No.83 Kyōwa Zōsen and Naniwa Dock Company Still incomplete at the end of war (85%). Scrapped on 17 March 1948.
2443 No.85 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31 May 1945 Decommissioned on 25 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Shian. Escape to People's Liberation Army 23 April 1949. Sunk by aircraft at Yanziji, 28 April 1949.
2444 No.87 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 29 July 1947. Scrapped on 1 March 1948.
2445 No.89 Nihonkai Dock Company Incomplete until the end of war (95%). Scrapped in November 1947.
2446 No.91 Cancelled in August 1944.
2447 No.93 Kyōwa Zōsen Company was closed and construction stopped in May 1945. Later scrapped.
2448 No.95 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 4 July 1945 Decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Scrapped on 20 July 1948.
2449 No.97 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16 December 1945 Decommissioned on 1 April 1946. Scrapped on 27 October 1947.
2450 No.99 Cancelled in August 1944.
2451 No.101 Kyōwa Zōsen Company was closed and construction stopped in May 1945. Later scrapped.
2452 No.103 Cancelled in August 1944.
2453 No.105 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15 April 1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-34 (1947), target ship TsL-34 (1948), oceanographic research ship Khersones (1949). Decommissioned on 3 December 1960 and scrapped.
2454 No.107 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 30 May 1946 Surrendered to Republic of China 29 August 1947, and renamed Chaoan (PF-74). Decommissioned 1963.
2455 No.109 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard Construction stopped on 1 April 1945. Later scrapped.
2456–2458 No.111, No.113 and No.115 Cancelled in August 1944.
2459 No.117 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard Construction stopped in March 1945. Later scrapped.
2460–2502 Odd numbers from No.119 to No.203 Cancelled in August 1944.
2503 No.205 Nihonkai Dock Company 30 October 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31 July 1947, and renamed Chinan (PF-75). Decommissioned 1960.
2504 No.207 Naniwa Dock Company 15 October 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 4 July 1947. Sunk as target at , 13 August 1947.
2505–2506 No.209 and No.211 Cancelled in August 1944.
2507 No.213 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 12 February 1945 Sunk by naval mine at Busan, 18 August 1945.
2508 No.215 Niigata Iron Works 30 December 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Liaohai. Transferred to Army, 1948. Returned to Navy, 1953. Decommissioned 1960.
2509 No.217 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 17 July 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 5 September 1947. Scrapped on 10 February 1948.
2510 No.219 Naniwa Dock Company 25 January 1945 Sunk by aircraft at Hakodate, 12 July 1945.
2511 No.221 Niigata Iron Works 2 April 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-40 (1947), target ship TsL-40 (1948), rescue ship Zhiguli (1949). Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
2512 No.223 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard Construction stopped on 23 May 1945 (50%). Scrapped on 23 October 1947.
2513 No.225 Niigata Iron Works 28 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
2514 No.227 Naniwa Dock Company 15 June 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-35 (1947), target ship "TsL-35 (1948), oceanographic research ship Siurkum (1949)/ Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
2515 No.229 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard Construction stopped in January 1945. Later scrapped.
2516–2517 No.231 and No.233 Cancelled in August 1944.
2518 No.235 Niigata Iron Works Construction stopped in February 1945. Later scrapped.
2519–2532 Odd numbers from No.237 to No.263 Cancelled in August 1944 to 1945.
168 vessels They were cancelled while before naming.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Worth P. 208
  2. ^ a b c [1]

References[edit]