Type C escort ship

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Japanese escort ship No17 in 1944.jpg
No.17 on 10 April 1944 at Tokyo Bay
Class overview
Name: No.1 class escort ship
Builders: Maizuru Naval Arsenal
Kyōwa Zōsen Corporation
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Naniwa Dock Company
Nihonkai Dock Company
Nihon Kōkan Corporation
Niigata Iron Works
Operators: Naval Ensign of Japan.svg Imperial Japanese Navy
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Navy
Republic of China Army Flag.svg Republic of China Army
Naval Ensign of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Navy
Naval Ensign of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Liberation Army Navy
Preceded by: Ukuru class
Cost: 5,015,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1946
In commission: 1944–1980
Planned: 300
Completed: 56
Cancelled: 241
Lost: 28
Retired: 28
General characteristics
Type: Escort ship
Displacement: 745 long tons (757 t) standard
Length: 67.5 m (221 ft)
Beam: 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in)
Draught: 2.9 m (10 ft)
Propulsion: 2 shaft, geared diesel engines, 1,900 hp (1,417 kW)
Speed: 16.5 knots (19.0 mph; 30.6 km/h)
Range: 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) at 14 kn (16 mph; 26 km/h)
Complement: 136
Sensors and
processing systems:
Type 22-Go radar
Type 93 sonar
Type 3 hydrophone
Armament:

As built :
• 2 × 120 mm (4.7 in)/45 cal DP guns
• 6 × Type 96 25 mm (0.98 in) AA machine guns (2×3)
• 12 × Type 3 depth charge throwers
• 1 × depth charge chute
• 120 × depth charges
From 1944 :
• as above, plus

• 1 × 80 mm (3.1 in) mortar

The Type C escort ships (丙型海防艦 Hei-gata kaibōkan?) were a class of ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type C" ocean defense ships, and they were the fifth class of Kaibōkan (Kai = sea, ocean, Bo = defense, Kan = ship), a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel.[1]

Background[edit]

The Type C, like the Ukuru-class and Mikura-class, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft and anti-submarine role.

In 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack. The plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design. The result was the Ukuru class, and a scaled down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes.

Design[edit]

Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type C was a further simplification of the Ukuru design. They were smaller by 200 tons and the Diesel engines that propelled them were also smaller, at 1900 SHP vs 4200 for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 knots to 16.5. The range remained the same, 6500 miles at 14 knots. The number of 4.7" guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one.

Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time. The Type C escorts required approximately 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras.

Construction[edit]

The design work of the Type C ships started in March, 1943, the same time as the Ukuru class. They were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and the Type D. The Type C class were given odd numbers, while the D Type were given even numbers. The Type C were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months. The lead ship, No.1 (CD-1) was constructed at Mitsubishi, laid down on 15 September 1943, and completed with the No.3 (CD-3) on 29 February 1944.

Service[edit]

No.1 on 6 April 1945

The C Type escorts were assigned to the Destroyer Divisions and Escort Divisions for convoy escort operations. However by 1944 the advantage had passed to the US, and many C Type vessels became casualties as the Japanese merchant fleet was devastated by the American submarine offensive. There were 53 finished during the war of the 300 planned, and several completed after World War II ended. 26 were sunk during the war.

Successes[edit]

  • USS Growler was sunk on November 8, 1944 by CD-19 with Chiburi and destroyer Shigure.[2]
  • USS Trigger was sunk on March 28, 1945 by CD-33 and CD-59 with Mikura.[2]
  • USS Bonefish was sunk on June 19, 1945 by C Types CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 with Okinawa and CD-158.[2]
  • USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-33 and CD-29 with CD-22 on October 30, 1944.

Ships in class[edit]

Ship # Ship Builder Completed Fate
2401 No.1 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 29-02-1944 Sunk by aircraft south of Xiamen, 06-04-1945.
2402 No.3 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 29-02-1944 Sunk by aircraft northwest of Keelung, 09-01-1945.
2403 No.5 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 19-03-1944 Sunk by aircraft west of Masinloc, 21-09-1944.
2404 No.7 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 10-03-1944 Sunk by USS Ray west of Vigan City, 14-11-1944.
2405 No.9 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 10-03-1944 Sunk by USS Gato in Yellow Sea , 14-02-1945.
2406 No.11 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15-03-1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft in Ormoc Bay, 10-11-1944. Later scuttled.
2407 No.13 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 03-04-1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14-08-1945.
2408 No.15 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 08-04-1944 Sunk by USS Raton to west of Spratly Island, 06-06-1944.
2409 No.17 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 13-04-1944 Sunk by aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12-01-1945.
2410 No.19 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 28-04-1944 Sunk by aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12-01-1945.
2411 No.21 Nihonkai Dock Company 18-07-1944 Sunk by USS Seahorse to east of Pratas Islands, 06-10-1944.
2412 No.23 Nihonkai Dock Company 15-09-1944 Sunk by aircraft at north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12-01-1945.
2413 No.25 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 02-07-1944 Sunk by USS Springer in Yellow Sea, 03-05-1945.
2414 No.27 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20-07-1944 Decommissioned on 20-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14-08-1947. Later scrapped.
2415 No.29 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 08-08-1944 Decommissioned on 20-11-1945. Scrapped on 01-03-1948.
2416 No.31 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 21-08-1944 Sunk by USS Tirante in Yellow Sea, 14-04-1945.
2417 No.33 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31-08-1944 Sunk by aircraft to east of Aoshima, 28-03-1945.
2418 No.35 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 11-10-1944 Sunk by aircraft at south of French Indochina, 12-01-1945.
2419 No.37 Nihonkai Dock Company 03-11-1944 Decommissioned on 15-09-1945. Surrendered to United States, 04-09-1947. Scrapped on 30-11-1947.
2420 No.39 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 27-09-1944 Sunk by aircraft off Geoje Island, 07-08-1945.
2421 No.41 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16-10-1944 Sunk by USS Sea Owl at Tsushima Strait, 09-06-1945.
2422 No.43 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 31-07-1944 Sunk by aircraft off Cape Padaran, 12-01-1945.
2423 No.45 Nihonkai Dock Company 23-12-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Scrapped on 30-04-1948.
2424 No.47 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 02-11-1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14-08-1945.
2425 No.49 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16-11-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United States, 01-09-1947. Scrapped on 01-02-1948.
2426 No.51 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 21-09-1944 Sunk by aircraft at north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12-01-1945.
2427 No.53 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 28-11-1944 Sunk by USS Besugo at east of Cam Ranh Bay, 07-02-1945.
2428 No.55 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20-12-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16-07-1947. Later scrapped.
2429 No.57 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 13-01-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Converted to breakwater at Ube, May 1948.
2430 No.59 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 02-02-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Collided with Hyūga and sunk at Kure, 30-07-1946. Salvaged and scrapped on 09-11-1947.
2431 No.61 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 15-09-1944 Decommissioned on 03-05-1947. Later scrapped.
2432 No.63 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15-10-1944 Decommissioned on 30-09-1945. Scrapped on 30-04-1948.
2433 No.65 Nihonkai Dock Company 13-02-1945 Sunk by aircraft at Muroran, 14-07-1945. Salvaged and scrapped in July 1947.
2434 No.67 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 12-11-1944 Decommissioned on 25-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 06-07-1947, and renamed Yingkan. Renamed Rui'an (PF-73) 1952. Decommissioned 1963.
2435 No.69 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 20-12-1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft off Hainan Island, 09-03-1945. Sank on 16-03-1945.
2436 No.71 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 12-03-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28-08-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-43 (1947), oceanographic research ship West (1948), renamed Ostrovnoy (1953). Decommissioned on January 31, 1964 and scrapped.
2437 No.73 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 05-04-1945 Sunk by USS Sunfish at southeast of Iwate, 16-04-1945.
2438 No.75 Nihonkai Dock Company 21-04-1945 Sink off 23-08-1945.
2439 No.77 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31-03-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28-08-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-45 (1947), target ship "TsL-45 (1948), repair ship PM-63 (1955). Decommissioned on January 25, 1969 and scrapped.
2440 No.79 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 06-05-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-39 (1947), target ship TsL-39 (1948), oceanographic research ship Sozh (1949). Decommissioned on August 30, 1960 and scrapped.
2441 No.81 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 15-12-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 29-08-1947, and renamed Yuan. Escape to People's Liberation Army 13-02-1949, and renamed Shengyang. Decommissioned 1980.
2442 No.83 Kyōwa Zōsen and Naniwa Dock Company Still incomplete at the end of war (85%). Scrapped on 17-03-1948.
2443 No.85 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31-05-1945 Decommissioned on 25-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 06-07-1947, and renamed Shian. Escape to People's Liberation Army 23-04-1949. Sunk by aircraft at Yanziji, 28-04-1949.
2444 No.87 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20-05-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 29-07-1947. Scrapped on 01-03-1948.
2445 No.89 Nihonkai Dock Company Incomplete until the end of war (95%). Scrapped in November 1947.
2446 No.91 Cancelled in August 1944.
2447 No.93 Kyōwa Zōsen Company was closed and construction stopped on May 1945. Later scrapped.
2448 No.95 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 04-07-1945 Decommissioned on 15-09-1945. Scrapped on 20-07-1948.
2449 No.97 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16-12-1945 Decommissioned on 01-04-1946. Scrapped on 27-10-1947.
2450 No.99 Cancelled in August 1944.
2451 No.101 Kyōwa Zōsen Company was closed and construction stopped on May 1945. Later scrapped.
2452 No.103 Cancelled in August 1944.
2453 No.105 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15-04-1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 05-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-34 (1947), target ship TsL-34 (1948), oceanographic research ship Khersones (1949). Decommissioned on December 3, 1960 and scrapped.
2454 No.107 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 30-05-1946 Surrendered to Republic of China 29-08-1947, and renamed Chaoan (PF-74). Decommissioned 1963.
2455 No.109 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard Construction stopped on 01-04-1945. Later scrapped.
2456–2458 No.111, No.113 and No.115 Cancelled in August 1944.
2459 No.117 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard Construction stopped in March 1945. Later scrapped.
2460–2502 Odd numbers from No.119 to No.203 Cancelled in August 1944.
2503 No.205 Nihonkai Dock Company 30-10-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31-07-1947, and renamed Chinan (PF-75). Decommissioned 1960.
2504 No.207 Naniwa Dock Company 15-10-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 04-07-1947. Sunk as target at , 13-08-1947.
2505–2506 No.209 and No.211 Cancelled in August 1944.
2507 No.213 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 12-02-1945 Sunk by naval mine at Busan, 18-08-1945.
2508 No.215 Niigata Iron Works 30-12-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 06-07-1947, and renamed Liaohai. Transferred to Army, 1948. Returned to Navy, 1953. Decommissioned 1960.
2509 No.217 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 17-07-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 05-09-1947. Scrapped on 10-02-1948.
2510 No.219 Naniwa Dock Company 25-01-1945 Sunk by aircraft at Hakodate, 12-07-1945.
2511 No.221 Niigata Iron Works 02-04-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-40 (1947), target ship TsL-40 (1948), rescue ship Zhiguli (1949). Decommissioned on March 11, 1958 and scrapped.
2512 No.223 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard Construction stopped on 23-05-1945 (50%). Scrapped on 23-10-1947.
2513 No.225 Niigata Iron Works 28-05-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Scrapped on 30-04-1948.
2514 No.227 Naniwa Dock Company 15-06-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 05-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-35 (1947), target ship "TsL-35 (1948), oceanographic research ship Siurkum (1949)/ Decommissioned on March 11, 1958 and scrapped.
2515 No.229 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard Construction stopped in January 1945. Later scrapped.
2516–2517 No.231 and No.233 Cancelled in August 1944.
2518 No.235 Niigata Iron Works Construction stopped in February 1945. Later scrapped.
2519–2532 Odd numbers from No.237 to No.263 Cancelled in August 1944 to 1945.
168 vessels They were cancelled while before naming.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]