No. 100 Group RAF
|No. 100 Group RAF|
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Part of||RAF Bomber Command|
|Motto(s)||Confound and Destroy|
|Royal Air Force Ensign|
|Group badge||The head of Medusa azure/or/sable.|
The group specialised in electronic countermeasures, so used the head of Medusa who confounded her enemies.
|Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Handley Page Halifax, Short Stirling, Vickers Wellington|
|Fighter||Bristol Beaufighter, de Havilland Mosquito|
No. 100 (Bomber Support) Group was a special duties group within RAF Bomber Command. The group was formed on 11 November 1943 to consolidate the increasingly complex business of electronic warfare and countermeasures in one organisation. The group was responsible for the development, operational trial and use of electronic warfare and countermeasures equipment. It was based at RAF stations in East Anglia, chiefly Norfolk.
The group was a pioneer in countering the formidable force of radar-equipped Luftwaffe night fighters, using a range of electronic 'homers' fitted to de Havilland Mosquito fighters which detected night fighter radar and radio emissions and allowed the RAF fighters to home in onto the Axis aircraft and either shoot them down or disrupt their missions against the bomber streams. Other Mosquitoes would patrol around Luftwaffe fighter airfields ready to attack night fighters as they landed.
This constant harassment had a detrimental effect on the morale and confidence of many Luftwaffe crews and indirectly led to a high proportion of aircraft and aircrew wastage from crashes as night fighters hurried in to land to avoid the Mosquito threat (real or imagined).
From 1944–45, the Mosquitos of 100 Group claimed 258 Luftwaffe aircraft shot down for 70 losses. The gradually increasing threat from the RAF fighters also created what the Luftwaffe crews nicknamed Moskito Panik as the night fighter crews were never sure when or where they may come under attack from the marauding 100 Group fighters.
The bomber squadrons of 100 Group utilised various specialist electronic jamming devices to disrupt German radio communications and radar. During 100 Group's existence over 32 different devices were evaluated and used. Specially equipped 100 Group aircraft would fly in the bomber stream. Much of this equipment was developed at the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE).
Special equipment used included Airborne Cigar (ABC) jammer, Jostle (jammer), Mandrel (jammer), Airborne Grocer (jammer), Piperack (jammer), Perfectos (homer), Serrate (homer), Corona (spoofer), Carpet (jammer) and Lucero (homer), used against German equipment such as Lichtenstein, Freya, and Wurzburg radars.
|“||The combination of the Pathfinders' operations, the activities of No. 100 Group, the British advantage in radar, jamming and Window techniques, combined with intelligent attacking tactics, as well as the discipline and bravery of the RAF crews, have been remarkable. We had our (sic) severe problems in trying to defend Germany in the air||”|
|— General der Jagdflieger, Adolf Galland., Lancaster - the Biography|
Order of battle
No. 100 Group was headquartered at Bylaugh Hall, Norfolk from January 1944, a central location from which to administer the group's airfields in north Norfolk. No 100 Group operated from eight airfields with approximately 260 aircraft, 140 of which were various marks of Mosquito night fighter intruders with the remainder consisting of Handley Page Halifaxes, Short Stirlings, Vickers Wellingtons, Fortresses and Liberators carrying electronic jamming equipment. The group also operated the Bristol Beaufighter for a short time.
|Squadron||Aircraft||First 100 Group operation||Base|
|192||Mosquito II, B.IV, B.XVI, Wellington B.III, Halifax IV||December 1943||RAF Foulsham|
|141||Beaufighter VI, Mosquito II, VI, XXX||December 1943||RAF West Raynham|
|239||Mosquito II, VI, XXX||20 January 1944||RAF West Raynham|
|515||Mosquito II, VI||3 March 1944||RAF Little Snoring, RAF Great Massingham|
|169||Mosquito II, VI, XIX||20 January 1944||RAF Little Snoring|
|214||Fortress II, III||20/21 April 1944||RAF Sculthorpe, RAF Oulton|
|199||Stirling B.III, Halifax B.III]]||1 May 1944||RAF North Creake|
|157||Mosquito XIX, XXX||May 1944||RAF Swannington|
|85||Mosquito XII, XVII||5/6 June 1944||RAF Swannington|
|23||Mosquito VI||5/6 July 1944||RAF Little Snoring|
|223||Liberator VI, Fortress II, III||September 1944||RAF Oulton|
|171||Stirling II, Halifax III||15 September 1944||RAF North Creake|
|462 (RAAF)||Halifax III||13 March 1945||RAF Foulsham|
Other units and stations:
- No. 1692 Flight RAF based at RAF Little Snoring
- No. 1699 Flight RAF based at RAF Oulton to train Fortress crews for 214 Squadron
- No. 100 Group Communications Flight at RAF West Raynham and then RAF Swanton Morley
- No. 80 (Signals) Wing RAF from November 1943 based at Radlett Aerodrome, controlled Meacon beacons and other radio counter measures and intelligence work.
- Light Night Strike Force
- List of World War II electronic warfare equipment
- List of Royal Air Force groups
- 36th Bombardment Squadron
- Michael Renaut
- Pine, L.G. (1983). A dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 37. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
- Delve, Ken (2005). Bomber Command 1939-1945 : a reference to the men - aircraft & operational history. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Aviation. p. 174. ISBN 1-84415-183-2.
- Iveson & Milton 2009, p. 122.
- Moyes 1976, p. 307.
- Bond, Steve & Forder, Richard Special Ops Liberators 2239Bomber Support0 Squadron, 100 Group and the Electronic War. Grub Street 2011 ISBN 978-1-908-11714-4.
- Bowman, Martin W. 100 Group (Bomber Support): RAF Bomber Command in World War II. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword/Leo Cooper, 2006. ISBN 1-84415-418-1.
- Bowman, Martin W. and Tom Cushing. Confounding the Reich. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword/Leo Cooper, 2004. ISBN 1-84415-124-7.
- Iveson, Tony, DFC; Milton, Brian (2009). Lancaster - the Biography. London: Andre Deutsch. ISBN 978-0-233-00270-5.
- Moyes, Philip J. R. (1976) . Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft (rev. ed.). London: Macdonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
- Peden, Murray. A Thousand Shall Fall: the True Story of a Canadian Bomber Pilot in World War Two. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Stoddart Publishing Co. Ltd., 1988 (reprinted in 2000). ISBN 0-7737-5967-0.
- Streetly, Martin. Confound & Destroy. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishing) Company Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-354-01180-4.