No. 159 Squadron RAF
|No. 159 Squadron RAF|
The official Squadron crest for No. 159 squadron RAF
|Active||1 June 1918 - 4 July 1918
2 July 1942 – 1 June 1946
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Role||Bombing, mining, reconnaissance, transport|
|Motto(s)||Latin: Quo non, quando non
(Translated: "Whither not, When not?")
|Engagements||Far East 1942-45|
|Squadron Badge heraldry||In Front of logs inflamed, a peacocks head erased, in the beak a woodmans axe.|
- 1 History
- 2 Notable squadron members
- 3 Aircraft operated
- 4 Squadron bases
- 5 Commanding officers
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Formation in World War I
Reformation in World War II
No. 159 Squadron was reformed at RAF Molesworth on 2 July 1942 during the Second World War and its ground crew personnel were posted, without aircraft, to the Middle East on 12 February 1942 and then to India on 18 May 1942. Flying B-24 Liberators, the squadron was posted to Palestine in July 1942 and carried out bombing raids in North Africa, Italy and Greece. No. 159 then flew to India on 30 September 1942. The first operation against the Japanese was on 17 November 1942, and during the rest of the war, the squadron flew mine-laying, bombing, and reconnaissance missions over Burma, Siam, Malaya, Indo-China and the Dutch East Indies.
In October 1944, the Squadron mounted an audacious minelaying raid on the Japanese held port of Penang. The mission entailed a round trip of over 3,000 miles, which at the time was the longest distance bombing raid in history. Eric Burchmore was in charge of the modification and preparation of the Consolidated Liberator aircraft used for the mission. The raid was led by Wing Commander James Blackburn and was a complete success, with the port of Penang completely blocked by mines and all of the aircraft and crews returning safely. Burchmore was awarded a military MBE in recognition of his contribution to the operation, whilst Wing Commander Blackburn was awarded a Bar to his DSO and was also awarded the American DFC by the United States Air Force.
After the war, No.159 converted to transport and survey duties before disbanding on 1 June 1946.
Notable squadron members
Stanley James Woodbridge, GC
Flight Sergeant Stanley James Woodbridge, a wireless operator who served with 159 squadron, was awarded the George Cross posthumously in 1948. Woodbridge had steadfastly refused to divulge his codes and other details of his radio equipment to his Japanese captors. Woodbridge was tortured and eventually beheaded along with three other members of his crew
James Blackburn DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, DFC (US)
Wing Commander James Blackburn DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, DFC (US) (1916–1993) was a Royal Air Force officer who completed a record five tours of operations during World War II.
|July 1942||August 1943||Consolidated Liberator||Mk.II|
|August 1943||February 1945||Consolidated Liberator||Mks.III, V|
|March 1944||July 1945||Consolidated Liberator||Mk.VI|
|June 1945||May 1946||Consolidated Liberator||Mk.VIII|
|2 January 1942||12 February 1942||RAF Molesworth, Cambridgeshire||Air echelon training at RAF Polebrook (1653 HCU)|
|12 February 1942||15 April 1942||En route to Middle East||(Ground echelon)|
|15 April 1942||10 May 1942||RAF Fayid, Egypt||(Ground Echelon, Air echelon 26 April to RAF Lyneham)|
|10 May 1942||24 May 1942||En route to India||(Ground echelon, one element remained at Fayid)|
|24 May 1942||1 June 1942||RAF Deolali, Maharashtra, British India|
|1 June 1942||27 September 1942||RAF Chakrata, Uttarakhand, British India||(Ground echelon, Air echelon 7 June to RAF Fayid, Egypt;
2 July to RAF St Jean, Palestine and 12 August to RAF Aqir, Palestine)
|27 September 1942||24 October 1943||RAF Salbani, West Bengal, British India||Ground and Air echelons joined|
|24 October 1943||9 March 1944||RAF Digri, Bengal, British India||Det. at RAF Dhubalia, Bengal|
|9 March 1944||15 April 1944||RAF Dhubalia, Bengal, British India||Det. at Madhaiganj, United Provinces|
|15 April 1944||2 October 1945||RAF Digri, Bengal, British India||Dets. at Jessore, Akyab, Chian Bay, Drigh Road and Pegu|
|2 October 1945||1 June 1946||RAF Salbani, West Bengal, British India||Dets. at Pegu, RAF Santacruz and Sookerating|
|June 1944||December 1944||W/Cdr. James Blackburn DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar|
|December 1944||April 1945||W/Cdr. Byron Francis Burbridge|
|April 1945||?||W/Cdr. Lucian Brett Ercolani, DSO & Bar, DFC|
- Moyes 1976, p. 181.
- Halley 1988, p. 230.
- Jefford 2001, p. 113.
- Moyes 1976, p. 182.
- Jefford 2001, p. 66.
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918-88. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE,BA,RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- Moyes, Philip J.R. Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1976. ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to No. 159 Squadron RAF.|
- No. 159 squadron history
- Tom Fraser an ordinary airman in 159 Squadron in India
- Lucian Brett Ercolani, Obituary
- Fowkes, Gary (1 February 2009). "No. 159 Squadron R.A.F." RAF Liberator Squadrons. Retrieved 16 August 2011.