Page semi-protected

Noam Chomsky

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Chomsky" redirects here. For other uses, see Chomsky (disambiguation).
Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky portrait 2015.jpg
Chomsky in 2015
Born Avram Noam Chomsky
(1928-12-07) December 7, 1928 (age 87)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Fields Linguistics, analytic philosophy, cognitive science, intellectual history, political criticism
Institutions
Alma mater
Thesis Transformational Analysis (1955)
Doctoral students
Known for
Influences
Influenced
Notable awards
Spouse
Children
  • Aviva (b. 1957)
  • Diane (b. 1960)
  • Harry (b. 1967)
Signature
Website
chomsky.info
Notes
The New York Times has described him as "arguably the most important intellectual alive".[22]

Avram Noam Chomsky (/ˈnm ˈɒmski/; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, logician, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy, and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He has spent more than half a century at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he is Institute Professor Emeritus, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.

Chomsky is one of the most cited scholars in history, and has influenced a wide array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberalism and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and mainstream news media. His ideas have proved highly significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements, but have also drawn criticism, with some accusing Chomsky of anti-Americanism and alleging that he is sympathetic to terrorism and genocide denial.

Early life

Childhood: 1928–45

Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[23] His father was the Ukrainian-born William "Zev" Chomsky, an Ashkenazi Jew who had fled to the United States in 1913. Having studied at Johns Hopkins University, William went on to become school principal of the Congregation Mikveh Israel religious school, and in 1924 was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia. His wife was the Belarusian-born Elsie Simonofsky (1903–1972), a teacher and activist whom William had met while working at Mikveh Israel.[24]

"What motivated his [political] interests? A powerful curiosity, exposure to divergent opinions, and an unorthodox education have all been given as answers to this question. He was clearly struck by the obvious contradictions between his own readings and mainstream press reports. The measurement of the distance between the realities presented by these two sources, and the evaluation of why such a gap exists, remained a passion for Chomsky."

Biographer Robert F. Barsky, 1997[25]

Noam was the Chomsky family's first child, with his younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, being born five years later.[26] The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive.[27] Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and regularly discussing the political theories of Zionism; the family were particularly influenced by the Left Zionist writings of Ahad Ha'am.[26] As a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.[28]

Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum; however, he was exposed to far left politics through other members of the family, a number of whom were socialists involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.[29] He was substantially influenced by his uncle, a dropout who owned a newspaper stand in New York City where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.[30] Whenever visiting his uncle in New York City, Chomsky also frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores, voraciously reading political literature.[31] He later described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident"[32] which allowed him to become critical of other radical left-wing ideologies, namely Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism.[33] "I had relatives in New York City who I stayed with. And in those days, the area from Union Square down Fourth Avenue had small bookstores, many of which were run by Spanish immigrants who’d fled after Franco’s victory. I spent time in them, and also in the offices of Freie Arbeiter Stimme (Free Worker’s Voice) with anarchists. I picked up a lot of material and talked to people, and it became a major influence." [34]

Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere.[35] It was here that he wrote his first article, aged 10, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War.[36] [37] Aged 12, he moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically, but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented method of teaching employed there.[38] From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics.[39]

University: 1945–55

In 1945, Chomsky, aged 16, embarked on a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic.[40] Living at home, he funded his undergraduate degree by teaching Hebrew.[41] However, he was frustrated with his experiences at the university, and considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Mandatory Palestine.[42] His intellectual curiosity was reawakened through conversations with the Russian-born linguist Zellig Harris, whom he first met in a political circle in 1947. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject.[43] Chomsky's B.A. honors thesis was titled "Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew", and involved him applying Harris's methods to the language.[44] Chomsky revised this thesis for his M.A., which he received at Penn in 1951; it would subsequently be published as a book.[45] He also developed his interest in philosophy while at university, in particular under the tutelage of his teacher Nelson Goodman.[46]

From 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was named to the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, where he undertook research on what would become his doctoral dissertation.[47] Having been encouraged to apply by Goodman,[48] a significant factor in his decision to move to Harvard was that the philosopher W. V. Quine was based there; both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. L. Austin of the University of Oxford, would strongly influence Chomsky.[49] In 1952, Chomsky published his first academic article, "Systems of Syntactic Analysis", which appeared not in a journal of linguistics, but in The Journal of Symbolic Logic.[48] Being highly critical of the established behaviorist currents in linguistics, in 1954 he presented his ideas at lectures given at the University of Chicago and Yale University.[50] Although he had not been registered as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, in 1955 he submitted a thesis to them setting out his ideas on transformational grammar; he was awarded his Ph.D. on the basis of it, and it would be privately distributed among specialists on microfilm before being published in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory.[51] Possession of this Ph.D. nullified his requirement to enter national service in the armed forces, which was otherwise due to begin in 1955.[52] George Armitage Miller, a Professor at Harvard, read the Ph.D. and was impressed; together he and Chomsky published a number of technical papers in mathematical linguistics.[53]

The work of anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker (left) and democratic socialist George Orwell (right) significantly influenced the young Chomsky.

In 1947, Chomsky entered into a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since they were toddlers, and they married in 1949.[54] After Chomsky was made a Fellow at Harvard, the couple moved to an apartment in the Allston area of Boston, remaining there until 1965, when they relocated to the city's Lexington area.[55] In 1953 the couple took up a Harvard travel grant in order to visit Europe, traveling from England through France and Switzerland and into Italy.[56] On that same trip they also spent six weeks at Hashomer Hatzair's HaZore'a kibbutz in the newly established Israel; although enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism that he encountered in the country, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend that he thought pervaded the kibbutz's leftist community.[57]

On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of Yiddish anarchist journal Freie Arbeiter Stimme, becoming enamored with the ideas of contributor Rudolf Rocker, whose work introduced him to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism.[58] Other political thinkers whose work Chomsky read included the anarchist Diego Abad de Santillán, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight Macdonald, and works by Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Korsch, and Rosa Luxemburg.[59] His readings convinced him of the desirability of an anarcho-syndicalist society, and he became fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes set up during the Spanish Civil War, which were documented in Orwell's Homage to Catalonia (1938).[60] He avidly read leftist journal politics, remarking that it "answered to and developed" his interest in anarchism,[61] as well as the periodical Living Marxism, published by council communist Paul Mattick. Although rejecting its Marxist basis, Chomsky was heavily influenced by council communism, voraciously reading articles in Living Marxism written by Antonie Pannekoek.[62] He was also greatly interested in the Marlenite ideas of the Leninist League, an anti-Stalinist Marxist–Leninist group, sharing their views that the Second World War was orchestrated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union's 'state capitalists' to crush Europe's proletariat.[63]

Early career: 1955–1966

Chomsky had befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson, the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position at MIT in 1955. There Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project, and the other half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy.[64] He later described MIT as "a pretty free and open place, open to experimentation and without rigid requirements. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work."[65] In 1957 MIT promoted him to the position of associate professor, and from 1957–58 he was also employed by Columbia University as a visiting professor.[66] That same year, Chomsky's first child, a daughter named Aviva, was born,[67] and he published his first book on linguistics, Syntactic Structures, a work that radically opposed the dominant HarrisBloomfield trend in the field.[68] The response to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, and his work proved divisive and caused "significant upheaval" in the discipline.[69] Linguist John Lyons later asserted that it "revolutionized the scientific study of language".[70] From 1958–59 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.[71]

In 1959 he published a review of B.F. Skinner's 1957 book Verbal Behavior in the journal Language, in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior.[72] Opining that Skinner ignored the role of human creativity in linguistics, his review helped him to become an "established intellectual",[73] and he proceeded to found MIT's Graduate Program in linguistics with Halle. In 1961 he was awarded academic tenure, being made a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics.[74] He went on to be appointed plenary speaker at the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, held in 1962 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which established him as the de facto spokesperson of American linguistics.[75] He continued to publish his linguistic ideas throughout the decade, including in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1966), Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (1966), and Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought (1966).[76] Along with Halle, he also edited the Studies in Language series of books for Harper and Row,[77] and extended the theory of generative grammar to phonology in The Sound Pattern of English (1968).[78] He continued to receive academic recognition and honors for his work, in 1966 visiting a variety of Californian institutions, first as the Linguistics Society of America Professor at the University of California, and then as the Beckman Professor at the University of California, Berkeley.[79] His Beckman lectures would be assembled and published as Language and Mind in 1968.[80] The ensuing debates between Chomsky and his critics came to be known as the 'Linguistics Wars', although they revolved largely around debating philosophical issues rather than linguistics proper.[81]

Later life

Anti-Vietnam War activism and rise to prominence: 1967–1975

"[I]t does not require very far-reaching, specialized knowledge to perceive that the United States was invading South Vietnam. And, in fact, to take apart the system of illusions and deception which functions to prevent understanding of contemporary reality [is] not a task that requires extraordinary skill or understanding. It requires the kind of normal skepticism and willingness to apply one's analytical skills that almost all people have and that they can exercise."

Chomsky on the Vietnam War[82]

Chomsky first involved himself in active political protest against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War in 1962, speaking on the subject at small gatherings in churches and homes.[83] However, it was not until 1967 that he publicly entered the debate on United States foreign policy.[84] In February he published a widely read essay in The New York Review of Books entitled "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", in which he criticized the country's involvement in the conflict; the essay was based on an earlier talk that he had given to Harvard's Foundation for Jewish Campus Life.[85] He expanded on his argument to produce his first political book, American Power and the New Mandarins, which was published in 1969 and soon established him at the forefront of American dissent.[86] His other political books of the time included At War with Asia (1971), The Backroom Boys (1973), For Reasons of State (1973), and Peace in the Middle East? (1975), published by Pantheon Books.[87] Coming to be associated with the American New Left movement,[88] he nevertheless thought little of prominent New Left intellectuals Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm, and preferred the company of activists to intellectuals.[89] Although The New York Review of Books did publish contributions from Chomsky and other leftists from 1967 to 1973, when an editorial change put a stop to it,[90] he was virtually ignored by the rest of the mainstream press throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s.[91]

Along with his writings, Chomsky also became actively involved in left-wing activism. Refusing to pay half his taxes, he publicly supported students who refused the draft, and was arrested for being part of an anti-war teach-in outside the Pentagon.[92] During this time, Chomsky, along with Mitchell Goodman, Denise Levertov, William Sloane Coffin, and Dwight Macdonald, also founded the anti-war collective RESIST.[93] Although he questioned the objectives of the 1968 student protests,[94] he gave many lectures to student activist groups; furthermore, he and his colleague Louis Kampf began running undergraduate courses on politics at MIT, independently of the conservative-dominated political science department.[95]

In this period, MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam and, as Chomsky says, 'a good deal of [nuclear] missile guidance technology was developed right on the MIT campus.' [96] As Chomsky elaborates, '[MIT was] about 90% Pentagon funded at that time. And I personally was right in the middle of it. I was in a military lab ... the Research Laboratory for Electronics.'[97] Although most of MIT's student activists simply wanted to stop this weapons research,[98] Chomsky proposed keeping such research on campus provided it was restricted to what he called 'systems of a purely defensive and deterrent character.' [99] MIT's student president at this time, Mike Albert, was—and still is—Chomsky's close colleague but he has described Chomsky's position as merely 'preserving war research with modest amendments'.[100]

Chomsky's complicated attitude toward MIT was particularly evident in a series of letters published in The New York Review of Books in 1967. In the first letter he admitted that he had 'given a good bit of thought to ... resigning from MIT, which is, more than any other university associated with the activities of the Department of 'Defense'.' He also stated that MIT's 'involvement in the [Vietnam] war effort is tragic and indefensible.' However, in a second letter, a month later, Chomsky made the rather different claim that 'MIT as an institution has no involvement in the war effort. Individuals at MIT, as elsewhere, have direct involvement and that is what I had in mind.' [101]

Since then, Chomsky has continued to defend his university. For example, although MIT had six anti-war student activists sentenced to prison terms at this time,[102] Chomsky has, nevertheless, described MIT as 'the freest and the most honest and has the best relations between faculty and students than any other ... [with] quite a good record on civil liberties. That was shown to be particularly true during the 1960s.'[103] It was such attitudes that seem to have led Chomsky into what he has called 'considerable conflict' with the students of the period. In fact, he has described their rebellions as 'largely misguided' and he was unimpressed by the events of May 1968 in Paris, even saying, 'I paid virtually no attention to what was going on in Paris as you can see from what I wrote—rightly, I think.' [104] Yet, despite this, Chomsky was still very grateful to the students for raising what he considered to be the most important issue, stopping the Vietnam war. Indeed, in 1970, Chomsky visited the Vietnamese city of Hanoi to give a lecture at the Hanoi University of Science and Technology; on this trip he also toured Laos to visit the refugee camps created by the war, and in 1973 he was among those leading a committee to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the War Resisters League.[105]

President Richard Nixon placed Chomsky on his 'Enemies List'

As a result of his anti-war activism, Chomsky was ultimately arrested on multiple occasions, and U.S. President Richard Nixon included him on his Enemies List.[106] He was aware of the potential repercussions of his civil disobedience, and his wife began studying for her own Ph.D. in linguistics in order to support the family in the event of Chomsky's imprisonment or loss of employment.[107] However, MIT—despite being under some pressure to do so—refused to fire him due to his influential standing in the field of linguistics.[108] His work in this area continued to gain international recognition; in 1967 he received honorary doctorates from both the University of London and the University of Chicago.[109] In 1970, Loyola University and Swarthmore College also awarded him honorary D.H.L.'s, as did Bard College in 1971, Delhi University in 1972, and the University of Massachusetts in 1973.[110]

Moreover, Chomsky's stature as an analytic philosopher continued to grow; in 1971 he gave the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lectures at the University of Cambridge, which were published as Problems of Knowledge and Freedom later that year. He also delivered the Whidden Lectures at McMaster University, the Huizinga Lecture at Leiden University in the Netherlands, the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University, and the Kant Lectures at Stanford University.[111] In 1971 he partook in a televised debate with French philosopher Michel Foucault on Dutch television, entitled Human Nature: Justice versus Power.[112] Although largely agreeing with Foucault's ideas, he was critical of post-modernism and French philosophy generally, believing that post-modern leftist philosophers used obfuscating language which did little to aid the cause of the working-classes[113] and lambasting France as having "a highly parochial and remarkably illiterate culture."[114] Chomsky also continued to publish prolifically in linguistics, publishing Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972),[108] an enlarged edition of Language and Mind (1972),[115] and Reflections on Language (1975).[115] In 1974 he became a corresponding fellow of the British Academy.[111]

Edward Herman and the Faurisson affair: 1976–1980

Noam Chomsky (1977)

Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, Chomsky's publications expanded and clarified his earlier work, addressing his critics and updating his grammatical theory.[116] His public talks often generated considerable controversy, particularly when he criticized actions of the Israeli government and military,[117] and his political views came under attack from right-wing and centrist figures, the most prominent of whom was Alan Dershowitz. Chomsky considered Dershowitz "a complete liar" and accused him of actively misrepresenting his position on issues.[118] Furthermore, during the early 1970s he had begun collaborating with Edward S. Herman, who had also published critiques of the U.S. war in Vietnam.[119] Together they authored Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda, a book which criticized U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia and highlighted how mainstream media neglected to cover stories about these activities; the publisher Warner Modular initially accepted it, and it was published in 1973. However, Warner Modular's parent company, Warner Communications, disapproved of the book's contents and ordered all copies to be destroyed.[120]

While mainstream publishing options proved elusive, Chomsky found support from Mike Albert's South End Press, an activist-oriented publishing company.[121] In 1979, Chomsky and Herman revised Counter-Revolutionary Violence and published it with South End Press as the two-volume The Political Economy of Human Rights.[122] In this they compared U.S. media reactions to the Cambodian genocide and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. They argued that because Indonesia was a U.S. ally, U.S. media ignored the East Timorese situation while focusing on that in Cambodia, a U.S. enemy.[123] Taking a particular interest in the situation in East Timor, Chomsky testified on the subject in front of the United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization in both 1978 and 1979, and attended a conference on the occupation held in Lisbon in 1979.[124] The following year, Steven Lukas authored an article for the Times Higher Education Supplement accusing Chomsky of betraying his anarchist ideals and acting as an apologist for Cambodian leader Pol Pot. Although Laura J. Summers and Robin Woodsworth Carlsen replied to the article, arguing that Lukas completely misunderstood Chomsky and Herman's work, Chomsky himself did not. The controversy damaged his reputation,[125] and Chomsky maintains that his critics deliberately printed lies about him in order to defame him.[126]

Although Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism and totalitarianism more generally, his commitment to freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Faurisson to advocate a position widely characterized as Holocaust denial. Without Chomsky's knowledge, his plea for the historian's freedom of speech was published as the preface to Faurisson's 1980 book Mémoire en défense contre ceux qui m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire.[127] Chomsky was widely condemned for defending Faurisson,[128] and France's mainstream press accused Chomsky of being a Holocaust denier himself, refusing to publish his rebuttals to their accusations.[129] Critiquing Chomsky's position, sociologist Werner Cohn later published an analysis of the affair titled Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and the Holocaust Deniers.[130] The Faurisson affair had a lasting, damaging effect on Chomsky's career,[131] and Chomsky didn't visit France, where the translation of his political writings was delayed until the 2000s,[132] for almost thirty years following the affair.[133]

Reaganite era and work on the media: 1980–89

The election of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan to the U.S. Presidency in 1981 marked a period of increased military intervention in Central America.[134] In 1985, during Nicaragua's Contra War – in which the U.S. supported the Contra militia against the Sandinista government – Chomsky travelled to Managua to meet with workers' organizations and refugees of the conflict, giving public lectures on politics and linguistics.[135] Many of these lectures would be published in 1987 as On Power and Ideology: The Managua Lectures.[136] In 1983 he published The Fateful Triangle, an examination of the Israel-Palestine conflict and the place of the U.S. within it, arguing that the U.S. had continually used the conflict for its own ends.[137] In 1988, Chomsky then visited the Palestinian territories to witness the impact of Israeli military occupation.[138]

In 1988, Chomsky and Herman published Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, in which they outlined their propaganda model for understanding the mainstream media; there they argued that even in countries without official censorship, the news provided was censored through four filters which which had a great impact on what stories are reported and how they are presented.[139] The book was adapted into a 1992 film, Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, which was directed by Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick.[140] In 1989, Chomsky published Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies, in which he critiqued what he sees as the pseudo-democratic nature of Western capitalist states.[141]

By the 1980s, a number of Chomsky's students had become leading linguistic specialists in their own right, expanding, revising, and expanding on Chomsky's ideas of generative grammar.[142] By the end of the 1980s, Chomsky had established himself as a globally recognized figure.[143]

Increased political activism: 1990–present

Chomsky at the World Social Forum (Porto Alegre) in 2003

In the 1990s, Chomsky embraced political activism to a greater degree than before.[144] Retaining his commitment to the cause of East Timorese independence, in 1995 he visited Australia to talk on the issue at the behest of the East Timorese Relief Association and the National Council for East Timorese Resistance.[145] The lectures that he gave on the subject would be published as Powers and Prospects in 1996.[145] As a result of the international publicity generated by Chomsky, his biographer Wolfgang Sperlich opined that he did more to aid the cause of East Timorese independence than anyone but the investigative journalist John Pilger.[146] After East Timor's independence from Indonesia was achieved in 1999, the Australian-led International Force for East Timor arrived as a peacekeeping force; Chomsky was critical of this, believing that it was designed to secure Australian access to East Timor's oil and gas reserves under the Timor Gap Treaty.[147]

Chomsky retired from full-time teaching,[148] although as an Emeritus he nevertheless continued to conduct research and seminars at MIT.[149]

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Chomsky was widely interviewed, with these interviews being collated and published by Seven Stories Press in October.[150] Chomsky argued that the ensuing War on Terror was not a new development, but rather a continuation of the same U.S. foreign policy and its concomitant rhetoric that had been pursued since at least the Reagan era of the 1980s.[151] In 2003 he published Hegemony or Survival, in which he articulated what he called the United States' "imperial grand strategy" and critiqued the Iraq War and other aspects of the 'War on Terror.'[152]

Chomsky speaking in support of the Occupy movement in 2011

Chomsky toured the world with increasing regularity during this period, giving talks on various subjects.[153] In 2001 he gave the D.T. Lakdawala Memorial Lecture[154] in New Delhi, India, and in 2003 visited Cuba at the invite of the Latin American Association of Social Scientists.[153] In 2002 Chomsky visited Turkey in order to attend the trial of a publisher who had been accused of treason for printing one of Chomsky's books; Chomsky insisted on being a co-defendant and amid international media attention the Security Courts dropped the prosecution on the first day.[155] During that trip, Chomsky visited Kurdish areas of Turkey and spoke out in favour of the Kurds' human rights.[155] A supporter of the World Social Forum, he attended their conferences in Brazil in both 2002 and 2003, also attending the Forum event in India.[156]

His wife, Carol, died in December 2008.[148]

Chomsky was drawn to the energy and activism of the Occupy movement, delivering talks at encampments and producing two works that chronicled its influence, first Occupy a pamphlet, in 2012, then, in 2013, Occupy: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity. Both were published by Zuccotti Park Press. His analysis included a critique that attributed Occupy's growth as a response to a perceived abandonment of the interests of the white working class by the Democratic Party.[157]

In late 2015, Chomsky announced his support for Vermont U.S. senator Bernie Sanders in the upcoming 2016 United States presidential election.[158]

In early 2016, Chomsky was publicly rebuked by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey after he signed an open letter condemning the Turkish leader for his anti-Kurdish repression and supporting terrorism.[159] Chomsky accused Erdoğan of hypocrisy and added that the Turkish president supports al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate,[160] the al-Nusra Front.[159]

In 2016, Chomsky released a documentary, entitled Requiem for the American Dream, that summarized his views on capitalism and economic inequality through a "75-minute teach-in".[161]

Chomsky has criticized Washington's close ties with Saudi Arabia and U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, saying "Saudi Arabia itself has one of the most grotesque human rights records in the world. ... And it is strongly backed by the United States and its allies, Britain and France. Reason? It’s got a lot of oil. It’s got a lot of money. You can sell them a lot of arms, I think tens of billions of dollars of arms. And the actions that it’s carrying out, for example, in Yemen ... are causing an immense humanitarian catastrophe in a pretty poor country, also stimulating jihadi terrorism, naturally, with U.S. and also British arms."[162]

Linguistic theory

“What started as purely linguistic research... has led, through involvement in political causes and an identification with an older philosophic tradition, to no less than an attempt to formulate an overall theory of man. The roots of this are manifest in the linguistic theory... The discovery of cognitive structures common to the human race but only to humans (species specific), leads quite easily to thinking of unalienable human attributes.”

Edward Marcotte on Chomsky's linguistic theory[163]

Within the field of linguistics, Chomsky is credited with inaugurating the 'cognitive revolution'.[164] He is largely responsible for establishing the field as a formal, natural science,[165] moving it away from the procedural form of structural linguistics that was dominant during the mid-20th century.[166] As such, he has become known as "the father of modern linguistics".[167][168]

The basis to Chomsky's linguistic theory is rooted in biolinguistics, holding that the principles underlying the structure of language are biologically determined in the human mind and hence genetically transmitted.[169] He therefore argues that all humans share the same underlying linguistic structure, irrespective of sociocultural differences.[170] In adopting this position, Chomsky rejects the radical behaviorist psychology of B.F. Skinner which views the mind as a tabula rasa ("blank slate") and thus treats language as learned behavior.[171] Accordingly, he argues that language is a unique evolutionary development of the human species and is unlike modes of communication used by any other animal species.[172][173] Chomsky's nativist, internalist view of language is consistent with the philosophical school of 'rationalism', and is contrasted with the anti-nativist, externalist view of language, which is consistent with the philosophical school of 'empiricism'.[174][163]

Universal grammar

Main article: Universal grammar

"[Chomsky's] vision of a complex universe within the mind, governed by myriad rules and prohibitions and yet infinite in its creative potential, opens up vistas possibly as important as Einstein’s theories."

Daniel Yergin in The New York Times Magazine[163]

The Chomskyan approach towards linguistics studies grammar as an innate body of knowledge possessed by language users, often termed Universal Grammar (UG).[175][176] Since the 1960s, Chomsky has maintained that syntactic knowledge is at least partially inborn, implying that children need only learn certain parochial features of their native languages.[177] Chomsky based his argument on observations about human language acquisition, noting that there is an enormous gap between the linguistic stimuli to which children are exposed and the rich linguistic knowledge they attain (see: "poverty of the stimulus" argument). For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and scattered subset of the allowable syntactic variants within their first language, they somehow acquire the highly organized and systematic ability to understand and produce an infinite number of sentences, including ones that have never before been uttered. To explain this, Chomsky reasoned that the primary linguistic data (PLD) must be supplemented by an innate linguistic capacity. Furthermore, while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks as the language acquisition device (LAD), and he suggested that one of the tasks for linguistics should be to determine what the LAD is and what constraints it imposes on the range of possible human languages. The universal features that would result from these constraints constitute 'universal grammar'.[178][179]

Different grammatical surface structures of a sentence
Time flies 1.svg Time flies 2.svg
Time flies 3.svg Time flies 4.svg

Transformational generative grammar

Beginning with his Syntactic Structures (1957), a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955), Chomsky challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar.[180]

Chomsky's theory posits that language consists of both deep structures and surface structures. Surface structure 'faces out' and is represented by spoken utterances, while deep structure 'faces inward' and expresses the underlying relations between words and conceptual meaning. Transformational grammar is a generative grammar (which dictates that the syntax, or word order, of surface structures adheres to certain principles and parameters) that consists of a limited series of rules, expressed in mathematical notation, which transform deep structures into well-formed surface structures. The transformational grammar thus relates meaning and sound.[163][181]

The Chomsky hierarchy
Set inclusions described by the Chomsky hierarchy

Chomsky hierarchy

Main article: Chomsky hierarchy

The Chomsky hierarchy, sometimes referred to as the Chomsky-Schützenberger hierarchy, is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars. The hierarchy imposes a logical structure across different language classes and provides a basis for understanding the relationship between grammars (devices that enumerate the valid sentences within languages). In order of increasing expressive power it includes regular (or Type-3) grammars, context-free (or Type-2) grammars, context-sensitive (or Type-1) grammars, and recursively enumerable (or Type-0) grammars. Each class is a strict subset of the class above it, i.e., each successive class can generate a broader set of formal languages (infinite sets of strings composed from finite sets of symbols, or alphabets) than the one below.[182] In addition to being important in linguistics, the Chomsky hierarchy is also relevant in theoretical computer science, especially in programming language theory,[183] compiler construction, and automata theory.[184]

Minimalist program

Main article: Minimalist program

Since the 1990s, much of Chomsky’s research has focused on what he calls the Minimalist Program (MP), in which he departs from much of his past research and instead attempts to simplify language into a system that relates meaning and sound using the minimum possible faculties that could be expected, given certain external conditions that are imposed on us independently. Chomsky dispenses with concepts such as 'deep structure' and 'surface structure' and instead places emphasis on the plasticity of the brain's neural circuits, along with which comes an infinite number of concepts, or 'Logical Forms.' When exposed to linguistic data, the brain of a hearer-speaker then proceeds to associate sound and meaning, and the rules of grammar that we observe are in fact only the consequences, or side effects, of the way that language works. Thus, while much of Chomsky's prior research has focused on the rules of language, he now focuses on the mechanisms that the brain uses to create these rules.[173][185]

Political views

"The second major area to which Chomsky has contributed - and surely the best known in terms of the number of people in his audience and the ease of understanding what he writes and says - is his work on sociopolitical analysis, political, social, and economic history, and critical assessment of current political circumstance. In Chomsky's view, while those in power might - and do - try to obscure their intentions and defend their actions in ways that make them acceptable to citizens, it is easy for anyone who is willing to be critical and consider the facts to discern what they are up to."

James McGilvray, 2014[186]

Chomsky's political views have changed little since his childhood,[187] when he was influenced by the emphasis on political activism that was ingrained in Jewish working-class tradition.[188] He usually identifies as an anarcho-syndicalist and/or a libertarian socialist.[189] He views these positions not as precise political theories but as ideals which he thinks best meet the needs of humans: liberty, community, and freedom of association.[190] Unlike some other socialists, such as those who accept Marxism, Chomsky believes that politics lies outside the remit of science.[191]

The key thrust behind much of Chomsky's political world-view is the idea that the truth about political realities are systematically distorted or suppressed through the manipulation of corporate interests and elites, while his work has focused on revealing these manipulations.[192] He believes that "common sense" is all that is required to break through the web of falsehood and see the truth, if it is employed using both critical thinking skills and an awareness of the role that self-interest and self-deception plays on both oneself and on others.[193]

Although he had joined protest marches and organized activist groups, he identifies his primarily political outlet as being that of education, offering free lessons and lectures to encourage wider political consciousness.[194] He is a member of the Industrial Workers of the World international union.[195] Chomsky is also a member of the interim consultative committee of the International Organization for a Participatory Society, which he describes as having the potential to "carry us a long way towards unifying the many initiatives here and around the world and molding them into a powerful and effective force."[196]

United States foreign policy

Chomsky believes that the basic principle of the foreign policy of the United States is the establishment of "open societies" which are economically and politically controlled by the U.S. and where U.S.-based businesses can prosper.[197] He believes that 'official,' sanctioned historical accounts of U.S. and British imperialism have consistently whitewashed these nations' actions in order to present them as having benevolent motives in either spreading democracy or, in older instances spreading Christianity; criticizing these accounts, he seeks to correct them.[198] Prominent examples that he regularly cites are the actions of the British Empire in India and Africa, and the actions of the U.S. in Vietnam, the Philippines, Latin America, and the Middle East.[198]

Part of the reason why he focuses most of his criticism on the U.S. is because during his lifetime the country has militarily and economically dominated the world, and because its liberal democratic electoral system allows for the citizenry to exert an influence on government policy.[199] His hope is that by spreading awareness of the negative impact that imperialism has on the populations affected by it, he can sway the population of the U.S. and other countries into opposing government policies that are imperialist in their nature.[198] He urges people to criticize the motivations, decisions, and actions of their governments, to accept responsibility for one's own thoughts and actions, and to apply the same standards to others as one would apply to oneself.[200]

Capitalism, socialism, and the United States

In his youth, Chomsky developed a dislike of capitalism and the selfish pursuit of material advancement.[201] At the same time he developed a disdain for the authoritarian attempts to establish a socialist society, as represented by the likes of the Leninism and Stalinism of the USSR.[202] Chomsky believes that libertarian socialism should "properly be regarded as the inheritor of the liberal ideas of the Enlightenment,"[203] arguing that his ideological position revolves around "nourishing the libertarian and creative character of the human being."[204] He has stated his opposition to ruling elites, among them institutions like the IMF, World Bank, and GATT.[205]

Chomsky highlights that since the 1970s, the U.S. has become increasingly economically unequal as a result of the repeal of various financial regulations and the rescindment of the Bretton Woods financial control agreements.[199] He characterizes the U.S. as a de facto one-party state, viewing both the Republican Party and Democratic Party as manifestations of a single "Business Party" controlled by corporate and financial interests.[206] Chomsky highlights that within Western capitalist liberal democracies, at least 80% of the population has no control over economic decisions, which are instead in the hands of a management class and ultimately controlled by a small, wealthy elite.[207]

Noting that this economic system is firmly entrenched and difficult to overthrow, he believes that change is possible through the organized co-operation of large numbers of people who understand the problem and know how they want to re-organize the economy in a more equitable way.[207] Although acknowledging that corporate domination of media and government stifle any significant change to this system, he sees reason for optimism, citing the historical examples of the social rejection of slavery as immoral, the advances in women's rights, and the forcing of government to justify invasions to illustrate how change is possible.[199] He views violent revolution to overthrow a government as a last resort to be avoided if possible, citing the example of historical revolutions where the population's welfare has worsened as a result of the upheaval.[207]

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

With regard to the Israel-Palestine conflict, Chomsky has long endorsed the left binationalist program, seeking to create a democratic state in the Levant that is home to both Jews and Arabs.[208] However, acknowledging the realpolitik of the situation, Chomsky has also considered a two-state solution on the condition that both nation-states exist on equal terms.[209] As a result of his criticisms of Israel, Chomsky was barred from entering Israel in 2010.[210][211][212][213][214]

News media and propaganda

Main article: Propaganda model

Chomsky's political writings have largely been focused with the two concepts of ideology and power, or the media and state policy.[215] One of Chomsky's most well-known works, Manufacturing Consent, dissects the media's role in reinforcing and acquiescing to state policies, across the political spectrum, while marginalizing contrary perspectives. Chomsky claims that this 'free-market' version of censorship is more subtle and difficult to undermine than the equivalent propaganda system which was present in the Soviet Union.[216] Whereas the opposition is given the opportunity to voice dissent, this dissent is heavily constrained by the reality of having to contend in a corporate environment, where, for example, advertising largely determines a media outlet's success. While freedom of speech and the press appear to be guaranteed, mass media can only be produced by extremely wealthy enterprises. As a result, the interests which are represented in the media reflect the interests of those who are providing it with the greatest amount of the funding.[citation needed]

Chomsky considers most conspiracy theories to be fruitless, distracting substitutes to thinking about policy formation in an institutional framework, where individual manipulation is secondary to broader social imperatives.[217] He does not dismiss conspiracy theories outright, but he does consider them unproductive to challenging power in a substantial way. In response to the labeling of his own thoughts as "conspiracy theory," Chomsky has replied that it is very rational for the media to manipulate information in order to sell it, like any other business. He asks whether General Motors would be accused of conspiracy if they deliberately selected what they would use or discard in order to sell their product.[218]

Philosophy

"Chomsky’s intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous... he has persistently defended his views against all takers, engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy throughout his career."

Zoltán Gendler Szabó, 2004[219]

Chomsky has also been active in a number of philosophical fields, including the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of science.[220] In these fields he has been highly critical of many other philosophers, in particular those operating within the field of cognitive science.[220]

Personal life

Chomsky endeavors to keep his family life, linguistic scholarship, and political activism strictly separate from one another,[221] calling himself "scrupulous at keeping my politics out of the classroom."[222] An intensely private person,[223] he is uninterested in appearances and the fame that his work has brought him.[224] He also has little interest in modern art and music.[225] He reads four or five newspapers daily; in the U.S., he subscribes to the The Boston Globe, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, and The Christian Science Monitor.[226] He acknowledges that his income and the financial security that it accords him means that he lives a privileged life in comparison to the majority of the world's population.[227] He characterizes himself as a "worker," albeit one who uses his intellect as his employable skill.[148]

Despite having been raised Jewish, Chomsky is currently non-religious, although he has expressed approval of forms of religion such as liberation theology.[228] He is known for his "dry, laconic wit," and has attracted controversy for labeling established political and academic figures with terms like "corrupt," "fascist," and "fraudulent."[229] Chomsky's colleague Steven Pinker has said that he "portrays people who disagree with him as stupid or evil, using withering scorn in his rhetoric," and that this contributes to the extreme reactions that he generates from his critics.[230] Bruce Nevin cautions that such complaints could be "no more than the discontent of poor losers thwarted by a brilliant mind."[231] Chomsky avoids attending academic conferences, including left-oriented ones such as the Socialist Scholars Conference, preferring to speak to activist groups or hold university seminars for mass audiences.[232]

Chomsky was married to Carol Doris Schatz (Chomsky) from 1949 until her death in 2008.[233][234] They had three children together: Aviva (b.1957), Diane (b.1960), and Harry (b.1967).[235] In 2014, Chomsky married Valeria Wasserman.[236]

Reception and influence

"[Chomsky's] voice is heard in academia beyond linguistics and philosophy: from computer science to neuroscience, from anthropology to education, mathematics and literary criticism. If we include Chomsky's political activism then the boundaries become quite blurred, and it comes as no surprise that Chomsky is increasingly seen as enemy number one by those who inhabit that wide sphere of reactionary discourse and action."

Sperlich, 2006[237]

Chomsky's legacy is as both a "leader in the field" of linguistics and "a figure of enlightenment and inspiration" for political dissenters.[238] Despite his academic success, his political viewpoints and activism have resulted in him being distrusted by the mainstream media apparatus, and he is regarded as being "on the outer margin of acceptability."[239]

In academia

Linguist John Lyons remarked that within a few decades of publication, Chomskyan linguistics had become "the most dynamic and influential" school of thought in the field.[240] By the 1970s, his work had also come to exert a considerable influence on philosophy,[241] while a poll conducted by Minnesota State University found Syntactic Structures to be the single most important work in the field of cognitive science.[242] In addition, his work in automata theory and the Chomsky hierarchy has become well known in computer science, and he is much cited within the field of computational linguistics.[243][244][245]

Chomsky's work contributed substantially to the decline of behaviorist psychology;[246] in addition, some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results.[247] Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University, was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability.[248]

The 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine and Physiology, Niels Kaj Jerne, used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, equating "components of a generative grammar… with various features of protein structures." The title of Jerne's Stockholm Nobel Lecture was "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System."[249] His theory of generative grammar has also carried over into music theory and analysis.[250][251][252]

An MIT press release found that Chomsky was cited within the Arts and Humanities Citation Index more often than any other living scholar from 1980 to 1992.[253]

Despite their respect for his intellectual contribution, a number of linguists and philosophers have been very critical of Chomsky's approach to language. These critics include Christina Behme, Rudolph Botha, Vyvyan Evans, Daniel Everett, Chris Knight, Bruce Nevin and Michael Tomasello.[254] Tom Wolfe has also written a critique of Chomsky's linguistics in his controversial book, The Kingdom of Speech.[255]

In politics

Bolivian Vice President Álvaro García Linera with Noam Chomsky in New York, 8 June 2013

Chomsky biographer Wolfgang B. Sperlich characterizes the linguist and activist as "one of the most notable contemporary champions of the people,"[223] while journalist John Pilger described him as a "genuine people's hero; an inspiration for struggles all over the world for that basic decency known as freedom. To a lot of people in the margins – activists and movements – he's unfailingly supportive."[256] Arundhati Roy called him "one of the greatest, most radical public thinkers of our time,"[257] and Edward Said thought him to be "one of the most significant challengers of unjust power and delusions."[256] Fred Halliday stated that by the start of the 21st century, Chomsky had become a "guru" for the world's anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements.[256] The propaganda model of media criticism that he and Herman developed has been widely accepted in radical media critiques and adopted to some level in mainstream criticism of the media,[258] also exerting a significant influence on the growth of alternative media, including radio, publishers, and the Internet, which in turn have helped to disseminate his work.[259]

"[Chomsky's] become the guru of the new anti-capitalist and Third World movements. They take his views very uncritically; it's part of the Seattle mood – whatever America does is wrong. He confronts orthodoxy but he's becoming a big simplifier. What he can't see is Third World and other regimes that are oppressive and not controlled by America."

Fred Halliday, 2001[256]

However, Sperlich notes that Chomsky has been vilified by corporate interests, particularly in the mainstream press.[149] University departments devoted to history and political science rarely include Chomsky's work on their syllabuses for undergraduate reading.[260] German newspaper Der Spiegel described him as "the Ayatollah of anti-American hatred,"[149] while conservative commentator David Horowitz termed him "the most devious, the most dishonest and... the most treacherous intellect in America," one whose work was infused with an "anti-American dementia" and which evidences Chomsky's "pathological hatred of his own country."[261] Writing in Commentary magazine, the journalist Jonathan Kay described Chomsky as "a hard-boiled anti-American monomaniac who simply refuses to believe anything that any American leader says."[262]

His criticism of Israel has led to him being accused of being a traitor to the Jewish people and an anti-Semite.[263] Criticizing Chomsky's defense of the right of individuals to engage in Holocaust denial on the grounds that freedom of speech must be extended to all viewpoints, Werner Cohn accused Chomsky of being "the most important patron" of the Neo-Nazi movement,[264] while the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) accused him of being a Holocaust denier himself.[265] Alan Dershowitz considered Chomsky to be a "false prophet of the left",[266] while Chomsky has accused Dershowitz of being on "a crazed jihad, dedicating much of his life to trying to destroy my reputation".[267] The Electronic Intifada website claims that the Anti-Defamation League "spied on" Chomsky's appearances, and quotes Chomsky as being unsurprised at that discovery or the use of what Chomsky claims is "fantasy material" provided to Dershowitz for debating him. Amused, Chomsky compares the ADL's reports to FBI files.[268] The ADL have also characterised him as a "dupe of intellectual pride so overweening that he is incapable of making distinctions between totalitarian and democratic societies, between oppressors and victims."[265] In turn, Chomsky has claimed that the ADL is dominated by "Stalinist types" who oppose democracy in Israel.[263]

His far-reaching criticisms of U.S. foreign policy and the legitimacy of U.S. power have raised controversy.[269] A document obtained pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request from the U.S. government revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) monitored Chomsky's activities and for years denied doing so. The CIA also destroyed its files on Chomsky at some point in time, possibly in violation of federal law.[270] He has often received undercover police protection at MIT and when speaking on the Middle East, although he has refused uniformed police protection.[271]

Academic achievements, awards, and honors

In 1970, Chomsky was named one of the "makers of the twentieth century" by The London Times.[163] In early 1969, he delivered the John Locke Lectures at Oxford University; in January 1971, the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture at the University of Cambridge, titled "Problems of Knowledge and Freedom"; in 1972, the Nehru Memorial Lecture in New Delhi;[272] in 1975, the Whidden Lectures at McMaster University, titled "Reflections on Language";[111] in 1977, the Huizinga Lecture in Leiden, titled "Intellectuals and the State"; in 1978, the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University; in 1979, the Kant Lectures at Stanford University;[272] in 1988, the Massey Lectures at the University of Toronto, titled "Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies"; in 1997, The Davie Memorial Lecture on Academic Freedom in Cape Town;[273] in 2011, the Rickman Godlee Lecture at University College, London;[274] and many others.[272]

Chomsky has received honorary degrees from many colleges and universities around the world, including from the following:

In the United States, he is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the Linguistic Society of America, the American Philosophical Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[163] Abroad, he is a member of the Utrecht Society of Arts and Sciences, the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, a corresponding fellow of the British Academy, an honorary member of the British Psychological Society,[163] and a foreign member of the Department of Social Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[278] In addition, he is a recipient of a 1971 Guggenheim Fellowship, the 1984 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology, 1988 the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences,[163] the 1996 Helmholtz Medal, the 1999 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science, and the Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award.[272] He is also a two-time winner of the Gustavus Myers Center Award, receiving the honor in both 1986 and 1988, and the NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language, receiving the honor in both 1987 and 1989.[163] He has also received the Rabindranath Tagore Centenary Award from The Asiatic Society.[279]

In 2004 Chomsky received the Carl-von-Ossietzky Prize from the city of Oldenburg, Germany to acknowledge his body of work as a political analyst and media critic.[280] In 2005, Chomsky received an honorary fellowship from the Literary and Historical Society.[281] In February 2008, he received the President's Medal from the Literary and Debating Society of the National University of Ireland, Galway.[282] Since 2009, he has been an honorary member of International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters (IAPTI).[283]

In 2010, Chomsky received the Erich Fromm Prize in Stuttgart, Germany.[284] In April 2010, Chomsky became the third scholar to receive the University of Wisconsin's A.E. Havens Center's Award for Lifetime Contribution to Critical Scholarship.[285]

The Megachile chomskyi holotype, a bee that was named after Chomsky

Chomsky has an Erdős number of four.[286]

Chomsky was voted the world's leading public intellectual in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll jointly conducted by American magazine Foreign Policy and British magazine Prospect.[287] In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006, he was voted seventh in the list of "Heroes of our time."[288]

Actor Viggo Mortensen and avant-garde guitarist Buckethead dedicated their 2003 album Pandemoniumfromamerica to Chomsky.[289] On January 22, 2010, a special honorary concert for Chomsky was given at Kresge Auditorium at MIT. The concert, attended by Chomsky and dozens of his family and friends, featured music composed by Edward Manukyan and speeches by Chomsky's colleagues, including David Pesetsky of MIT and Gennaro Chierchia, head of the linguistics department at Harvard University.[290]

In May 2007, Jamia Millia Islamia, a prestigious Indian university, named one of its complexes after Noam Chomsky.[291]

In June 2011, Chomsky was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize, which cited his "unfailing courage, critical analysis of power and promotion of human rights."[292] Also in 2011, Chomsky was inducted into IEEE Intelligent Systems' AI's Hall of Fame for "significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems."[293]

In 2013, a newly described species of bee was named after him: Megachile chomskyi.[294]

Bibliography and filmography

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Carlos Peregrín Otero, ed. (1994). Noam Chomsky: Critical Assessments, Volumes 2–3. Taylor & Francis. p. 487. ISBN 978-0-415-10694-8. 
  2. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1996). Class Warfare: Interviews with David Barsamian. London: Pluto Press. pp. 28–29. The real importance of Carey's work is that it's the first effort and until now the major effort to bring some of this to public attention. It's had a tremendous influence on the work I've done. 
  3. ^ Robert F. Barsky (1998). Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. MIT Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-262-52255-7. 
  4. ^ a b Noam Chomsky. "Personal influences, by Noam Chomsky (Excerpted from The Chomsky Reader)". Chomsky.info. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  5. ^ Wolfgang B. Sperlich (2006). Noam Chomsky. Reaktion Books. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-86189-269-0. 
  6. ^ Brent D. Slife (1993). Time and Psychological Explanation: The Spectacle of Spain's Tourist Boom and the Reinvention of Difference. SUNY Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-7914-1469-9. 
  7. ^ Farndale, Nigel. "Noam Chomsky interview". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-15. 
  8. ^ "Noam Chomsky Reading List". Left Reference Guide. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  9. ^ Noam Chomsky (September 22, 2011). Noam Chomsky on the Responsibility of Intellectuals: Redux. Ideas Matter. Event occurs at 09:23. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  10. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 58.
  11. ^ Scott M. Fulton, III. "John W. Backus (1924–2007)". BetaNews, Inc. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f Adams, Tim (2003-11-30). "Noam Chomsky: Thorn in America's side". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-08. 
  13. ^ a b "Chomsky Amid the Philosophers". University of East Anglia. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  14. ^ Gould, S. J. (1981). "Official Transcript for Gould's deposition in McLean v. Arkansas". (Nov. 27).
  15. ^ Knuth, Donald E. (2003). "Preface: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition". Selected Papers on Computer Languages. p. 1. ISBN 1-57586-382-0. 
  16. ^ Hugh LaFollette, Ingmar Persson, ed. (2013). The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-51426-9. 
  17. ^ Keller, Katherine (November 2, 2007). "Writer, Creator, Journalist, and Uppity Woman: Ann Nocenti". Sequential Tart.
  18. ^ Stephen Prickett (2002). Narrative, Religion and Science: Fundamentalism Versus Irony, 1700–1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-521-00983-6. 
  19. ^ William D. Hart. Edward Said and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-521-77810-7. 
  20. ^ John R. Searle (June 29, 1972). "A Special Supplement: Chomsky's Revolution in Linguistics". NYREV, Inc. 
  21. ^ Aaron Swartz (May 15, 2006). "The Book That Changed My Life". Raw Thought. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  22. ^ Robinson, Paul (February 25, 1979). "The Chomsky Problem". The New York Times. Judged in terms of the power, range, novelty and influence of his thought, Noam Chomsky is arguably the most important intellectual alive today. 
  23. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, p. 9; McGilvray 2014, p. 3.
  24. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 9–10; Sperlich 2006, p. 11.
  25. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 30–31.
  26. ^ a b Barsky 1997, pp. 11–13; Sperlich 2006, p. 11.
  27. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 11–13.
  28. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 15.
  29. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 14; Sperlich 2006, pp. 11, 14–15.
  30. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 23; Sperlich 2006, pp. 12, 14–15, 67; McGilvray 2014, p. 4.
  31. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 23.
  32. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 17–19.
  33. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 17–19; Sperlich 2006, pp. 16, 18.
  34. ^ Rescuing Memory: the Humanist Interview with Noam Chomsky, by Jorge Majfud. The Humanist TheHumanist.com N. p., 2016. Web. 30 June 2016.
  35. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, pp. 15–17; Sperlich 2006, p. 12; McGilvray 2014, p. 3.
  36. ^ Rescuing Memory: the Humanist Interview with Noam Chomsky The Humanist TheHumanist.com N. p., 2016. Web. 30 June 2016.
  37. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, pp. 15–17; Sperlich 2006, p. 13; McGilvray 2014, p. 3.
  38. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, pp. 21–22; Sperlich 2006, p. 14; McGilvray 2014, p. 4.
  39. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, pp. 15–17.
  40. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 47; Sperlich 2006, p. 16.
  41. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 47.
  42. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 17.
  43. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 48–51; Sperlich 2006, pp. 18–19, 31.
  44. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 51–52; Sperlich 2006, p. 32.
  45. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 51–52; Sperlich 2006, p. 33.
  46. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 33.
  47. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, p. 79; Sperlich 2006, p. 20.
  48. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 34.
  49. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 33–34.
  50. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 81.
  51. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 83–85; Sperlich 2006, p. 36; McGilvray 2014, pp. 4–5.
  52. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 36.
  53. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 38.
  54. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 13, 48, 51–52; Sperlich 2006, pp. 18–19.
  55. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 20.
  56. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 20–21.
  57. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 82; Sperlich 2006, pp. 20–21.
  58. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 24; Sperlich 2006, p. 13.
  59. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 24–25.
  60. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 26.
  61. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 34–35.
  62. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 36–40.
  63. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 43–44.
  64. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv; Barsky 1997, pp. 86–87; Sperlich 2006, pp. 38–40.
  65. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 87.
  66. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xvi; Barsky 1997, p. 91.
  67. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 91; Sperlich 2006, p. 22.
  68. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 88–91; Sperlich 2006, p. 40; McGilvray 2014, p. 5.
  69. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 88–91.
  70. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 1.
  71. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xvi; Barsky 1997, p. 84.
  72. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 6; Barsky 1997, pp. 96–99; Sperlich 2006, p. 41; McGilvray 2014, p. 5.
  73. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 119.
  74. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 101–102, 119; Sperlich 2006, p. 23.
  75. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 102.
  76. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 103.
  77. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 104.
  78. ^ "Slideshow | unBox the Chomsky Archive | MIT Libraries". libraries.mit.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  79. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xvi; Barsky 1997, p. 120.
  80. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 122.
  81. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 60–61.
  82. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 114.
  83. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 78.
  84. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 120.
  85. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 122; Sperlich 2006, p. 83.
  86. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xvii; Barsky 1997, pp. 122–123; Sperlich 2006, p. 83.
  87. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xvi–xvii; Barsky 1997, p. 163; Sperlich 2006, p. 87.
  88. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 5; Barsky 1997, p. 123.
  89. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 134–135.
  90. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 162–163; Sperlich 2006, p. 87.
  91. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 162–163.
  92. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 5; Barsky 1997, pp. 127–129.
  93. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 5; Barsky 1997, pp. 127–129; Sperlich 2006, pp. 80–81.
  94. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 121–122, 131.
  95. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 121; Sperlich 2006, p. 78.
  96. ^ Michael Albert, Remembering Tomorrow, p97-99; C.P.Otero, Noam Chomsky: Language and Politics, p247; 'MIT may be dangerous to the world', The Tech, 28/4/72, p5.
  97. ^ G.D.White, Campus Inc., p445.
  98. ^ Stephen Shalom, 'A flawed political biography' - review of Robert Barsky, Noam Chomsky: a life of dissent, New Politics, Issue 23; 'Why Smash MIT?' in Immanuel Wallerstein, University Crisis Reader, vol.2, p240-3; The Tech, 9/11/69; An extract from Ricky Leacock's documentary, November Actions, on MIT's student protests in 1969.
  99. ^ MIT Review Panel on Special Laboratories Final Report, p37-8; See also Robert Barsky, Noam Chomsky: a life of dissent, p140-1.
  100. ^ Michael Albert, Remembering Tomorrow, p98.
  101. ^ The New York Review of Books, March 1967 and April 1967.
  102. ^ 'Battering Ram: The occupation of the president's office', The Tech, 14/12/71 p4 and The Tech, 4/8/72.
  103. ^ //chomsky.info/1992____. See also: Noam Chomsky, Class Warfare p137.
  104. ^ Barsky, Noam Chomsky, p121-2, 131.
  105. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 153; Sperlich 2006, pp. 24–25, 84–85.
  106. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 124; Sperlich 2006, p. 80.
  107. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 123–124; Sperlich 2006, p. 22.
  108. ^ a b Barsky 1997, p. 143.
  109. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv–xvi; Barsky 1997, p. 120.
  110. ^ Lyons 1978, p. xv–xvi; Barsky 1997, p. 143.
  111. ^ a b c Barsky 1997, p. 156.
  112. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 192–195; Sperlich 2006, p. 52.
  113. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 192–195; Sperlich 2006, p. 53.
  114. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 192–195.
  115. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 51.
  116. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 175.
  117. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 167, 170.
  118. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 170–171.
  119. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 157.
  120. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 160–162; Sperlich 2006, p. 86.
  121. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 85.
  122. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 187; Sperlich 2006, p. 86.
  123. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 187.
  124. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 103.
  125. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 187–189.
  126. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 190.
  127. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 179–180; Sperlich 2006, p. 61.
  128. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 185; Sperlich 2006, p. 61.
  129. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 184.
  130. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 78.
  131. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 185.
  132. ^ Birnbaum, Jean (3 June 2010). "Chomsky à Paris : chronique d'un malentendu". Le Monde des Livres. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  133. ^ Aeschimann, Eric (31 May 2010). "Chomsky s'est exposé, il est donc une cible désignée". Liberátion. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  134. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 90–91.
  135. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 91, 92.
  136. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 91.
  137. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 99; McGilvray 2014, p. 13.
  138. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 98.
  139. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 160, 202; Sperlich 2006, pp. 127–134.
  140. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 136.
  141. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 138–139.
  142. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 53.
  143. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 59.
  144. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 214.
  145. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 104.
  146. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 107.
  147. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 109–110.
  148. ^ a b c McGilvray 2014, p. 6.
  149. ^ a b c Sperlich 2006, p. 10.
  150. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 110–111.
  151. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 143.
  152. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 114–118.
  153. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 120.
  154. ^ U.S., Britain ignored 'culture of terrorism': Chomsky, The Hindu November 4, 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  155. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 25.
  156. ^ Sperlich 2006, pp. 112–113, 120.
  157. ^ Younge, Gary; Hogue, Kat Keene; theguardian.com (2012-07-06). "Noam Chomsky: 'The Occupy movement just lit a spark' – video". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-04-22. 
  158. ^ Lewis, Paul (June 19, 2015). "Inside the mind of Bernie Sanders: unbowed, unchanged, and unafraid of a good fight". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016. 
  159. ^ a b Weaver, Matthew (14 January 2016). "Chomsky hits back at Erdoğan, accusing him of double standards on terrorism". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  160. ^ Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent. 
  161. ^ Gold, Daniel M. (2016-01-28). "Review: Noam Chomsky Focuses on Financial Inequality in 'Requiem for the American Dream'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  162. ^ "Chomsky: Saudi Arabia is the "Center of Radical Islamic Extremism" Now Spreading Among Sunni Muslims". Democracy Now!. May 17, 2016. 
  163. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Noam Chomsky". chomsky.info. Major Twentieth Century Writers. 1991. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  164. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 5.
  165. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 9.
  166. ^ McGilvray 2014, pp. 9–10.
  167. ^ Fox, Margalit (1998-12-05). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-22. Mr. Chomsky... is the father of modern linguistics and remains the field's most influential practitioner. 
  168. ^ "Noam Chomsky | MIT150 | Massachusetts Institute of Technology 150th anniversary". mit150.mit.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-24. Noam Chomsky is an Institute Professor and professor of linguistics emeritus at MIT, widely known as the father of modern linguistics, a philosopher, prolific author, and globally influential political activist. 
  169. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 4; McGilvray 2014, pp. 2–3.
  170. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 7.
  171. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 6.
  172. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 6; McGilvray 2014, pp. 2–3.
  173. ^ a b "Tool Module: Chomsky's Universal Grammar". thebrain.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 2015-12-24. 
  174. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 11.
  175. ^ Lehmann 1982, p. 80.
  176. ^ Thornbury, Scott (2006). An A-Z of ELT (Methodology). Oxford: Macmillan Education. p. 130. 
  177. ^ Chomsky 1965.
  178. ^ Noam Chomsky. "The 'Chomskyan Era' (Excerpted from The Architecture of Language)". Chomsky.info. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  179. ^ Thornbury, Scott (2006). An A-Z of ELT (Methodology). Oxford: Macmillan Education. p. 234. 
  180. ^ Kordić, Snježana (1991). "Transformacijsko-generativni pristup jeziku u Sintaktičkim strukturama i Aspektima teorije sintakse Noama Chomskog" [Transformational-generative approach to language in Syntactic structures and Aspects of the theory of syntax of Noam Chomsky] (PDF). SOL: lingvistički časopis (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb. 6 (12–13): 103–112. ISSN 0352-8715. ZDB-ID 1080348-8. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2015.  (CROLIB)
  181. ^ Szabó, Zoltán Gendler (2004). LePore, Ernest, ed. "Noam Chomsky". chomsky.info. Bristol: Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  182. ^ Robert Hardin. "The Chomsky Hierarchy" (PDF). cs.wmich.edu. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  183. ^ Knuth, Donald (2002). "Preface". Selected Papers on Computer Languages. Center for the Study of Language and Information. ISBN 978-1-57586-381-8. 
  184. ^ Davis, Martin; Weyuker, Elaine J.; Sigal, Ron (1994). Computability, complexity, and languages: fundamentals of theoretical computer science (2nd ed.). Boston: Academic Press, Harcourt, Brace. p. 327. ISBN 978-0-12-206382-4. 
  185. ^ Fox, Margalit (1998-12-05). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-22. 
  186. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 12.
  187. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 95; McGilvray 2014, p. 4.
  188. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 77.
  189. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 14; McGilvray 2014, p. 17.
  190. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 17.
  191. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 74; McGilvray 2014, p. 16.
  192. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 8.
  193. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 74; McGilvray 2014, pp. 12–13.
  194. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 71.
  195. ^ "IWW Biography". Industrial Workers of the World. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  196. ^ International Organization for a Participatory Society – Interim Committee Retrieved March 31, 2012
  197. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 92.
  198. ^ a b c McGilvray 2014, p. 13.
  199. ^ a b c McGilvray 2014, p. 14.
  200. ^ McGilvray 2014, p. 18.
  201. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 15.
  202. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 168; Sperlich 2006, p. 16.
  203. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 89.
  204. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 95.
  205. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 211.
  206. ^ McGilvray 2014, pp. 14–15.
  207. ^ a b c McGilvray 2014, p. 15.
  208. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 170; Sperlich 2006, pp. 76–77.
  209. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 97.
  210. ^ Pilkington, Ed (2010-05-16). "Noam Chomsky barred by Israelis from lecturing in Palestinian West Bank". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-04. 
  211. ^ Bronner, Ethan (2010-05-17). "Israel Roiled After Chomsky Barred From West Bank". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-04. 
  212. ^ "Israel: Chomsky ban 'big mistake'". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-05-04. 
  213. ^ "Denied Entry: Israel Blocks Noam Chomsky from Entering West Bank to Deliver Speech". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 2016-05-04. 
  214. ^ "Noam Chomsky Denied Entry To Israel". 2016-01-14. Archived from the original on 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2016-05-04. 
  215. ^ Rai 1995, pp. 20.
  216. ^ Rai 1995, pp. 37–38.
  217. ^ Rai 1995, pp. 70.
  218. ^ Rai 1995, pp. 42.
  219. ^ Szabó, Zoltán Gendler (2004). LePore, Ernest, ed. "Noam Chomsky". chomsky.info. Bristol: Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860-1960. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  220. ^ a b McGilvray 2014, p. 19.
  221. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 158; Sperlich 2006, p. 19.
  222. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 121.
  223. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 7.
  224. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 116.
  225. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 206–207.
  226. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 121.
  227. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 9.
  228. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 69.
  229. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 199.
  230. ^ Jaggi, Maya (2001-01-20). "The Guardian Profile: Noam Chomsky". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  231. ^ Nevin 2010, p. 106.
  232. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 169.
  233. ^ Fox, Margalit (2008-12-20). "Carol Chomsky, 78, Linguist and Educator, Dies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-10. 
  234. ^ Marquard, Bryan (December 20, 2008). "Carol Chomsky; at 78; Harvard language professor was wife of MIT linguist". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008. 
  235. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 22.
  236. ^ "Noam Chomsky on Life & Love: Still Going at 86, Renowned Dissident is Newly Married". Democracy Now!. 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  237. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 60.
  238. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 191.
  239. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 24.
  240. ^ Lyons 1978, p. 2.
  241. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 42.
  242. ^ "The Cognitive Science Millennium Project". web.mnstate.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  243. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 39.
  244. ^ Michael Sipser (1997). Introduction to the Theory of Computation. PWS Publishing. ISBN 0-534-94728-X. 
  245. ^ "Knuth: Selected Papers on Computer Languages". www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-05. 
  246. ^ "Behaviorism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  247. ^ "Lecture 6: Evolutionary Psychology, Problem Solving, and 'Machiavellian' Intelligence". School of Psychology. Massey University. 1996. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007. 
  248. ^ Radick, Gregory (2007). The Simian Tongue: The Long Debate about Animal Language. University of Chicago Press. p. 320. 
  249. ^ Niels K. Jerne. "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System" (PDF). nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  250. ^ Baroni, M. and Callegari, L. (1982) Eds., Musical grammars and computer analysis. Leo S. Olschki Editore: Firenze, 201–218.
  251. ^ Steedman, Mark J. (1984-10-01). "A Generative Grammar for Jazz Chord Sequences". Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 2 (1): 52–77. doi:10.2307/40285282. 
  252. ^ Rohrmeier, Martin (2007). A generative grammar approach to diatonic harmonic structure. In Spyridis, Georgaki, Kouroupetroglou, Anagnostopoulou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Sound and Music Computing Conference, 97–100. http://smc07.uoa.gr/SMC07%20Proceedings/SMC07%20Paper%2015.pdf
  253. ^ "Chomsky is Citation Champ". MIT News Office. April 15, 1992. Retrieved September 3, 2007. 
  254. ^ Christina Behme, 'A Potpourri of Chomskyan Science', Philosophy in Science, 2014; Rudolph Botha, Challenging Chomsky. The generative garden game, 1989; Vyvyan Evans, 'There is No Language Instinct', Aeon; Daniel Everett, Language: The Cultural Tool, 2012; Chris Knight, Decoding Chomsky - Science and Revolutionary Politics, 2016; Bruce Nevin, 'Noam and Zellig', in D.Kibbee, Chomskyan (R)evolutions, 2010; Michael Tomasello, 'Universal Grammar Is Dead', Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32 (5), 2009.
  255. ^ Tom Wolfe, 'The Origins of Speech: In the beginning was Chomsky'.
  256. ^ a b c d Maya Jaggi (January 20, 2001). "Conscience of a nation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. 
  257. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 114.
  258. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 129.
  259. ^ Sperlich 2006, p. 142.
  260. ^ Barsky 1997, pp. 153–154.
  261. ^ David Horowitz (September 26, 2001). "The Sick Mind of Noam Chomsky". Salon. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. 
  262. ^ Jonathan Kay (May 12, 2011). "The Monomania of an Anti-American Prophet". Commentary. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. 
  263. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 100.
  264. ^ Cohn 1995, p. 37.
  265. ^ a b Sperlich 2006, p. 101.
  266. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 170.
  267. ^ Barsky 1997, p. 171.
  268. ^ Winstanley, Asa (17 May 2013). "Secret files reveal Anti-Defamation League spied on Noam Chomsky". electronicintifada.net. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  269. ^ Flint, Anthony (November 19, 1995). "Divided Legacy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 4, 2007. Ask this intellectual radical why he is shunned by the mainstream, and he'll say that established powers have never been able to handle his brand of dissent. 
  270. ^ Lennard, Natasha. "CIA finally admits to spying on Chomsky". Salon. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  271. ^ Rabbani 2012.
  272. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Noam Chomsky". chomsky.info. MIT Linguistics Program. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  273. ^ "Van Zyl Slabbert to present TB Davie Memorial Lecture". Uct.ac.za. October 13, 2003. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  274. ^ "UCL – Events Calendar – UCL Rickman Godlee Lecture 2011 with Noam Chomsky: Contours of global order: Domination, stability, security in a changing world". Events.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  275. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lent, John A.; Amazeen, Michelle A. (2015-08-05). Key Thinkers in Critical Communication Scholarship: From the Pioneers to the Next Generation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 2. ISBN 9781137463425. 
  276. ^ a b c d PBS, NOW -. "Noam Chomsky on America's Foreign Policy". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  277. ^ "Drexel Announces 2015 Honorary Degree Recipients – DrexelNow". DrexelNow. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  278. ^ "SASA Member". www.sanu.ac.rs. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  279. ^ "Soundings: Fall 02". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  280. ^ "Chomsky | Inventio". www.inventio-musikverlag.de. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  281. ^ "Interview: Noam Chomsky Speaks Out On Education and Power : Soundtracksforthem". 2005-09-20. Retrieved 2016-05-10. [dead link]
  282. ^ "Archbishop Desmond Tutu to speak to Litndeb". 2009-01-09. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  283. ^ "IAPTI -INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL TRANSLATORS AND INTERPRETERS". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  284. ^ "The 2010 Erich Fromm Prize to Noam Chomsky". International Erich Fromm Society. 2010-01-16. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  285. ^ "Author, activist Noam Chomsky to receive award". www.news.wisc.edu. 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  286. ^ "Paths to Erdös - The Erdös Number Project- Oakland University". www.oakland.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  287. ^ "Prospect/FP Top 100 Public Intellectuals Results". 2005-10-15. Archived from the original on 2005-10-25. Retrieved 2015-11-30. 
  288. ^ "New Statesman – Heroes of our time – the top 50". 2006-12-27. Archived from the original on 2006-12-27. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  289. ^ "Viggo Mortensen's Spoken Word & Music CDs". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  290. ^ "The Official Edward Manukyan Website - Honoring Noam Chomsky". www.edwardmanukyan.com. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  291. ^ "Jamia Millia Islamia named a complex honoring Noam Chomsky". Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  292. ^ "Sydney Peace Prize goes to Chomsky". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  293. ^ "IEEE Computer Society Magazine Honors Artificial Intelligence Leaders - Press Release - Digital Journal". www.digitaljournal.com. 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  294. ^ "Let me introduce myself -- leafcutter bee Megachile chomskyi from Texas - Pensoft". www.pensoft.net. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 

Bibliography

"AI's Hall of Fame" (PDF). IEEE Intelligent Systems. IEEE Computer Society. 26 (4): 5–15. 2011. doi:10.1109/MIS.2011.64. 
Barsky, Robert F. (1997). Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02418-1. 
Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Courrége, Philippe; Danchin, Antoine (1973). "A Theory of the Epigenesis of Neuronal Networks by Selective Stabilization of Synapses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 70 (10): 2974–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.70.10.2974. PMC 427150free to read. PMID 4517949. 
Chomsky, Noam (1959). "Reviews: Verbal behavior by B. F. Skinner". Language. 35 (1): 26–58. doi:10.2307/411334. JSTOR 411334. 
Cohn, Werner (1995) [1985]. Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and the Holocaust Deniers. Cambridge, MA: Avukah Press. ISBN 0-964-58970-2. 
Evans, N.; Levinson, S. C. (2009). "The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 32 (5): 429–448. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0999094X. 
Everett, Daniel L. (2008). Don't Sleep, There Are Snakes: Life and Language in the Amazonian Jungle. New York, NY: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42502-8. 
Gardner, R. A.; Gardner, B. T. (1969). "Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee" (PDF). Science. 165 (3894): 664–672. doi:10.1126/science.165.3894.664. JSTOR 1727877. PMID 5793972. 
Gardner, R. A.; Gardner, B. T.; Van Cantfort, Thomas E. (1989). Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-965-9. 
Knight, Chris (2016). Decoding Chomsky; Science and Revolutionary Politics. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 
Laurence, Stephen (2003). "Is Linguistics a Branch of Psychology?" (PDF). In A. Barker, ed., Epistemology of Language (pp. 69–106). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
Lehmann, Christian (1982). "On some current views of the language universal". In René Dirven and Günter Radden, eds., Issues in the Theory of Universal Grammar, pp. 75–94. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. ISBN 3-87808-565-6. 
Lyons, John (1978). Noam Chomsky (revised ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-004370-9. 
McGilvray, Janes (2014). Chomsky: Language, Mind, Politics (second ed.). Cambridge: Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-4989-4. 
Miles, H. Lyn White (1990). "The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orangutan". In Sue Taylor Parker and Kathleen Rita Gibson, eds., "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives (pp. 511–539). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38028-7. 
Nevin, Bruce (2010). "Noam and Zellig". In Douglas A. Kibbee, ed., Chomskyan (R)evolutions, pp. 103–168. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 978-9-027-21169-9. 
Nishida, T. (1968). "The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains". Primates. 9 (3): 167–224. doi:10.1007/BF01730971. 
Patel, Aniruddh D. (2008). Music, Language, and the Brain. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512375-3. 
Patterson, Francine; Linden, Eugene (1981). The Education of Koko. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-046101-9. 
Plooij, F. X. (1978). "Some basic traits of language in wild chimpanzees?". In A. Lock, ed., Action, Gesture and Symbol: The Emergence of Language (pp. 111–131). London: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-454050-7. 
Poole, Geoffrey (2005). "Noam Chomsky". In Siobhan Chapman and Christopher Routledge, eds., Key Thinkers in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language (pp. 53–59). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1757-9. 
Posner, Richard A. (2003). Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01246-2. 
Premack, D. (1985). " 'Gavagai!' or the future history of the animal language controversy". Cognition. 19 (3): 207–296. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(85)90036-8. PMID 4017517. 
Rabbani, Mouin (2012). "Reflections on a Lifetime of Engagement with Zionism, the Palestine Question, and American Empire: An Interview with Noam Chomsky". Journal of Palestine Studies. 41 (3): 92–120. doi:10.1525/jps.2012.XLI.3.92. 
Rai, Milan (1995). Chomsky's Politics. Verso. ISBN 978-1-859-84011-5. 
Savage-Rumbaugh, S.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; McDonald, K. (1985). "Language learning in two species of apes". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 9 (4): 653–665. doi:10.1016/0149-7634(85)90012-0. 
Savage-Rumbaugh, S.; McDonald, K.; Sevcik, R. A.; Hopkins, W. D.; Rubert, E. (1986). "Spontaneous Symbol Acquisition and Communicative Use By Pygmy Chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 115 (3): 211–235. 
Sheffield, Cory (2013-03-04). "A new species of Megachile Latreille subgenus Megachiloides (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)". ZooKeys. 283: 43–58. doi:10.3897/zookeys.283.4674. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 3677363free to read. PMID 23794841. 
Sperlich, Wolfgang B. (2006). Noam Chomsky. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861892690. 
Terrace, Herbert S. (1987). Nim: A Chimpanzee who Learned Sign Language. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06341-8. 

External links