Nobel Prize in Literature

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Nobel Prize in Literature
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur)
Nobel Prize.png
Awarded forOutstanding contributions in literature
LocationStockholm, Sweden
Presented bySwedish Academy
Reward(s)10 million SEK (2020)[1]
First awarded1901
Currently held byLouise Glück[2]
Websitenobelprize.org

The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).[3][4] Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, most recently in 2018.[5][6][7]

Background[edit]

In 1901, French poet and essayist Sully Prudhomme (1839–1907) was the first person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect."

Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[8][9] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.[10][11] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, 176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[12] Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) approved it.[13][14] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes.

The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.[15][16] The Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[14][17][18] According to Nobel's will, the prize in literature should be determined by "the Academy in Stockholm", which was specified by the statutes of the Nobel Foundation to mean the Swedish Academy.[19]

Nomination and award procedure[edit]

Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate. It is not permitted to nominate oneself.[20]

Thousands of requests are sent out each year, and as of 2011 about 220 proposals were returned.[21] These proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates.[21] By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee.[21] The next four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates.[21] In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature. No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice; thus many authors reappear and are reviewed repeatedly over the years.[21] The academy is master[clarification needed] of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown[clarification needed] language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer.[21] Other elements of the process are similar to those of other Nobel Prizes.[22] The judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life, and until 2018 not technically permitted to leave.[23] On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign. The new rules also state that a member who has been inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign.[24][25]

The award is usually announced in October. Sometimes, however, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest such case being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, and resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.[6][5]

Prizes[edit]

A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.[26] The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation that year.[27] If a prize is awarded to more than one laureate, the money is either split evenly among them or, for three laureates, it may be divided into a half and two quarters.[28] If a prize is awarded jointly to two or more laureates, the money is split among them.[28]

The prize money of the Nobel Prize has been fluctuating since its inauguration but as of 2012 it stood at kr 8,000,000 (about US$1,100,000), previously it was kr 10,000,000.[29][30][31] This was not the first time the prize-amount was decreased—beginning with a nominal value of kr 150,782 in 1901 (worth 8,123,951 in 2011 SEK) the nominal value has been as low as kr 121,333 (2,370,660 in 2011 SEK) in 1945—but it has been uphill or stable since then, peaking at an SEK-2011 value of 11,659,016 in 2001.[31]

The laureate is also invited to give a lecture during "Nobel Week" in Stockholm; the highlight is the prize-giving ceremony and banquet on 10 December.[32] It is the second richest literary prize in the world.

Medals[edit]

The Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket[33] in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse (front side of the medal). The Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design.[34] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design.[35] The medal for the Nobel Prize in Literature was designed by Erik Lindberg.[36]

Diplomas[edit]

Nobel laureates receive a Diploma directly from the King of Sweden. Each Diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate who receives it.[37] The Diploma contains a picture and text that states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.[37]

Laureates[edit]

The Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to acclaimed writers such as Rudyard Kipling, Rabindranath Tagore, Knut Hamsun, Anatole France, William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Henri Bergson, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Luigi Pirandello, Eugene O'Neill, Gabriela Mistral, André Gide, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Bertrand Russell, Ernest Hemingway, Boris Pasternak, Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Samuel Beckett, Yasunari Kawabata, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Saul Bellow, Czeslaw Milosz, Gabriel García Márquez, William Golding, Nadine Gordimer, Toni Morrison, José Saramago, Mario Vargas Llosa, Alice Munro, Peter Handke, and Olga Tokarczuk.[19]

113 Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded between 1901 and 2020 to 117 individuals: 101 men and 16 women. The prize has been shared between two individuals on four occasions. It was not awarded on seven occasions. The laureates have included writers in 25 different languages. The youngest laureate was Rudyard Kipling, who was 41 years old when he was awarded in 1907. The oldest laureate to receive the prize was Doris Lessing, who was 88 when she was awarded in 2007. It has been awarded posthumously once, to Erik Axel Karlfeldt in 1931. Two writers have declined the prize, Boris Pasternak in 1958 ("Accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country (Soviet Union) to decline the Prize", according to the Nobel Foundation) and Jean-Paul Sartre in 1964.[38]

Interpretations of Nobel's guidelines[edit]

Alfred Nobel's guidelines for the prize that the candidate should have bestowed "the greatest benefit on mankind", and writing "in an ideal direction" have caused much discussion. In the early history of the prize Nobel's "ideal" was read as "a lofty and sound idealism". The set of criteria, characterized by its conservative idealism, holding church, state and family sacred, resulted in Prizes to Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Rudyard Kipling and Paul Heyse. During World War I there was a policy of neutrality, which partly explains the number of awards to Scandinavian writers. In the 1920s "ideal direction" was interpreted more generously as "wide-hearted humanity", and writers like Anatole France, George Bernard Shaw and Thomas Mann were awarded. In the 1930s "the greatest benefit on mankind" was interpreted as writers within everybody’s reach, with authors like Sinclair Lewis and Pearl Buck being awarded. From 1946 a renewed Academy changed focus and began to award literary pioneers like Hermann Hesse, André Gide, T. S. Eliot and William Faulkner. From this era, "the greatest benefit on mankind" was interpreted in a more exclusive and generous way than before. Since the 1970s the Academy has often given attention to important but internationally unnoticed writers, awarding writers like Isaac Bashevis Singer, Odysseus Elytis, Elias Canetti, and Jaroslav Seifert.

From 1986 the Academy acknowledged the international horizon in Nobel's will, which rejected any consideration for the nationality of the candidates, and awarded authors from all over the world such as Wole Soyinka from Nigeria, Naguib Mahfouz from Egypt, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Nadine Gordimer from South Africa, Derek Walcott from St. Lucia, Toni Morrison, the first African-American on the list, Kenzaburo Oe from Japan, and Gao Xingjian, the first laureate to write in Chinese.[19] In the 2000s V. S. Naipaul, Mario Vargas Llosa and the Chinese writer Mo Yan have been awarded, but the policy of "a prize for the whole world" has been less noticeable as the Academy has mostly awarded European and English-language writers from the Western literary tradition. In 2015 a rare prize to a non-fiction writer was awarded to Svetlana Alexievich.[39]

Shared prize[edit]

The Nobel Prize in Literature can be shared between two individuals. However, the Academy has been reluctant to award shared prizes, mainly because divisions are liable to be interpreted as a result of a compromise. The shared prizes awarded to Frederic Mistral and José Echegaray in 1904 and to Karl Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan in 1917 were in fact both a result of compromises. The Academy has also hesitated to divide the prize between two authors as a shared prize runs the risk of being regarded as only half a laurel. Shared prizes are exceptional, and more recently the Academy has awarded a shared prize on only two occasions, to Shmuel Yosef Agnon and Nelly Sachs in 1966, and to Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson in 1974.[19]

Recognition of a specific work[edit]

Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature are awarded for the author's life work, but on some occasions the Academy have singled out a specific work for particular recognition. For example Knut Hamsun was awarded in 1920 "for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil", Thomas Mann in 1929 "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature", John Galsworthy in 1932 "for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga", Roger Martin du Gard in 1937 “for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault.” Ernest Hemingway in 1954 "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style", and Mikhail Sholokhov in 1965 "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people".[38]

Potential candidates[edit]

Nominations are kept secret for fifty years until they are publicly available at The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Currently, only nominations submitted between 1901 and 1968 are available for public viewing.[40]

What about the rumours circling around the world about certain people being nominated for the Nobel Prize this year? - Well, either it's just a rumour, or someone among the invited nominators has leaked information. Since the nominations are kept secret for 50 years, you'll have to wait until then to find out.[41]

— www.nobelprize.org, in Nomination FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions about the Nomination and Selection of Nobel Laureates

Criticism[edit]

Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize,[42] the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain widely studied and read. The prize has "become widely seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with political tastes different from theirs.[43] Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors ... [to] compar[e] a poet from Indonesia, perhaps translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon, perhaps available only in French, and another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...".[44] As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin. The Academy has often been alleged to be biased towards European, and in particular Swedish, authors.[45]

Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal".[4][46] The Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale.[4][47]

Controversies about Nobel Laureate selections[edit]

Selma Lagerlöf, the first female writer to be awarded a Nobel Prize in literature, faced major controversies. Illustration from Svenska Dagbladet, 11 December 1909

From 1901 to 1912, the committee, headed by the conservative Carl David af Wirsén, weighed the literary quality of a work against its contribution towards humanity's struggle 'toward the ideal'. Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen, Émile Zola, and Mark Twain were rejected in favor of authors little read today.[46][48]

The first prize in 1901, awarded to the French poet Sully Prudhomme, was heavily criticised. Many believed that the acclaimed Russian author Tolstoy should have been awarded the first Nobel prize in literature.[49]

The choice of philosopher Rudolf Eucken as Nobel Laureate in 1908 is widely considered to be one of the worst mistakes in the history of the Nobel Prize in Literature. The main candidates for the prize this year were poet Algernon Swinburne and author Selma Lagerlöf, but the Academy were divided between the candidates and, as a compromise, Eucken, representative of the Academy's interpretation of Nobel's "ideal direction", was launched as an alternative candidate that could be agreed upon.[50]

The choice of Selma Lagerlöf (Sweden 1858–1940) as Nobel Laureate in 1909 (for the 'lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterizes her writings'[51]) followed fierce debate because of her writing style and subject matter, which broke literary decorums of the time.[52][53]

During World War I and its immediate aftermath, the committee adopted a policy of neutrality, favouring writers from non-combatant countries.[46] The pacifistic author Romain Rolland was awarded the prize for 1915. Other years during the war Scandinavian writers were favoured, or the award was postponed.[54]

In 1931 the prize was awarded posthumously to the poet and former permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy Erik Axel Karlfeldt, who had died earlier that year. The prize was controversial not just because it was the first and only time the Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded posthumously, but because the Academy had previously awarded two other Swedish writers of the same literary era, Selma Lagerlöf in 1909 and Verner von Heidenstam in 1916. Internationally it was heavily criticized as few had heard of Karlfeldt.[55]

The Nobel Prize awarded to Pearl Buck in 1938 is one of the most criticised in the history of the prize. The Academy awarded Buck "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces", referring to acclaimed and popular books published only a few years earlier. But her later work is generally not considered to be of the literary standard of a Nobel Laureate.[56]

In 1962, John Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature. The selection was heavily criticized, and described as "one of the Academy's biggest mistakes" in one Swedish newspaper.[57] The New York Times asked why the Nobel committee gave the award to an author whose "limited talent is, in his best books, watered down by tenth-rate philosophising", adding, "we think it interesting that the laurel was not awarded to a writer ... whose significance, influence and sheer body of work had already made a more profound impression on the literature of our age".[57] Steinbeck himself, when asked if he deserved the Nobel on the day of the announcement, replied: "Frankly, no."[57] In 2012 (50 years later), the Nobel Prize opened its archives and it was revealed that Steinbeck was a "compromise choice" among a shortlist consisting of Steinbeck, British authors Robert Graves and Lawrence Durrell, French dramatist Jean Anouilh and Danish author Karen Blixen.[57] The declassified documents showed that he was chosen as the best of a bad lot:[57] "There aren't any obvious candidates for the Nobel prize and the prize committee is in an unenviable situation," wrote committee member Henry Olsson.[57]

In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but he wrote declining it, stating that "It is not the same thing if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre or if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre, Nobel Prize laureate. A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form."[58] Nevertheless he was awarded the prize.[59]

Soviet dissident writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the 1970 prize laureate, did not attend the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm for fear that the USSR would prevent his return afterwards (his works there were circulated in samizdat—clandestine form).[60] After the Swedish government refused to honor Solzhenitsyn with a public award ceremony and lecture at its Moscow embassy, Solzhenitsyn refused the award altogether, commenting that the conditions set by the Swedes (who preferred a private ceremony) were "an insult to the Nobel Prize itself." Solzhenitsyn did not accept the award and prize money until 10 December 1974, after he was deported from the Soviet Union.[61]

In 1974, Graham Greene, Vladimir Nabokov, and Saul Bellow were believed to be likely candidates for the prize but the Academy decided on a joint award for Swedish authors Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson, both members of the Swedish Academy at the time,[62] and unknown outside their home country.[63][64] Bellow received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1976; neither Greene nor Nabokov was awarded it.[65]

The award to Italian performance artist Dario Fo in 1997 was initially considered "rather lightweight"[66] by some critics, as he was seen primarily as a performer, and Catholic organizations saw the award to Fo as controversial as he had previously been censured by the Roman Catholic Church.[67] The Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano expressed surprise at Fo's selection for the prize commenting that "Giving the prize to someone who is also the author of questionable works is beyond all imagination."[68] Salman Rushdie and Arthur Miller had been strongly favoured to receive the Prize, but the Nobel organisers were later quoted as saying that they would have been "too predictable, too popular."[69]

Camilo José Cela willingly offered his services as an informer for Franco's regime and had moved voluntarily from Madrid to Galicia during the Spanish Civil War in order to join the rebel forces there; an article by Miguel Angel Villena, Between Fear and Impunity which compiled commentaries by Spanish novelists on the noteworthy silence of the older generation of Spanish novelists on the Francoist pasts of public intellectuals, appeared below a photograph of Cela during the Nobel ceremony in Stockholm in 1989.[70]

The choice of the 2004 laureate, Elfriede Jelinek, was protested by a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund, who had not played an active role in the Academy since 1996; Ahnlund resigned, alleging that selecting Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage" to the reputation of the award.[71][72]

The selection of Harold Pinter for the Prize in 2005 was delayed for a couple of days, apparently due to Ahnlund's resignation, and led to renewed speculations about there being a "political element" in the Swedish Academy's awarding of the Prize.[47] Although Pinter was unable to give his Nobel Lecture in person because of ill health, he delivered it from a television studio on video projected on screens to an audience at the Swedish Academy, in Stockholm. His comments have been the source of much commentary and debate. The issue of their "political stance" was also raised in response to the awards of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Orhan Pamuk and Doris Lessing in 2006 and 2007, respectively.[73]

The 2016 choice of Bob Dylan was the first time a musician and songwriter won the Nobel for Literature. The award caused some controversy, particularly among writers arguing that the literary merits of Dylan's work are not equal to those of some of his peers. Lebanese novelist Rabih Alameddine tweeted that "Bob Dylan winning a Nobel in Literature is like Mrs Fields being awarded 3 Michelin stars."[74] The French writer Pierre Assouline described the decision as "contemptuous of writers".[75] In a live webchat hosted by The Guardian, Norwegian writer Karl Ove Knausgård said that "I'm very divided. I love that the nobel committee opens up for other kinds of literature – lyrics and so on. I think that's brilliant. But knowing that Dylan is the same generation as Thomas Pynchon, Philip Roth, Cormac McCarthy, makes it very difficult for me to accept it."[76] Scottish novelist Irvine Welsh said "I'm a Dylan fan, but this is an ill conceived nostalgia award wrenched from the rancid prostates of senile, gibbering hippies."[77] Dylan's songwriting peer and friend Leonard Cohen said that no prizes were necessary to recognize the greatness of the man who transformed pop music with records like Highway 61 Revisited. "To me," Cohen said, "[the Nobel] is like pinning a medal on Mount Everest for being the highest mountain."[78] Writer and commentator Will Self wrote that the award "cheapened" Dylan whilst hoping the laureate would "follow Sartre in rejecting the award".[79]

The choice of Peter Handke for the prize in 2019 caused much controversy and was criticised because of Handke's vocal support of Serbia during the 1990s Yugoslav wars. Albania's foreign minister Gent Cakaj called it a "shameful" award and Kosovo's president Hashim Thaçi said that "The decision of Nobel Prize brought immense pain to countless victims", and it was also criticised by several other politicians and survivors of the war. In a statement, PEN America wrote that the organisation was "dumbfounded by the selection of a writer who has used his public voice to undercut historical truth". The Swedish Academy defended their decision to award Handke and wrote that "the Swedish Academy has obviously not intended to reward a war criminal and denier of war crimes or genocide" and that the Academy "has found nothing in what he has written that involves attacks on civil society or respect for the equal value of all people".[80][81]

Nationality-based criticism[edit]

French author Albert Camus was the first African-born writer to receive the award.

The prize's focus on European men, and Swedes in particular, has been the subject of criticism, even from Swedish newspapers.[82] The majority of laureates have been European, with Sweden itself receiving more prizes (8) than all of Asia (7, if Turkish Orhan Pamuk is included), as well as all of Latin America (7, if Saint Lucian Derek Walcott is included). In 2009, Horace Engdahl, then the permanent secretary of the Academy, declared that "Europe still is the centre of the literary world" and that "the US is too isolated, too insular. They don't translate enough and don't really participate in the big dialogue of literature."[83]

In 2009, Engdahl's replacement, Peter Englund, rejected this sentiment ("In most language areas ... there are authors that really deserve and could get the Nobel Prize and that goes for the United States and the Americas, as well") and acknowledged the Eurocentric nature of the award, saying that, "I think that is a problem. We tend to relate more easily to literature written in Europe and in the European tradition."[84] American critics are known to object that those from their own country, like Philip Roth, Thomas Pynchon, and Cormac McCarthy, have been overlooked, as have Latin Americans such as Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, and Carlos Fuentes, while in their place Europeans lesser-known to that continent have triumphed. The 2009 award to Herta Müller, previously little-known outside Germany but many times named favorite for the Nobel Prize, re-ignited the viewpoint that the Swedish Academy was biased and Eurocentric.[85]

The 2010 prize was awarded to Mario Vargas Llosa, a native of Peru in South America, a generally well-regarded decision. When the 2011 prize was awarded to the Swedish poet Tomas Tranströmer, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy Peter Englund said the prize was not decided based on politics, describing such a notion as "literature for dummies".[86] The Swedish Academy awarded the next two prizes to non-Europeans, Chinese author Mo Yan and Canadian short story writer Alice Munro. French writer Patrick Modiano's win in 2014 renewed questions of Eurocentrism; when asked by The Wall Street Journal "So no American this year, yet again. Why is that?", Englund reminded Americans of the Canadian origins of the previous year's recipient, the Academy's desire for literary quality and the impossibility of rewarding everyone who deserves the prize.[87]

Overlooked literary achievements[edit]

In the history of the Nobel Prize in Literature, many literary achievements were overlooked. The literary historian Kjell Espmark admitted that "as to the early prizes, the censure of bad choices and blatant omissions is often justified. Tolstoy, Ibsen, and Henry James should have been rewarded instead of, for instance, Sully Prudhomme, Eucken, and Heyse".[88] There are omissions which are beyond the control of the Nobel Committee such as the early death of an author as was the case with Marcel Proust, Italo Calvino, and Roberto Bolaño. According to Kjell Espmark "the main works of Kafka, Cavafy, and Pessoa were not published until after their deaths and the true dimensions of Mandelstam's poetry were revealed above all in the unpublished poems that his wife saved from extinction and gave to the world long after he had perished in his Siberian exile".[88] British novelist Tim Parks ascribed the never-ending controversy surrounding the decisions of the Nobel Committee to the "essential silliness of the prize and our own foolishness at taking it seriously"[89] and noted that "eighteen (or sixteen) Swedish nationals will have a certain credibility when weighing up works of Swedish literature, but what group could ever really get its mind round the infinitely varied work of scores of different traditions. And why should we ask them to do that?"[89]

Although several Scandinavians were awarded, two of the most celebrated writers, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen and Swedish author August Strindberg were repeatedly bypassed by the committee, but Strindberg holds the singular distinction of being awarded an Anti-Nobel Prize, conferred by popular acclaim and national subscription and presented to him in 1912 by future prime minister Hjalmar Branting.[90][91][92]

Paul Valéry was nominated twelve times between 1930 and 1945, but died just as the Academy intended to award him the prize in 1945.[93][94]

James Joyce wrote the books that rank 1st and 3rd on the Modern Library 100 Best NovelsUlysses and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man – but Joyce was never nominated for the prize. Kjell Espmark, member of the Nobel Prize committee and author of the history of the prize, claimed that Joyce's "stature was not properly recognized even in the English-speaking world", but that Joyce doubtless would have been awarded if he had lived in the late 1940s when the Academy began to award literary pioneers like T. S. Eliot.[95]

Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges was nominated for the Prize several times but the Academy did not award it to him, though he was among the final candidates some years in the 1960s.[96]

Graham Greene was nominated for the prize twenty times between the years 1950 and 1966.[97] Greene was a celebrated candidate to be awarded the prize in the 1960s and 1970s, and the Academy was criticised for passing him over.[19]

According to Swedish Academy archives studied by the newspaper Le Monde on their opening in 2008, French novelist and intellectual André Malraux was seriously considered for the prize in the 1950s. Malraux was competing with Albert Camus but was rejected several times, especially in 1954 and 1955, "so long as he does not come back to novel". Thus, Camus was awarded the prize in 1957.[98]

W. H. Auden was nominated to the Nobel Prize in Literature ten times in the 1960s[99] and was among the final candidates for the prize several times, but the Academy favoured other writers. In 1964 Auden and Jean-Paul Sartre were the leading candidates, and the Academy favoured Sartre as Auden's best work was thought "too far back in time". In 1967 Auden was one of three final candidates along with Graham Greene and the awarded Guatemalan author Miguel Ángel Asturias.[100][101]

Controversies about Swedish Academy board members[edit]

Membership in the 18-member committee, who select the recipients, is technically for life.[23] Members are not allowed to leave, although they might refuse to participate.[23] For members who do not participate their board seat is left vacant until they die.[102] Twelve active/participating members are required for a quorum.[102]

In 1989, three members resigned in protest after the academy refused to denounce Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini for calling for the death of Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses.[23]

2018 controversy and award cancellation[edit]

In April 2018, three members of the academy board resigned in response to a sexual-misconduct investigation involving author Jean-Claude Arnault, who is married to board member Katarina Frostenson.[102] Arnault was accused by at least 18 women of sexual assault and harassment. He and his wife were also accused of leaking the names of prize recipients on at least seven occasions so friends could profit from bets.[103][102] He denied all accusations, although he was later convicted of rape and sentenced to two years and six months in prison.[104][105][106] The three members resigned in protest over the decision by Sara Danius, the board secretary, not to take what they felt was appropriate legal action against Arnault.[102][23][107] Two former permanent secretaries, Sture Allén and Horace Engdahl, called Danius a weak leader.[102]

On 10 April, Danius was asked to resign from her position by the Academy, bringing the number of empty seats to four.[108] Although the Academy voted against removing Katarina Frostenson from the committee,[109] she voluntarily agreed to withdraw from participating in the academy, bringing the total of withdrawals to five. Because two other seats were still vacant from the Rushdie affair, this left only 11 active members, one short of the quorum needed to vote in replacements. On 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the selection would be postponed until 2019, when two laureates would be chosen. It was still technically possible to choose a 2018 laureate, as only eight active members are required to choose a recipient. However, there were concerns that the academy was not in any condition to credibly present the award.[5][6][7][110] The New Academy Prize in Literature was created as an alternative award for 2018 only.[111]

The scandal was widely seen as damaging to the credibility of the prize and its authority. "With this scandal you cannot possibly say that this group of people has any kind of solid judgment," noted Swedish journalist Björn Wiman.[102] As noted by Andrew Brown in The Guardian in a lengthy deconstruction of the scandal:

"The scandal has elements of a tragedy, in which people who set out to serve literature and culture discovered they were only pandering to writers and the people who hang around with them. The pursuit of excellence in art was entangled with the pursuit of social prestige. The academy behaved as if the meals in its clubhouse were as much an accomplishment as the work that got people elected there."[112]

King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden said a reform of the rules may be evaluated, including the introduction of the right to resign in respect of the current lifelong membership of the committee.[113] On 5 March 2019, it was announced that the Nobel Prize in Literature would once again be awarded, and laureates for both 2018 and 2019 would be announced together. The decision came after several changes were made to the structure of the Swedish Academy as well as to the Nobel Committee members selection, in order to "[restore] trust in the Academy as a prize-awarding institution".[114]

Recorded Nominees[edit]

Picture Name Born Died Years Nominated Notes
Emile Zola 1902.jpg Émile Zola April 02, 1840
Paris, France
September 29, 1902
Paris, France
1901, 1902
René Vallery-Radot.png René Vallery-Radot October 01, 1853
Paris, France
January 24, 1933
Paris, France
1901
Portrait of Edmond Rostand.jpg Edmond Rostand April 01, 1868
Marseille, France
December 02, 1918
Paris, France
1901
Silver - replace this image male.svg Julius Gersdorff June 15, 1849
Szczecin, Poland
November 07, 1907
Weimar, Germany
1901
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alexander Baumgartner June 27, 1841
St. Gallen, Switzerland
October 05, 1910
Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
1901, 1902, 1903
A D Xenopol.jpg Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol March 23, 1847
Iași, Romania
February 27, 1920
Bucharest, Romania
1901, 1909
Silver - replace this image male.svg Oscar le Pin ?
Switzerland
?
Switzerland
1901
Paul Sabatier en 1905.jpg Charles Paul Sabatier August 03, 1858
Saint-Michel-de-Chabrillanoux, France
March 04, 1928
Strasbourg, France
1901, 1902, 1903, 1924, 1925
Silver - replace this image male.svg Louis Ducros 1830
France
1914
France
1901
Frederic Mistral portrait photo.jpg Frédéric Mistral September 08, 1830
Maillane, France
March 25, 1914
Maillane, France
1901, 1902, 1903, 1904 Won the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Gaston Paris.jpg Gaston Paris August 09, 1839
Avenay-Val-d'Or, France
March 05, 1903
Cannes, France
1901, 1902, 1903
Carl Gustaf Estlander (1834-1910), finländsk humanist.jpg Carl Gustaf Estlander January 31, 1834
Lappfjärd, Finland
August 28, 1910
Helsinki, Finland
1901
Henryk Sienkiewicz 1905.jpg Henryk Sienkiewicz May 05, 1846
Wola Okrzejska, Poland
November 15, 1916
Vevey, Switzerland
1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905 Won the 1905 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Auguste Sabatier 1897.jpg Louis Auguste Sabatier October 22, 1839
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, France
April 12, 1901
Strasbourg, France
1901
Silver - replace this image male.svg Paul Duproix 1851
France
1912
France
1901
Núñez de Arce.jpg Gaspar Núñez de Arce August 04, 1832
Valladolid, Spain
June 09, 1903
Madrid, Spain
1901, 1902, 1903
Silver - replace this image male.svg Charles Borgeaud August 15, 1861
Le Chenit, Switzerland
October 06, 1940
Onex, Switzerland
1901
Charles Renouvier.png Charles Renouvier January 01, 1815
Montpellier, France
September 01, 1903
Prades, France
1901
Sully-Prudhomme.jpg Sully Prudhomme March 16, 1839
Paris, France
September 06, 1907
Châtenay-Malabry, France
1901 Won the 1901 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Kemény Ferenc (1860-1944).jpg Ferenc Kemény July 17, 1860
Zrenjanin Serbia
November 21, 1944
Budapest, Hungary
1901, 1902
Silver - replace this image male.svg Giacomo Stampa ?
Italy
?
Italy
1901
Portrait of Antonio Fogazzaro.jpg Antonio Fogazzaro March 25, 1842
Vicenza, Italy
March 07, 1911
Vicenza, Italy
1901, 1902, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1911
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ossip Lourié January 28, 1868
Dubroŭna, Belarus
July 02, 1955
Paris, France
1901
D. João da Câmara - Serões (Fev1908).png João Gonçalves Zarco da Câmara December 27, 1852
Lisbon, Portugal
January 02, 1908
Lisbon, Portugal
1901
Leo Tolstoy, portrait.jpg Leo Tolstoy September 09, 1828
Yasnaya Polyana, Russia
November 20, 1910
Lev Tolstoy, Russia
1901, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1906
Malwida von Meysenbug, portrait par Franz von Lenbach.jpg Malwida von Meysenburg October 28, 1816
Kassel, Germany
April 23, 1903
Rome, Italy
1901 First woman nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Theodor Zahn ca 1908.jpg Theodor Zahn October 10, 1838
Moers, Germany
March 05, 1933
Erlangen, Germany
1902, 1904, 1908
Koni by Repin.jpg Anatoly Koni January 28, 1844
Saint Petersburg, Russia
September 17, 1927
Saint Petersburg, Russia
1902
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ventura Fernández López 1866
Spain
1944
Spain
1902
Gerhart Hauptmann nobel.jpg Gerhart Hauptmann November 15, 1862
Szczawno-Zdrój, Poland
June 06, 1946
Jelenia Góra, Poland
1902, 1906, 1912 Won the 1912 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Carl Weitbrecht.jpg Carl Weitbrecht December 08, 1847
Althengstett, Germany
June 10, 1904
Stuttgart, Germany
1902
HSChamberlain cropped.jpg Houston Stewart Chamberlain September 09, 1855
Portsmouth, United Kingdom
January 09, 1927
Bayreuth, Germany
1902, 1906
Hartmann Grisar 2 (cropped).jpg Hartmann Grisar September 22, 1845
Koblenz, Germany
February 25, 1932
Innsbruck, Austria
1902
Lewis Morris woodburytype.png Lewis Morris January 23, 1833
Carmarthen, United Kingdom
November 12, 1907
Penbryn, United Kingdom
1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907
Yeats1923.jpg William Butler Yeats June 13, 1865
Sandymount, Ireland
January 28, 1939
Cannes, France
1902, 1914, 1915, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1923 Won the 1923 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Giosuè Carducci2.jpg Giosuè Carducci July 27, 1835
Pietrasanta, Italy
February 16, 1907
Bologna, Italy
1902, 1903, 1905, 1906 Won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Mark Twain by AF Bradley.jpg Mark Twain November 30, 1835
Missouri, United States
April 21, 1910
Connecticut, United States
1902
Herbert Spencer.jpg Herbert Spencer April 27, 1820
Derby, United Kingdom
December 08, 1903
Brighton, United Kingdom
1902
Portrait of George Meredith.jpg George Meredith February 12, 1828
Hampshire, United Kingdom
May 18, 1909
Surrey, United Kingdom
1902, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1907
Picture of John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn.jpg John Morley December 24, 1838
Blackburn, United Kingdom
September 23, 1923
London, United Kingdom
1902, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1913
BernardBosanquetPhilosopher.jpg Bernard Bosanquet June 14, 1848
Alnwick, United Kingdom
February 08, 1923
London, United Kingdom
1902
Silver - replace this image male.svg Marcel Barrière November 03, 1860
Limoux, France
February 18, 1954
Paris, France
1902
Juhani Aho 1886.jpg Juhani Aho September 11, 1861
Lapinlahti, Finland
August 08, 1921
Helsinki, Finland
1902, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920
Theodor Mommsen 2.jpg Theodor Mommsen November 30, 1817
Garding, Germany
November 01, 1903
Berlin, Germany
1902 Won the 1902 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Portrett av Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, 1909 - no-nb digifoto 20150129 00043 bldsa BB0791 - Restoration.jpg Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson December 08, 1832
Kvikne, Norway
April 26, 1910
Paris, France
1902, 1903 Won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Gustav Falke, c. 1913.jpg Gustav Falke January 11, 1853
Lübeck, Germany
February 08, 1916
Marburg, Germany
1902
Arne Garborg eldre.jpg Arne Garborg January 25, 1851
Jæren, Norway
January 14, 1924
Asker, Norway
1902, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921
Charles Wagner.jpg Charles Wagner January 03, 1852
Alsace, France
May 12, 1918
Alsace, France
1902, 1903, 1909
Archibald Robertson.jpg Archibald Robertson June 29, 1853
Northamptonshire, United Kingdom
January 29, 1931
Oxford, United Kingdom
1902
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg José Echegaray April 19, 1832
Madrid, Spain
September 14, 1916
Madrid, Spain
1902, 1903, 1904 Won the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature with Frédéric Mistral.
Schaarwächter Henrik Ibsen cropped.jpg Henrik Ibsen March 20, 1828
Skien, Norway
May 23, 1906
Oslo, Norway
1902, 1903, 1904
Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo, por Kaulak.jpg Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo November 03, 1856
Santander, Spain
May 19, 1912
Santander, Spain
1903, 1905, 1907, 1910
IwanGilkin.jpg Iwan Gilkin January 07, 1858
Brussels, Belgium
September 28, 1924
Brussels, Belgium
1903, 1909
Georg Brandes by L Szacinski.jpg Georg Brandes February 04, 1842
Copenhagen, Denmark
February 19, 1927
Copenhagen, Denmark
1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1922, 1925, 1926
Maurice de Maeterlinck.jpg Maurice Maeterlinck August 29 1862
Ghent, Belgium
May 06, 1949
Nice, France
1903, 1904, 1909, 1910, 1911 Won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Albert Sorel August 13, 1842
Honfleur, France
June 29, 1906
Paris, France
1903, 1904, 1905, 1906
François Coppée (Stories By Foreign Authors).jpg François Coppée January 26, 1842
Paris, France
May 23, 1908
Paris, France
1903
Carl-Friedrich-Glasenapp-(1847-1915; vor 1908).jpg Carl Friedrich Glasenapp October 03, 1847
Riga, Latvia
April 14, 1915
Riga, Latvia
1903
Portrait of Algernon Charles Swinburne.jpg Algernon Charles Swinburne April 05, 1837
London, United Kingdom
April 10, 1909
London, United Kingdom
1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909
Rudyard Kipling (portrait).jpg Rudyard Kipling December 30, 1865
Mumbai, India
January 18, 1936
London, United Kingdom
1903, 1904, 1905, 1907 Won the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Robert Langton Douglas 1864
Cheshire, United Kingdom
1951
Fiesole, Italy
1903, 1904
Silver - replace this image female.svg Émilie Lerou 1855
France
1935
France
1904
Jan Vilímek - Jaroslav Vrchlický cut.jpg Jaroslav Vrchlický February 17, 1853
Louny, Czechia
September 09, 1912
Domazlice, Czechia
1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912
Anatole France 1921.jpg Anatole France April 16, 1844
Paris, France
October 12, 1924
Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire, France
1904, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1921 Won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Dimitrios Bernardakis.JPG Demetrios Bernardakis December 03, 1833
Mitilini, Greece
January 12, 1907
Mitilini, Greece
1904, 1905
William Chapman.png William Chapman December 13, 1850
Beauceville, Canada
February 23, 1917
Ottawa, Canada
1904, 1910, 1912, 1917
Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg Bertha von Suttner June 09, 1843
Prague, Czechia
June 21, 1914
Vienna, Austria
1905 Won the 1905 Nobel Peace Prize.
Selma Lagerlöf.jpg Selma Lagerlöf November 20, 1858
Värmland, Sweden
March 16, 1940
Värmland, Sweden
1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909 Won the 1909 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Eliza Orzeszkowa mal Kamieński.jpg Eliza Orzeszkowa June 06, 1841
Mil'kovshchina, Belarus
May 18, 1910
Grodno, Belarus
1905
Silver - replace this image male.svg Godfrey Sweven May 05, 1845
Irvine, United Kingdom
January 18, 1935
Christchurch, New Zeland
1905
Silver - replace this image male.svg Borden Parker Bowne January 14, 1847
New Jersey, United States
April 01, 1910
Massachusetts, United States
1906, 1907, 1909 First American nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Pedro Figueroa 1857
Spain
1909
Spain
1906
FranckLouis.jpg Louis Franck November 28, 1868
Antwerp, Belgium
December 31, 1937
Wijnegem, Belgium
1906
Gaston Boissier 02.jpg Gaston Boissier August 15, 1823
Nîmes, France
June 10, 1908
Viroflay, France
1906
Silver - replace this image male.svg William Joseph Neidig 1870
United Kingdom
1955
United Kingdom
1906
Silver - replace this image male.svg Joseph Viktor Widmann February 20, 1842
Moravia, Czechia
November 06, 1911
Bern, Switzerland
1906, 1908
George Lansing Raymond.jpg George Lansing Raymond September 03, 1839
Illinois, United States
July 11, 1929
Washington D.C., United States
1906, 1907, 1908
Silver - replace this image male.svg Max Haushofer 1840
Germany
1907
Germany
1906
Angelo de Gubernatis.jpg Angelo de Gubernatis April 07, 1840
Turin, Italy
February 26, 1913
Rome, Italy
1906, 1907, 1909
Swedish Academy.svg Max Bewer January 19, 1861
Düsseldorf, Germany
October 13, 1921
Meißen, Germany
1906
William-Booth-c1900.jpg William Booth April 10, 1829
Nottingham, United Kingdom
August 20, 1912
London, United Kingdom
1906
João Bonança - O Occidente (1 Jun. 1889).png João Bonança ca. 1836
Lagos, Portugal
April 13, 1924
Lisbon, Portugal
1907
Holger Drachmann, fra Klæbels samling - Restoration.jpg Holger Drachmann October 09, 1846
Copenhagen, Denmark
January 14, 1908
Hornbæk, Denmark
1907
Ángel Guimerá, de Audouard.jpg Àngel Guimerà May 06, 1835
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
July 18, 1924
Barcelona, Spain
1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923
Georgios Souris 122.JPG Georgios Souris February 02, 1853
Ermoupoli, Greece
August 26, 1919
Athens, Greece
1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912
Ian Maclaren 001.jpg Ian MacLaren November 03, 1850
Manningtree, United States
May 06, 1907
Iowa, United States
1907
Andrés Manjón.png Andrés Manjón November 30, 1846
Sargentes de la Lora, Spain
July 10, 1923
Granada, Spain
1907
Eduardo Benot (cropped).jpg Eduardo Benot November 26, 1822
Cádiz, Spain
July 27, 1907
Madrid, Spain
1907
Portrait of Paul Charles Joseph Bourget.jpg Paul Bourget September 02, 1852
Amiens, France
December 25, 1935
Paris, France
1907, 1909, 1914, 1915, 1928
Julio Calcaño.jpg Julio Calcaño December 04, 1840
Caracas, Venezuela
August 18, 1918
Caracas, Venezuela
1908 First Latin American nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Adolf Harnack.jpg Adolf von Harnack May 07, 1851
Tartu, Estonia
June 10 1930
Heidelberg, Germany
1908, 1916
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alfred Hutchison ?
United States
?
United States
1908
Eucken-im-Alter.png Rudolf Christoph Eucken January 05, 1846
Aurich, Germany
September 15, 1926
Jena, Germany
1908 Won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Edmondo De Amicis.jpg Edmondo De Amicis October 21, 1846
Imperia, Italy
March 11, 1908
Bordighera, Italy
1908
Elisabeth förster 1894b.JPG Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche July 10, 1846
Lützen, Germany
November 08, 1935
Weimar, Germany
1908, 1916, 1917, 1923
Emile Verhaeren in 1910.jpg Émile Verhaeren May 21, 1855
Sint-Amands, Belgium
[November 27, 1916
Rouen, France
1909, 1912, 1915, 1916
Salvador Rueda.png Salvador Rueda December 03, 1857
Benaque, Spain
April 01, 1933
Málaga, Spain
1909, 1910, 1911, 912, 1913, 1915
Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé by Nadar.jpg Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé February 25, 1848
Nice, France
March 29, 1910
Paris, France
1909
Portrait of Ernest Lavisse.jpg Ernest Lavisse December 17, 1842
Le Nouvion-en-Thiérache, France
August 18, 1922
Paris, France
1909, 1910, 1912, 1913
Martin Greif 1898.jpg Martin Greif June 18, 1839
Speyer, Germany
April 01, 1911
Kufstein, Austria
1909, 1910, 1911
Silver - replace this image male.svg Francesco D'Ovidio December 05, 1849
Campobasso, Italy
November 24, 1925
Naples, Italy
1909, 1910, 1911, 1912
Verner von Heidenstam in 1915.jpg Verner von Heidenstam July 06, 1859
Olshammar, Sweden
May 20, 1940
Övralid, Sweden
1909, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1916 Won the 1916 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Molly Elliot Seawell 002.jpg Molly Elliot Seawell October 23, 1860
Virginia, United States
November 15, 1916
Washington, D.C., United States
1910, 1911
Silver - replace this image male.svg Gustav Warneck March 06, 1834
Naumburg, Germany
December 26, 1910
Halle (Saale), Germany
1910
Silver - replace this image male.svg Wilhelm Benignus 1861
Germany
1930
Germany
1910
Portrait of Pierre Loti.jpg Pierre Loti January 14, 1850
Rochefort, France
June 10, 1923
Hendaye, France
1910, 1911, 1912, 1913
Alfred-Jules-Emile Fouillée. Photogravure by Synnberg Photo- Wellcome L0023077.jpg Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée October 18, 1838
Erdre-en-Anjou, France
June 16, 1912
Lyon, France
1910
Edouard Rod 7.jpg Édouard Rod March 31, 1857
Nyon, Switzerland
January 29, 1910
Grasse, France
1910
Marie Ebner Eschenbach 1916.jpg Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach September 13, 1830
Troubky-Zdislavice, Czechia
March 12, 1916
Vienna, Austria
1910, 1911
W. D. Howells.jpg William Dean Howells March 01, 1837
Ohio, United States
May 11, 1920
New York, United States]]
1910
Thomashardy restored.jpg Thomas Hardy June 02, 1840
Stinsford, United Kingdom
January 11, 1928
Dorchester, United Kingdom
1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927
Robert Bridges.jpg Robert Bridges October 23, 1844
Walmer, United Kingdom
April 21, 1930
Boars Hill, United Kingdom
1910
Andrew Lang.jpg Andrew Lang March 31, 1844
Selkirk, United Kingdom
July 20, 1912
Banchory, United Kingdom
1910
Paul Heyse 1910.jpg Paul von Heyse March 13, 1830
Berlin, Germany
April 02, 1914
Munich, Germany
1910 Won the 1910 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Albert de Mun by Isidore Alphonse Chalot.jpg Adrien Albert Marie de Mun February 28, 1841
Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, France
October 06, 2924
Bordeaux, France
1911
Rafael Altamira 1915.jpg Rafael Altamira y Crevea February 10, 1866
Alicante, Spain
June 01, 1951
Mexico City, Mexico
1911, 1912
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ernst von der Recke August 14, 1848
Copenhagen, Denmark
December 02, 1933
Zealand, Denmark
1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1930
Gustav Fröding.jpg Gustaf Fröding August 22, 1860
Alster, Swedeen
February 08, 1911
Stockholm, Sweden
1911
Harald Høffding c 1915.jpg Harald Høffding March 11, 1843
Copenhagen, Denmark
July 02, 1931
Copenhagen, Denmark
1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1916
Rosegger3.jpg Peter Rosegger July 31, 1843
Krieglach, Austria
June 26, 1918
Krieglach, Austria
1911, 1913, 1918
George Bernard Shaw 1936.jpg George Bernard Shaw July 26, 1856
Dublin, Ireland
November 02, 1950
Ayot St Lawrence, United Kingdom
1911, 1912, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1926 Won the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Wenzl Weis - Karl Schönherr.jpg Karl Schönherr February 24, 1867
Axams, Austria
March 15, 1943
Vienna, Austria
1911, 1933, 1938
Karl Gjellerup.jpg Karl Adolph Gjellerup June 02, 1857
Roholte, Denmark
October 13, 1919
Dresden, Germany
1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917 Won the 1917 Nobel Prize in Literature with Henrik Pontoppidan.
Portrait of Henry James 1913.jpg Henry James April 15, 1843
New York, United States
February 28, 1916
London, United Kingdom
1911, 1912, 1916
Jean-henri fabre.jpg Jean-Henri Fabre December 21, 1823
Aveyron, France
October 11, 1915
Sérignan-du-Comtat, France
1912, 1914
JamesGeorgeFrazer.jpg James George Frazer January 01, 1854
Glasgow, United Kingdom
May 07, 1941
Cambridge, United Kingdom
1912, 1926, 1928, 1935
Henri Bergson 02.jpg Henri Bergson October 18, 1859
Paris, France
January 04, 1941
Paris, France
1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1918, 1921, 1928 Won the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Salvatore Farina January 10, 1846
Sorso, Italy
December 15, 1918
Milan, Italy
1912, 1913, 1914
Benito Pérez Galdós 1915.png Benito Pérez Galdós May 10, 1843
Las Palmas, Spain
January 04, 1920
Madrid, Spain
1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916
Carl Spitteler 1919.jpg Carl Spitteler April 24, 1845
Liestal, Switzerland
December 29, 1924
Lucerne, Switzerland
1912, 1913, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 Won the 1919 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Hans E. Kinck (7602646518).jpg Hans Ernst Kinck October 11, 1865
Øksfjord, Norway
October 13, 1926
Oslo, Norway
1912, 1919, 1920, 1926
BASA-546K-1-108-4-Pencho Slaveykov (cropped).JPG Pencho Slaveykov April 27, 1866
Tryavna, Bulgaria
June 10, 1912
Brunate, Italy
1912
Sven Hedin 01.jpg Sven Hedin February 19, 1865
Stockholm, Sweden
November 26, 1952
Stockholm, Sweden
1912, 1913
Adolf Frey.jpg Adolf Frey February 18, 1855
Küttigen, Switzerland
February 12, 1920
Zürich, Switzerland
1912, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920
Grazia Deledda 1926.jpg Grazia Deledda September 28, 1871
Nuoro, Italy
August 15, 1936
Rome, Italy
1913, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927 Won the 1926 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Henrik Pontoppidan 1913.jpg Henrik Pontoppidan July 24, 1857
Fredericia, Denmark
August 21, 1943
Charlottenlund, Denmark
1913, 1916, 1917 Won the 1917 Nobel Prize in Literature with Karl Gjellerup
Edmond Picard (1836-1924) (crop).jpg Edmond Picard December 15, 1836
Brussels, Belgium
February 19, 1924
Namur, Belgium
1913, 1914, 1916, 1917
EmileFaguet.jpg Émile Faguet December 17, 1847
La Roche-sur-Yon, France
June 07, 1916
Paris, France
1913, 1914
Rabindranath Tagore.jpg Rabindranath Tagore May 07, 1861
Kolkata, India
August 07, 1941
Kolkata, India
1913 First Asian nominated and won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Portrait of Edward Dowden.jpg Edward Dowden May 03, 1843
Cork, Ireland
April 04, 1913
Dublin, Ireland
1913
John Lubbock72.jpg John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury April 30, 1834
London, United Kingdom
May 28, 1913
Broadstairs, United Kingdom
1913
Jakob Knudsen, Danish writer.jpg Jakob Knudsen September 14, 1858
Rødding, Denmark
January 21, 1917
Birkerød, Denmark
1913, 1916
Silver - replace this image male.svg Francis Welles November 03, 1838
Massachusetts, United States
September 30, 1917
Massachusetts, United States
1913
Machar JS 1923.jpg Josef Svatopluk Machar February 29, 1864
Kolin, Czechia
March 17, 1942
Prague, Czechia
1914, 1915
Merezhkovskiy in NNovgorod.jpg Dmitry Merezhkovsky August 02, 1865
Saint Petersburg, Russia
December 09, 1941
Paris, France
1914, 1915, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937
Rene Bazin.jpg René Bazin December 26, 1853
Angers, France
July 20, 1932
Paris, France
1914, 1915
KloosWitsen1892.jpg Willem Kloos May 06, 1859
Amsterdam, Netherlands
March 3, 1938
The Hague, Netherlands
1914, 1915, 1925, 1926, 1928
Dorette or Dora Melegari.png Dora Melegari June 27, 1849
Lausanne, Switzerland
July 31, 1924
Rome, Italy
1914, 1923
Silver - replace this image male.svg Antonio Serra y Morant ?
Spain
?
Spain
1914
Vilhelm Grønbech.jpg Vilhelm Grønbech June 14, 1873
Allinge, Denmark
April 21, 1948
Helsingør, Denmark
1914, 1915, 1927, 1928, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944
Charles Montagu Doughty.jpg Charles Montagu Doughty August 19, 1843
Saxmundham, United Kingdom
January 20, 1926
Sissinghurst, United Kingdom
1915
Romain Rolland-1914.jpg Romain Rolland January 29, 1866
Clamecy, France
December 30, 1944
Vézelay, France
1915, 1916 Won the 1915 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Ferdinand Avenarius, portrait.jpg Ferdinand Avenarius December 20, 1856
Berlin, Germany
September 22, 1923
Kampen, Germany
1915, 1921
Roby Datta.jpg Rabindranath Datta October 01, 1883
Kolkata, India
July 06, 1917
Kolkata, India
1916
Іван Франко.jpg Ivan Franko August 27, 1856
Lviv, Ukraine
May 28, 1916
Lviv, Ukraine
1916
Burmese Kammavaca.jpg The Pāli Text Society founded in 1881 by Thomas William Rhys Davids 1916 First and last literary society nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Brezina otokar.jpg Otokar Březina September 13, 1868
Počátky, Czechia
March 25, 1929
Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou, Czechia
1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1925, 1928, 1929
Per Hallström.jpg Per Hallström September 29, 1866
Stockholm, Sweden
February 18, 1960
Nacka, Sweden
1916, 1919
Swedish professor henrik schück.jpg Henrik Schück November 02, 1855
Stockholm, Sweden
October 03, 1947
Uppsala, Sweden
1916, 1929
Gunnar Heiberg 1928.png Gunnar Heiberg November 18, 1857
Oslo, Norway
February 22, 1929
Oslo, Norway
1916
Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1931.jpg Erik Axel Karlfeldt July 20, 1864
Avesta, Sweden
April 08, 1931
Stockholm, Sweden
1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1929, 1931 Posthumously won the 1931 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Troels Lund by I.W. Tegner & Kittendorff.jpg Troels Frederik Lund September 05, 1840
Copenhagen, Denmark
February 12, 1921
Copenhagen, Denmark
1916
BASA-937K-1-410-7-Ivan Vazov (cropped).JPG Ivan Vazov July 09, 1850
Sopot, Bulgaria
September 22, 1921
Sofia, Bulgaria
1917
Otto Ernst 1905.jpg Otto Erst Scmidt October 07, 1862
Hamburg, Germany
March 05, 1926
Hamburg, Germany
1917
Bertel-Gripenberg.jpg Bertel Gripenberg September 19, 1878
Saint Petersburg, Russia
May 06, 1947
Sävsjö, Sweden
1917, 1918, 1922, 1923, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1937
Johan Bojer 1927.jpg Johan Bojer March 06, 1872
Orkdal, Norway
July 03, 1959
Oslo, Norway
1917, 1925, 1929, 1932
Olaf Bull 1919.jpeg Olaf Bull November 10, 1883
Oslo, Norway
June 29, 1933
Oslo, Norway
1917, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1932
Jeppe Aakjaer.jpg Jeppe Aakjær September 10, 1866
Aakjaer, Denmark
April 22, 1930
Roslev, Denmark
1917
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S42619, Gustav Frenssen.jpg Gustav Frenssen October 19, 1863
Barlt, Germany
April 11, 1945
Barlt, Germany
1918
Maxim Gorky LOC Restored edit1.jpg Maxim Gorky March 28, 1868
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
June 18, 1936
Moscow Oblast, Russia
1918, 1923, 1928, 1933
Jan Vilímek - Alois Jirásek.jpg Alois Jirásek August 23, 1851
Hronov, Czechia
March 12, 1930
Prague, Czechia
1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1930
Gunnar Gunnarsson.jpg Gunnar Gunnarsson May 18, 1889
Fljótsdalur, Iceland
November 21, 1975
Reykjavík, Iceland
1918, 1921, 1922, 1955, 1960, 1961
Hamsun bldsa HA0341.jpg Knut Hamsun August 04, 1859
Lom, Norway
February 199, 1952
Grimstad, Norway
1918, 1920 Won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Wladyslaw Reymont 1924.jpg Władysław Reymont May 07, 1867
Kobiele Wielkie, Poland
December 05, 1925
Warsaw, Poland
1919, 1920, 1922, 1924 Won the 1924 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874–1929) Wilhelm Willinger.jpg Hugo von Hofmannsthal February 01, 1874
Vienna, Austria
July 15, 1929
Vienna, Austria
1919, 1924, 1926, 1927
Arno Holz ca 1913.jpg Arno Holz April 26, 1863
Ketrzyn, Poland
October 26, 1929
Berlin, Germany
1919, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929
John Galsworthy 2.jpg John Galsworthy August 14, 1867
Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom
January 31, 1933
London, United Kingdom
1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1931, 1932 Won the 1932 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Ebenezer Howard.jpg Ebenezer Howard January 29, 1850
London, United Kingdom
May 01, 1928
Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom
1919, 1920
Silver - replace this image male.svg Wilbur Cortez Abbott December 28, 1869
Indiana, United States
February 03, 1947
Massachusetts, United States
1920
Jacinto Benavente y Martinez.jpg Jacinto Benavente August 12, 1866
Madrid, Spain
July 14, 1954
Madrid, Spain
1921, 1922 Won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Stefan Zeromski Polish writer.jpg Stefan Żeromski October 14, 1864
Strawczyn, Poland
November 20, 1925
Warsaw, Poland
1921, 1922, 1923, 1924
Silver - replace this image male.svg Jean Revel September 22, 1848
Conteville, France
May 04, 1925
Conteville, France
1921
Émile Boutroux.jpg Émile Boutroux July 28, 1845
Montrouge, France
November 22, 1921
Paris, France
1921
H.G. Wells by Beresford.jpg Herbert George Wells September 21, 1866
London, United Kingdom
August 31, 1946
London, United Kingdom
1921, 1932, 1935, 1946
Paul Ernst (HeidICON 28803) (cropped).jpg Paul Ernst March 07, 1866
Elbingerode, Germany
May 13, 1933
Sankt Georgen an der Stiefing, Austria
1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933
Darrell Figgis-Portrait Image- Reflections of the Irish War.jpg Darrell Figgis September 17, 1882
Dublin, Ireland
October 27, 1925
London, United Kingdom
1922
Silver - replace this image male.svg Georg von Below January 19, 1858
Gusev, Russia
October 20, 1927
Badenweiler, Germany
1922
Portrait of Matilde Serao.jpg Matilde Serao March 07, 1856
Patras, Greece
July 25, 1927
Naples, Italy
1922, 1923, 1924, 1925
Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg Sigrid Undset May 20, 1882
Kalundborg, Denmark
June 10, 1949
Lillehammer, Norway
1922, 1925, 1926, 1928 Won the 1928 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Ludwig von Pastor.JPG Ludwig von Pastor January 31, 1854
Aachen, Germany
September 30, 1928
Innsbruck, Austria
1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1929
Israel Zangwill.jpg Israel Zangwill January 21, 1864
London, United Kingdom
August 01, 1926
Midhurst, United Kingdom
1922
Deaninge.jpg William Ralph Inge June 06, 1860
. Crayke, United Kingdom
February 26, 1954
Wallingford, United Kingdom
1922, 1923, 1929
Roberto Bracco 08.jpg Roberto Bracco November 10, 1861
Naples, Italy
April 20, 1943
Sorrento, Italy
1922, 1923, 1924, 1925
Silver - replace this image male.svg Michael Sadleir December 25, 1888
Oxford, United Kingdom
December 13, 1957
London, United Kingdom
1922
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hermann Türck 1856
Germany
1933
Germany
1923, 1924
Guglielmo Ferrero.jpg Guglielmo Ferrero July 21, 1871
Portici, Italy
August 03, 1942
Chardonne, Switzerland
1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1933
Ivan Bunin (sepia).jpg Ivan Bunin October 22, 1870
Voronezh, Russia
November 08, 1953
Paris, France
1923, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933 Won the 1933 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Balmont 1880s.jpg Konstantin Balmont June 15, 1867
Shuya, Russia
December 23, 1942
Paris, France
1923
Silver - replace this image male.svg Einar Hjörleifsson Kvaran December 06, 1859
Vallanes, Iceland
May 21, 1938
Reykjavík, Iceland
1923, 1924
Thomas Mann 1937.jpg Thomas Mann June 06, 1875
Lübeck, Germany
August 21, 1955
Zürich, Switzerland
1924, 1928, 1929, 1948 Won the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Portrett av Olav Duun.jpg Olav Duun November 21, 1876
Namsos, Norway
September 13, 1939
Holmestrand, Norway
1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939
Max Neuburger in 1928.png Max Neuburger December 08, 1868
Vienna, Austria
March 15, 1955
Vienna, Austria
1924
Rudolf Maria Holzapfel (1874–1930).jpg Rudolf Maria Holzapfel April 26, 1874
Kraków, Poland
February 08, 1930
Muri bei Bern, Switzerland
1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen 1944.jpg Johannes Vilhelm Jensen January 20, 1873
Farsø, Denmark
November 25, 1950
Østerbro, Denmark
1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944 Won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Paul Raynal July 25, 1885
Narbonne, France
August 18, 1971
Paris, France
1925, 1926
Herczeg Ferenc.tif Ferenc Herczeg September 22, 1863
Vršac, Serbia
February 24, 1954
Budapest, Hungary
1925, 1926, 1927
Portrait of Paul Elmer More.jpg Paul Elmer More December 12, 1864
Missouri, United States
March 09, 1937
New Jersey, United States
1925
Silver - replace this image male.svg Giovanni Schembari ?
Italy
?
Italy
1925
Johannes Jørgensen.jpg Johannes Jørgensen November 06, 1866
Svendborg, Denmark
May 29, 1956
Svendborg, Denmark
1926, 1932, 1942, 1950
Arnold Bennett's Photograph.jpg Arnold Bennett May 27, 1867
Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
March 27, 1931
London, United Kingdom
1926
Edward westermarck.jpg Edvard Westermarck November 20, 1862
Helsinki, Finland
September 03, 1939
Tenala, Finland
1926, 1927
Joseph Henri Honoré Boex.jpg Joseph-Henry Rosny Aîné February 17, 1856
Brussels, Belgium
February 11, 1940
Paris, France
1926, 1928, 1933
Paul Claudel cph.3b31258.jpg Paul Claudel August 06, 1868
Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France
February 23, 1955
Paris, France
1926, 1937, 1941, 1950, 1951, 1955
KostisPalamas.jpg Kostis Palamas January 13, 1859
Patras, Greece
February 27, 1943
Athens, Greece
1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940
Ada Negri 1913.jpg Ada Negri February 03, 1870
Lodi, Italy
January 11, 1945
Milan, Italy
1926, 1927
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov.jpg Pyotr Krasnov September 22, 1869
Saint Petersburg, Russia
January 16, 1947
Moscow, Russia
1926
1920, Historia de la lengua y literatura castellana, Concha Espina.jpg Concha Espina de la Serna April 15, 1869
Santander, Spain
May 19, 1955
Madrid, Spain
1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1952, 1954
Sofía Casanova 1933.jpg Sofía Casanova September 30, 1861
A Coruña, Spain
January 16, 1958
Poznań, Poland
1926
Vicente huidobro.jpg Vicente Huidobro January 10, 1893
Santiago, Chile
January 02, 1948
Cartagena, Chile
1926
Silver - replace this image male.svg Georg Bonne August 12, 1859
Hamburg, Germany
May 01, 1945
Hamburg, Germany’
1926, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932
Karl Kraus.jpg Karl Kraus April 28, 1874
Jicin, Czechia
June 12, 1936
Vienna, Austria
1926, 1928, 1930
Avetis Aharonian.jpg Avetis Aharonian January 09, 1866
Iğdır, Turkey
March 20, 1948
Paris, France
1926
Silver - replace this image male.svg Josip Kosor January 27, 1879
Drniš, Croatia
January 23, 1961
Dubrovnik, Croatia
1926, 1927, 1939
Zorrilla de San Martin.jpg Juan Zorrilla de San Martín December 28, 1855
Montevideo, Uruguay
November 03, 1931
Montevideo, Uruguay
1926, 1928
Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer, um 1920.jpg Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer December 30, 1878
Budapest, Hungary
April 12, 1962
Munich, Germany
1927, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937
Cesare Pascarella by Mario Nunes Vais.jpg Cesare Pascarella April 28, 1858
Rome, Italy
May 08, 1940
Rome, Italy
1927
PPN663943108 Bildnis von Eduard Lorenz Meyer.jpg Eduard Meyer January 25, 1855
Hamburg, Germany
August 31, 1930
Berlin, Germany
1927
Edith Newbold Jones Wharton.jpg Edith Wharton January 24, 1862
New York, United States
August 11, 1937
Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, France
1927, 1928, 1930
Édouard Estaunié 1923.jpg Édouard Estaunié February 04, 1862
Dijon, France
April 02, 1942
Paris, France
1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931
Samuel Parsons Scott.jpg Samuel Parsons Scott July 08, 1846
Ohio, United States
May 30, 1929
Ohio, United States
1927
Armando Palacio Valdés 1927.jpg Armando Palacio Valdés October 04, 1853
Entrialgo, Spain
January 29, 1938
Madrid, Spain
1928
Blanca de los Rios.png Blanca de los Ríos August 15, 1859
Seville, Spain
April 13, 1956
Madrid, Spain
1928
Edith Annie Howes in 1900s.jpg Edith Howes August 29, 1872
London, United Kingdom
July 09, 1954
Dunedin, New Zeland
1928
Ricarda-Huch.jpg Ricarda Huch July 18, 1864
Braunschweig, Germany
November 17,1947
Kronberg, Germany
1928, 1935, 1937, 1946
Driesch1.jpg Hans Driesch October 28, 1867
Bad Kreuznach, Germany
April 17, 1941
Leipzig, Germany
1928, 1930, 1932
Hugo Erfurth - Portrait Felix Timmermans, 1935.jpg Felix Timmermans July 05, 1886
Lier, Belgium
January 24, 1947
Lier, Belgium
1928, 1940, 1941
Picture of Rudolf Hans Bartsch.jpg Rudolf Hans Bartsch February 11, 1873
Graz, Austria
February 07, 1952
Graz, Austria
1928, 1929, 1930, 1933
Rufino Blanco Fombona, de Kaulak.jpg Rufino Blanco-Fombona June 17, 1874
Caracas, Venezuela
October 16, 1944
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1928, 1929, 1930, 1933, 1935
BASA-1772K-1-380-1-Ivan Grozev.JPG Ivan Grozev June 23, 1872
Sofia, Bulgaria
January 10, 1957
London, United Kingdom
1928, 1929
Portrait of Frederik van Eeden.jpg Frederik Willem van Eeden April 03, 1860
Haarlem, Netherlands
June 16, 1932
Bussum, Netherlands
1928
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alf Larsen July 22, 1885
Tjøme, Norway
December 12, 1967
Tjøme, Norway
1928
Anna de Noailles Dornac.jpg Anna de Noailles November 15, 1876
Paris, France
April 30, 1933
Paris, France
1928
Stefan-George 1.jpg Stefan George July 12, 1868
Büdesheim, Germany
December 04, 1933
Minusio, Switzerland
1929, 1931
Portrait of Cale Young Rice.jpg Cale Young Rice December 11, 1872
Kentucky, United States
January 24, 1943
Kentucky, United States
1929
B.Croce.jpg Benedetto Croce February 25, 1866
Pescasseroli, Italy
November 20, 1952
Naples, Italy
1929, 1933, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1952
Knud Rasmussen 01.jpg Knud Rasmussen June 07, 1879
Ilulissat, Greenland
December 21, 1933
Copenhagen, Denmark
1929
Thornton Wilder - 1948.jpg Thornton Wilder April 17, 1897
Wisconsin, United States
December 07, 1975
Connecticut, United States
1929, 1949, 1958, 1959, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Edwinrobinson.jpg Edwin Arlington Robinson December 22, 1869
Maine, United States
April 06, 1935
New York, United States
1929, 1930, 1932, 1934
Silver - replace this image male.svg Nathanael Rump October 23, 1871
Hamburg, Germany
September 29, 1941
Potsdam, Germany
1930, 1931
Silver - replace this image female.svg Clotilde Crespo de Arvelo September 19, 1887
Los Teques, Venezuela
(?) 1959
Caracas, Venezuela
1930
Silver - replace this image male.svg Manfred Kyber March 01, 1880
Riga, Latvia
March 10, 1933
Löwenstein, Germany
1930
Anton Wildgans (1881–1932) 1932.jpg Anton Wildgans April 17, 1881
Vienna, Austria
May 03, 1932
Mödling, Austria
1930, 1931, 1932
Rudolf Kassner.jpg Rudolf Kassner September 11, 1873
Velké Pavlovice, Czechia
April 01, 1959
Sierre, Switzerland
1930, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1938, 1948, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1959
Paul Valéry - photo Henri Manuel.jpg Paul Valéry October 30, 1871
Sète, France
July 20, 1945
Paris, France
1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1037, 1939, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945
ArvidJarnefelt.jpg Arvid Järnefelt November 16, 1861
Saint Petersburg, Russia
December 27, 1932
Helsinki, Finland
1930
FransEemilSillanpää.jpg Frans Eemil Sillanpää September 16, 1888
Hämeenkyrö, Finland
June 03, 1964
Helsinki, Finland
1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1945, 1936, 19937, 1938, 1939 Won the 1939 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Yrjö Hirn.jpg Yrjö Hirn December 07, 1870
Lappeenranta, Finland
February 23, 1952
Helsinki, Finland
1930
Sinclair Lewis.jpg Sinclair Lewis February 07, 1885
Minnesota, United States
January 10, 1951
Rome, Italy
1930 Won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Theodore Dreiser.jpg Theodore Dreiser August 27, 1871
Indiana, United States
December 28, 1945
California, United States
1930
Young Edgar Lee Masters 2.png Edgar Lee Masters August 23, 1868
Kansas, United States
March 05, 1950
Pennsylvania, United States
1930
Lion Feuchtwanger.jpg Lion Feuchtwanger July 07, 1884
Munich, Germany
December 21, 1958
California, United States
1930, 1955, 1957, 1957
Ramón Pérez de Ayala. Diferentes personalidades en el Museo Zuloaga (1 de 2) - Fondo Car-Kutxa Fototeka (cropped).jpg Ramón Pérez de Ayala August 09, 1880
Oviedo, Spain
August 05, 1962
Madrid, Spain
1931, 1934, 1947
Silver - replace this image female.svg Laura Mestre Hevia April 06, 1867
Havana, Cuba
January 11, 1944
Havana, Cuba
1931
Ramón Menéndez Pidal 01.jpg Ramón Menéndez Pidal March 13, 1869
A Coruña, Spain
November 14, 1968
Madrid, Spain
1931, 1932, 1934, 1938, 1939, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Menéndez Pidal earns the highest record as the most nominated person for the Nobel Prize in Literature but never won the prize. He was nominated 151 times.
Francis Jammes en 1917.jpg Francis Jammes December 02, 1868
Tournay, France
November 01, 1938
Hasparren, France
1931
Fotothek df ps 0000061 Bildnisse - Porträts ^ Künstlerbildnisse - Künstlerporträ.jpg Martin Andersen Nexø June 26, 1869
Christianshavn, Denmark
June 01, 1954
Dresden, Germany
1931, 1950
Hermann Hesse 1946.jpg Hermann Hesse July 02, 1877
Calw, Germany
August 09, 1962
Collina d’Oro, Switzerland
1931, 1938, 1939, 1942, 1944, 1946 Won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Shmelyov Ivan.jpg Ivan Shmelyov October 03, 1873
Moscow, Russia
June 24, 1950
Paris, France
1931, 1932
Ivana brlic mazuranic II.jpg Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić April 18, 1874
Ogulin, Croatia
September 21, 1938
Zagreb, Croatia
1931, 1935, 1937, 1938
Ole Edvart Rølvaag.jpg Ole Edvart Rølvaag April 22, 1876
Dønna, Norway
November 05, 1931
Minnesota, United States
1931
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-K1018-513, Erich Maria Remarque.jpg Erich Maria Remarque June 22, 1898
Osnabrück, Germany
September 25, 1970
Locarno, Switzerland
1931
ManuelGalvez.JPG Manuel Gálvez May 06, 1882
Parana, Argentina
November 14, 1962
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1932, 1933, 1934, 1951, 1952
Upton Beall Sinclair Jr.jpg Upton Sinclair September 20, 1878
Maryland, United States
November 25, 1968
New Jersey, United States
1932, 1933, 1934, 1965
Karel-capek.jpg Karel Čapek January 09, 1890
Malé Svatoňovice, Czechia
December 25, 1938
Prague, Czechia
1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938
Micheal Blümelhuber 1865 1932.jpg Michael Blümelhuber September 23, 1865
Christkindl, Austria
January 29, 1936
Steyr, Austria
1932, 1933, 1934
Silver - replace this image male.svg Francesco Orestano April 14, 1873
Alia, Italy
August 20, 1945
Rome, Italy
1932
Axel Munthe00.jpg Axel Munthe October 31, 1857
Oskarshamn, Sweden
February 11, 1949
Stockholm, Sweden
1932
Silver - replace this image male.svg Percival Elgood July 03, 1863
Marlborough, United Kingdom
December 20, 1941
Cairo, Egypt
1932
Young Grigol Robakidze.jpg Grigol Robakidze October 28, 1880
Imereti, Georgia
November 19, 1962
Geneva, Switzerland
1932
Vilhelm ekelund m.jpg Vilhelm Ekelund October 14, 1880
Scania, Sweden
September 03, 1949
Saltsjöbaden, Sweden
1932, 1941
CarliosMariaOcantos.JPG Carlos María Ocantos August 24, 1835
Buenos Aires, Argentina
March 29, 1949
Madrid, Spain
1933, 1943
Henrique Maximiano Coelho Neto.png Henrique Coelho Neto February 21, 1864
Maranhão, Brazil
[November 28, 1934
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1933
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ernest Roguin May 27, 1851
Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland
May 05, 1939
Lausanne, Switzerland
1933, 1934
Photograph of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan presented to First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in 1962.jpg Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan September 05, 1888
Thiruttani, India
April 17, 1975
Chennai, India
1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1952, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963 Second President of India (1962 – 1967)
JoseOrtegayGasset.jpg José Ortega y Gasset May 09, 1883
Madrid, Spain
October 18, 1955
Madrid, Spain
1933, 1951
António Corrêa d’Oliveira in «Contemporânea» (1915) cut.png António Correia de Oliveira July 30, 1878
São Pedro do Sul, Portugal
February 20, 1960
Esposende, Portugal
1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942
Hayyim Nahman Bialik 1923.jpg Hayim Nahman Bialik Janaury 09, 1873
Volhynia, Russia
July 04, 1934
Vienna, Austria
1933, 1934
Max Beerbohm 1901 retouched.jpg Max Beerbohm August 24, 1872
London, United Kingdom
May 20, 1956
Rapallo, Italy
1933
Hermann Stehr.png Hermann Stehr February 16, 1864
Bystrzyca Klodzka, Poland
September 11, 1940
Szklarska Poręba, Poland
1933, 1934, 1935, 1936
Joseph Bédier 1921.jpg Joseph Bédier January 28, 1864
Paris, France
August 29, 1938
Le Grand-Serre, France
1933, 1934
Francisco Garcia Calderon 2.jpg Francisco García Calderón April 02, 1834
Arequipa, Peru
September 21, 1905
Lima, Peru
1934 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru (1881)
Ventura Garcia Calderon.jpg Ventura García Calderón February 23, 1886
Paris, France
October 27, 1959
Paris, France
1934
Jarl Hemmer.jpg Jarl Hemmer September 18, 1893
Vaasa, Finland
December 06, 1944
Porvoo, Finland
1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ewald Sundberg 1886
Norway
1967
Norway
1934
Picture of Franz Karl Ginzkey.jpg Franz Karl Ginzkey September 08, 1871
Pula, Croatia
April 11, 1963
Vienna, Austria
1934, 1935
ONeill-Eugene-LOC.jpg Eugene O’Neill October 16, 1888
New York, United States
November 27, 1953
Massachusetts, United States
1934, 1935, 1936 Won the 1936 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Roger Martin du Gard 1937.jpg Roger Martin du Gard March 23, 1881
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
August 22, 1958
Belforêt-en-Perche, France
1934, 1935, 1936, 1937 Won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Jean Schlumberger.jpg Jean Schlumberger May 26, 1877
Guebwiller, France
October 25, 1968
Paris, France
1934, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1964
Tadeusz Zieliński pocztówka (cropped).jpg Tadeusz Stefan Zieliński September 14, 1859
Kiev, Ukraine
May 08, 1944
Schondorf, Germany
1934, 1935
Luigi Pirandello 1934b.jpg Luigi Pirandello June 28, 1867
Agrigento, Italy
December 10, 1936
Rome, Italy
1934 Won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Forfatter Hans H. Holm - no-nb digifoto 20160216 00460 NB NS 000706V.jpg Hans Henrik Holm January 18, 1896
Oslo, Norway
September 27, 1980
Oslo, Norway
1934
Silver - replace this image female.svg Maria Madalena de Martel Patrício April 19, 1884
Lisbon, Portugal
November 03, 1947
Lisbon, Portugal
1934, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947
Edvarts Virza.jpg Edvarts Virza December 27, 1883
Ozolnieki, Latvia
March 01, 1940
Riga, Latvia
1935, 1936
Silver - replace this image male.svg James Cousins July 22, 1873
Belfast, United Kingdom
February 20, 1956
Madanapalle, India
1935
Silver - replace this image male.svg Sven Lönborg March 16, 1871
Motala, Sweden
April 11, 1959
Uppsala, Sweden
1935
Émile Mâle.png Émile Mâle June 02, 1862
Commentry, France
October 06, 1954
Fontaine-Chaalis, France
1935
Silver - replace this image male.svg Guðmundur Kamban June 08, 1888
Reykjavík, Iceland
May 05, 1945
Copenhagen, Denmark
1935
Shaul Tchernichovsky 1927.jpg Shaul Tchernichovsky August 20, 1875
Kiev, Ukraine
October 14, 1943
Jerusalem, Israel
1935, 1937
Jules Romains-crop.jpg Jules Romains August 26, 1885
Saint-Julien-Chapteuil, France
August 14, 1972
Paris, France
1935, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1957, 1963, 1966
Silver - replace this image female.svg Violet Clifton November 02, 1883
Rome, Italy
November 20, 1961
Lytham St Annes, United Kingdom
1935
Miguel de Unamuno Meurisse 1925.jpg Miguel de Unamuno September 29, 1864
Bilbao, Spain
December 31, 1936
Salamanca, Spain
1935, 1936
Elise Richter (Wiener Bilder 1907).png Elise Richter March 02, 1865
Vienna, Austria
June 23, 1943
Theresienstadt Ghetto, Czechia
1935 Richter was the only nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature who was killed by the Nazi officials during World War II
John Edward Masefield in 1916.jpg John Masefield June 01, 1878
Ledbury, United Kingdom
May 12, 1967
Abingdon, United Kingdom
1935, 1937
Gilbert Chesterton.jpg Gilbert Keith Chesterton May 29, 1874
Kensington, United Kingdom
June 14, 1936
Beaconsfield, United Kingdom
1935
Szabó Dezső író.jpg Dezső Szabó June 10, 1879
Cluj-Napoca, Romania
January 13, 1945
Budapest, Hungary
1935
Exposition universelle de 1900 - portraits des commissaires généraux-Víctor Manuel Rendón.jpg Víctor Manuel Rendón December 05, 1859
Guayaquil, Ecuador
October 09, 1940
Guayaquil, Ecuador
1935
Silver - replace this image male.svg Asis Domet 1890
Austria
1943
Israel
1936
Silver - replace this image male.svg Haro Mohan Banerjee ?
India
?
India
1936
Enrica Handel-Mazzett c 1889.jpg Enrica von Handel-Mazzetti January 10, 1871
Vienna, Austria
April 08, 1955
Linz, Austria
1936
Klages3.jpg Ludwig Klages December 10, 1872
Hanover, Germany
July 29, 1956
Kilchberg, Switzerland
1936
Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt (cropped).jpg Sigmund Freud May 06, 1856
Příbor, Czechia
September 23, 1939
London, United Kingdom
1936
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alfred Edward Evershed April 22, 1870
Littlehampton, United Kingdom
May 31, 1941
Tasmania, Australia
1936
Silver - replace this image female.svg Cécile Tormay October 08, 1875
Budapest, Hungary
April 02, 1937
Gyöngyös, Hungary
1936, 1937
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hans Fallada July 21, 1893
Greifswald, Germany
February 05, 1947
Berlin, Germany
1936, 1939
Georges Duhamel 1930.jpg Georges Duhamel June 30, 1884
Paris, France
April 13, 1966
Valmondois, France
1936, 1937, 1940, 1942, 1942, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1961
Arvid Mörne.jpg Arvid Mörne May 06, 1876
Kuopio, Finland
June 15, 1946
Kauniainen, Finland
1936, 1945, 1946
Silver - replace this image male.svg Bensadhar Majumdar ?
India
?
India
1937, 1939
Silver - replace this image male.svg René Béhaine June 17, 1880
Vervins, France
January 02, 1966
Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
1937, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1944 1948, 1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Maurice Magre March 02, 1877
Toulouse, France
December 11, 1941
Nice, France
1937
Jules payot.JPG Jules Payot April 10, 1859
Chamonix, France
January 30, 1940
Aix-en-Provence, France
1937
Silver - replace this image male.svg Arnold Schering April 02, 1877
Wrocław, Poland
March 07, 1941
Berlin, Germany
1937
Maila-Talvio-1910s.jpg Maila Talvio October 17, 1871
Hartola, Finland
January 06, 1951
Helsinki, Finland
1937, 1939, 1947
Jean Giono00.jpg Jean Giono March 30, 1895
Manosque, France
October 09, 1970
Manosque, France
1937, 1952, 1957, 1959, 1963, 1964, 1966
Stijn Streuvels by Modest Huys (cropped).jpg Stijn Streuvels October 03, 1871
Kortrijk, Belgium
August 15, 1969
Anzegem, Belgium
1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1950, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1965
Maria Jotuni 1930.jpg Maria Jotuni April 09, 1880
Kuopio, Finland
September 30, 1943
Helsinki, Finland
1937
Portrett av Johan Falkberget.jpg Johan Falkberget September 30, 1879
Røros, Norway
April 05, 1967
Røros, Norway
1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965
Albert Verwey door Joseph Jessurun de Mesquita - 1888 - dbnl.gif Albert Verwey May 15, 1865
Amsterdam, Netherlands
March 08, 1937
Noordwijk, Netherlands
1937
Valdemar Rørdam.jpg Valdemar Rørdam September 23, 1872
Fakse, Denmark
July 13, 1946
Holbæk, Denmark
1937, 1938
Sally-Salminen-1930s.jpg Sally Salminen April 25, 1906
Vårdö, Åland Islands
July 18, 1976
Copenhagen, Denmark
1937, 1938, 1939
Silver - replace this image male.svg William Pickard ?
United Kingdom
?
United Kingdom
1937
Silver - replace this image male.svg Robert Racey ?
United Kingdom
?
United Kingdom
1938
Silver - replace this image male.svg Mohammad Khan ?
India
?
India
1938
Pearl Buck 1972.jpg Pearl Buck June 26, 1892
West Virginia, United States
March 06, 1973
Vermont, United States
1938 Won the 1938 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Henriette Charasson photographié par Henri Manuel.jpg Henriette Charasson February 13, 1884
Le Havre, France
May 29, 1972
Toulouse, France
1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1947, 1949, 1954, 1957
Margaret Mitchell NYWTS.jpg Margaret Mitchell November 08, 1900
Georgia, United States
August 16, 1949
Georgia, United States
1938
Aldanov.jpg Mark Aldanov November 07, 1886
Kiev, Ukraine
February 24, 1957
Nice, France
1938, 1939, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957
Silver - replace this image male.svg Sanjib Chaudhuri ?
India
?
India
1938, 1939
Arthur van Schendel te Ede.gif Arthur van Schendel March 05, 1874
Jakarta, Indonesia
September 11, 1946
Amsterdam, Netherlands
1938
Aldous Huxley 1947.png Aldous Huxley July 26, 1894
Godalming, United Kingdom
November 22, 1963
California, United States
1938, 1939, 1955, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963
Veikko Antero Koskenniemi.jpg Veikko Antero Koskenniemi July 08, 1885
Oulu, Finland
August 04, 1962
Turku, Finland
1938
Herman Teirlinck (1879-1967).gif Herman Teirlinck February 24, 1879
Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Belgium
February 04, 1967
Beersel, Belgium
1938, 1954, 1957, 1960
Silver - replace this image male.svg Flávio de Carvalho August 10, 1899
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
June 04, 1973
São Paulo, Brazil
1939
Herbert Samuel.jpg Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel November 06, 1870
Liverpool, United Kingdom
February 05, 1963
London, United Kingdom
1939
Silver - replace this image male.svg Egidio Poblete Escudero November 07, 1868
Valparaíso, Chile
October 18, 1940
Valparaíso, Chile
1939
Hu Shih 1922.jpg Hu Shih December 17, 1891
Songjiang, China
February 24, 1962
Taipei, Taiwan
1939, 1957 First Chinese nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Eugène Baie August 03, 1874
Anderlecht, Belgium
September 10, 1964
Anderlecht, Belgium
1939, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956
Johan-huizinga1.jpg Johan Huizinga December 07, 1872
Groningen, Netherlands
February 01, 1945
De Steeg, Netherlands
1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1953, 1944, 1945
Henry Handel Richardson, author, ca. 1920-1935, photographers Elliott & Fry (6963289973).jpg Ethel Florence Richardson January 03, 1870
East Melbourne, Australia
March 20, 1946
Hastings, United Kingdom
1939 First native-born Australian to be nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Hugh Walpole, 1934.jpg Hugh Walpole March 13, 1884
Auckland, New Zealand
June 01, 1941
Keswick, United Kingdom
1939
Maria Dąbrowska ok. 1914.jpg Maria Dąbrowska October 06, 1889
Russów, Poland
May 19, 1965
Warsaw, Poland
1939, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1965
Portret van Henriette Roland Holst-van der Schalk, door M. de Klerk (1921).jpg Henriette Roland Holst December 24, 1869
Noordwijk, Netherlands
November 21, 1952
Amsterdam, Netherlands
1939, 1950, 1952
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alfonso Strafile ?
Italy
?
Italy
1940
Gabriela Mistral-01.jpg Gabriela Mistral April 07, 1889
Vicuña, Chile
January 10, 1957
New York, United States
1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945 Won the 1945 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Linyutang.jpg Lin Yutang October 10, 1895
Zhangzhou, China
March 26, 1976
Hong Kong
1940, 1950
Carl Sandburg NYWTS.jpg Carl Sandburg January 06, 1878
Illinois, United States
July 22, 1967
North Carolina, United States
1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1958, 1959
Carlberg, Gösta i VJ 1943.jpg Gösta Carlberg September 23, 1909
Norrköping, Swedeen
March 13, 1973
Stockholm, Sweden
1940
Bert Bailey-pic.jpg Bert Bailey June 11, 1868
Auckland, New Zealand
March 30, 1953
Darlinghurst, Australia
1940
Edmundblundencirca1914.jpg Edmund Blunden November 01, 1896
London, United Kingdom
January 20, 1974
Long Melford, United Kingdom
1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945
Silver - replace this image male.svg Manoel Wanderley ?
Brazil
?
Brazil
1941
Branislav Petronijevic portret.jpg Branislav Petronijević March 25, 1875
Sovljak, Serbia
March 04, 1954
Belgrade, Serbia
1941, 1947
Silver - replace this image female.svg Ruth Comfort Young July 21, 1882
California, United States
February 18, 1954
California, United States
1941
Silver - replace this image male.svg Enrique Larreta March 04, 1875
Buenos Aires, Argentina
July 06, 1961
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1942, 1943, 1944, 1950
Teixeira de Pascoaes - Serões (Mar1911).png Teixeira de Pascoaes November 02, 1877
Amarante, Portugal
December 14, 1952
Amarante, Portugal
1942, 1943, 1944, 1947, 1948
Charles Langbridge Morgan.jpg Charles Langbridge Morgan January 22, 1894
Bromley, United Kingdom
February 06, 1958
London, United Kingdom
1942, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hans Carossa December 15, 1878
Bad Tölz, Germany
September 12, 1956
Lower Bavaria, Germany
1942, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1955, 1956
Sigfrid Siwertz.jpg Sigfrid Siwertz January 24, 18832
Stockholm, Sweden
November 26, 1970
Stockholm, Sweden
1942
Berdiayev001.jpg Nikolai Berdyaev March 18, 1874
Kiev, Ukraine
March 24, 1948
Clamart, France
1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948
Sri aurobindo.jpg Sri Aurobindo August 15, 1872
Kolkata, India
December 05, 1950
Puducherry, India
1943
Silver - replace this image male.svg Franz Hellens September 08, 1881
Brussels, Belgium
January 20, 1972
Brussels, Belgium
1943, 1948, 1958, 1954
Elisaveta Bagriana.jpg Elisaveta Bagryana April 16, 1893
Sofia, Bulgaria
March 23, 1991
Sofia, Bulgaria
1943, 1944, 1945
Franz Werfel (1890–1945) ~1930 © Max Fenichel (1885–1942) OeNB 12995938.jpg Franz Werfel September 10, 1890
Prague, Czechia
August 26, 1945
California, United States
1943, 1945
John-Steinbeck-1939.jpg John Steinbeck February 27, 1902
California, United States
December 20, 1968
New York, United States
1943, 1944, 1945, 1949, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962 Won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Abol-Gassem E’tessam Zadeh ?
Iran
?
Iran
1944
Silver - replace this image male.svg Luís Nueda y Santiago 1883
Spain
1952
Spain
1944
Portrett av Arnulf Øverland.jpg Arnulf Øverland April 27, 1889
Kristiansund, Norway
March 25, 1968
Oslo, Norway
1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Charles Ferdinand Ramuz September 24, 1878
Lausanne, Switzerland
May 23, 1947
Pully, Switzerland
1944, 1945, 1946, 1947
Marie Under circa 1903 by Max Meixner of Reval (Tallinn).jpg Marie Under March 27, 1883
Reval, Estonia
September 25, 1980
Stockholm, Sweden
1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1958
Silver - replace this image male.svg Yiorgos Theotokas April 27, 1906
Constantinople, Turkey
October 30, 1966
Athens, Greece
1945
Thomas Stearns Eliot by Lady Ottoline Morrell (1934).jpg Thomas Sterns Eliot September 26, 1888
Missouri, United States
January 04, 1965
Kensington, United Kingdom
1945, 1946, 1947, 1948 Won the 1948 Nobel Prize in Literature.
EMForster1917.jpg Edward Morgan Forster January 01, 1879
London, United Kingdom
June 07, 1970
Coventry, United Kingdom
1945, 1946, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Tarjei Vesaas.jpg Tarjei Vesaas August 20, 1897
Vinje, Norway
March 15 1970
Oslo, Norway
1946, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Sir Winston S Churchill.jpg Winston Churchill November 30, 1874
Blenheim Palace, United Kingdom
January 24, 1965
Kensington, United Kingdom
1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953 Won the 1953 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Boris Pasternak 1920s.png Boris Pasternak February 10, 1890
Moscow, Russia
May 30, 1960
Moscow, Russia
1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1957, 1958 Won the 1958 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Sholem Asch.jpg Sholem Asch November 01, 1880
Kutno, Poland
July 10, 1957
London, United Kingdom
1946, 1947
Silver - replace this image male.svg Herbert John Clifford Grierson January 16, 1866
Lerwick, United Kingdom
February 19, 1960
Cambridge, United Kingdom
1946
André Gide.jpg André Gide November 22, 1869
Paris, France
February 19, 1951
Paris, France
1946, 1947 Won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Mauriac Harcourt 1945 2.jpg François Mauriac October 11, 1885
Bordeaux, France
September 01, 1970
Paris, France
1946, 1949, 1950, 1952 Won the 1952 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Sikelianos.jpg Angelos Sikelianos March 28, 1884
Lefkada, Greece
June 19, 1951
Athens, Greece
1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951
Silone.JPG Ignazio Silone May 01, 1900
Pescina, Italy
August 22, 1978
Geneva, Switzerland
1946, 1947, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963
KAGAWA Toyohiko young.JPG Toyohiko Kagawa July 10, 1888
Hyogo, Japan
April 23, 1960
Tokyo, Japan
1947, 1948 First Japanese nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Bernard ODowd, 1904.jpg Bernard O'Dowd April 11, 1866
Beaufort, Australia
September 01, 1953
Melbourne, Australia
1947
Silver - replace this image male.svg Horace Kallen August 11, 1882
Bierutow, Poland
February 16, 1974
Florida, United States
1947
Nikos Kazantzakis 1904.jpg Nikos Kazantzakis February 18, 1883
Heraklion, Greece
October 26, 1957
Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
1947, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957
Georgios Drosinis.JPG Georgios Drosinis December 09, 1859
Athens, Greece
January 03, 1951
Kifisia, Greece
1947, 1948
Grigorios Xenopoulos.JPG Gregorios Xenopoulos December 09, 1867
Constantinople, Turkey
January 14, 1951
Athens, Greece
1947
Lagerkvist.jpg Pär Lagerkvist May 23, 1891
Växjö, Sweden
July 11, 1974
Lidingö, Sweden
1947, 1949, 1950, 1951 Won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Literature.
André Malraux, Pic, 22.jpg André Malraux November 03, 1901
Paris, France
November 23, 1976
Créteil, France
1947, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 First 20th-century born writer nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
פורטרט ש"י עגנון (cropped).jpg Shmuel Yosef Agnon August 08, 1887
Buchach, Ukraine
February 17, 1970
Jerusalem, Israel
1947, 1948, 1951, 1965, 1966 Won the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature with Nelly Sachs
Mikhail Sholokhov 1960.jpg Mikhail Sholokhov May 24,1905
Vyoshenskaya, Russia
February 21, 1984
Vyoshenskaya, Russia
1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965 Won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
ErnestHemingway.jpg Ernest Hemingway July 21, 1899
Illinois, United States
July 02, 1961
Idaho, United States
1947, 1950, 1953, 1954 Won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Halldór Kiljan Laxness 1955.jpg Halldór Laxness April 23, 1902
Reykjavík, Iceland
February 08, 1998
Reykjavík, Iceland
1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955 Won the 1955 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Zalman Shneor.jpg Zalman Shneur ca. 1887
Shkloŭ, Belarus
February 20, 1959
New York, United States
1948, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1957
Dorothy Canfield Fisher.jpg Dorothy Canfield Fisher February 17, 1879
Kansas, United States
November 09, 1958
Vermont, United States
1948, 1949
Riccardo Bacchelli 1950s.jpg Riccardo Bacchelli April 19, 1891
Bologna, Italy
October 08, 1985
Monza, Italy
1948, 1949, 1954, 1957, 1958
GM Trevelyan by Beresford.jpg George Macauley Tervelyan February 16, 1876
Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
July 21, 1962
Cambridge, United Kingdom
1948, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960
Santayana Crop.png George Santayana December 16, 1863
Madrid, Spain
September 26, 1952
Rome, Italy
1948, 1949
Colette - photo Henri Manuel.jpg Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette January 28, 1873
Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaye, France
August 03, 1954
Paris, France
1948
TahaHussein.jpg Taha Hussein November 15, 1889
Maghagha, Egypt
October 28, 1973
Cairo, Egypt
1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965 First Egyptian nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Jacinto Grau ca. 1877
Barcelona, Spain
August 14, 1958
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1949
Alfonso Reyes Ochoa.jpg Alfonso Reyes May 17, 1889
Monterrey, Mexico
December 27, 1959
Mexico City, Mexico
1949, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1959 First Mexican nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Silver - replace this image male.svg Reinaldo Temprano Azcona ? ? 1949
Sean ocasey 1924.jpg Seán O'Casey March 30, 1880
Dublin, Ireland
September 18, 1964
Torquay, United Kingdom
1949, 1950, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963
Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico - BEIC 6361580.jpg Alberto Moravia November 28, 1907
Rome, Italy
September 26, 1990
Rome, Italy
1949, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Camus Harcourt 1945.jpg Albert Camus November 07, 1913
Algiers, Algeria
January 04, 1960
Villeblevin, France
1949, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957 Won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Leonid Leonov 1929.jpg Leonid Leonov May 31, 1899
Moscow, Russia
August 08, 1994
Moscow, Russia
1949, 1950
ENRIQUE GONZALEZ MARTINEZ 1871 - 1952 POETA MEXICANO (13451188195).jpg Enrique González Martínez April 13, 1871
Guadalajara, Mexico
February 19, 1952
Mexico City, Mexico
1949, 1952
Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg William Faulkner September 25, 1897
Mississippi, United States
July 06, 1962
Mississippi, United States
1950 Won the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Martin Buber portrait.jpg Martin Buber February 08, 1878
Vienna, Austria
June 13, 1965
Jerusalem, Israel
1950, 1954, 1958, 1959, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Gertrud v Le Fort c1935.jpg Gertrud von Le Fort October 11, 1876
Minden, Germany
November 01, 1971
Oberstdorf, Germany
1950, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963
Portrait of Alfred Noyes.jpg Alfred Noyes September 16, 1880
Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
June 25, 1958
Isle of Wight, United Kingdom
1950, 1951
Arnold J. Toynbee Anefo.jpg Arnold Joseph Toynbee April 14, 1889
London, United Kingdom
October 22, 1975
York, United Kingdom
1950, 1957
Robert Graves, Morrell.jpg Robert Graves July 24, 1895
Wimbledon, United Kingdom
December 07, 1985
Deià, Spain
1950, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966
JCBloem.jpg Jakobus Cornelis Bloem May 10, 1887
Oudshoorn, Netherlands
August 10, 1966
Kalenberg, Netherlands
1950, 1952
Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron Dunsany.jpg Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany July 24, 1878
London, United Kingdom
October 25, 1957
Dublin, Ireland
1950
Vestdijk1940.jpg Simon Vestdijk October 17, 1898
Harlingen, Netherlands
March 23, 1971
Utrecht, Netherlands
1950, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966
Karl Jaspers (HeidICON 33480).jpg Karl Jaspers February 23, 1883
Oldenburg, Germany
February 26, 1969
Basel, Switzerland
1950, 1960
Mika Waltari 1939.jpg Mika Waltari September 19, 1908
Helsinki, Finland
August 26, 1979
Helsinki, Finland
1950, 1951, 1952, 1963, 1964, 1966
Leopold Staff 1911.jpg Leopold Staff November 14, 1878
Lviv, Ukraine
May 31, 1957
Skarżysko-Kamienna, Poland
1950
Graham Greene, Bassano.jpg Graham Greene October 02, 1904
Berkhamsted, United Kingdom
April 03, 1991
Vevey, Switzerland
1950, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1966
Robert Frost NYWTS 4.jpg Robert Frost March 26, 1874
California, United States
January 29, 1963
Massachusetts, United States
1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Thomas Head Raddall November 13, 1903
Hythe, United Kingdom
April 01, 1994
Liverpool, United Kingdom
1950
Bertrand Russell 1957.jpg Bertrand Russell May 18, 1872
Trelleck, United Kingdom
February 02, 1970
Penrhyndeudraeth, United Kingdom
1950 Won the 1950 Nobel Prize in Literature
Retrato de Júlio Dantas, com uma dedicatória sua a Antero de Figueiredo, 1899.png Júlio Dantas May 19, 1876
Lagos, Portugal
May 25, 1962
Lisbon, Portugal
1950, 1951
Silver - replace this image male.svg Albert Steffen December 10, 1884
Wynau, Switzerland
July 13, 1963
Dornach, Switzerland
1950
Karen Blixen cropped from larger original.jpg Karen Blixen April 17, 1885
Rungsted, Denmark
September 07, 1962
Rungsted, Denmark
1950, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962
John Dewey cph.3a51565.jpg John Dewey October 20, 1859
Vermont, United States
June 01, 1952
New York, United States
1950
Hermann Broch portrait photograph, 1909.jpg Hermann Broch November 01, 1886
Vienna, Austria
May 30, 1951
Connecticut, United States
1950
Rómulo Gallegos 1940s.jpg Rómulo Gallegos August 02, 1884
Caracas, Venezuela
April 05, 1969
Caracas, Venezuela
1951, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966
EzequielMartínezEstrada.jpg Ezequiel Martínez Estrada September 14, 1895
Buenos Aires, Argentina
November 04, 1964
Bahía Blanca, Argentina
1951
Silver - replace this image male.svg Sotíris Skípi ca. 1881
Athens, Greece
September 29, 1952
Provence, France
1951
Katharine Susannah Prichard.jpg Katharine Susannah Prichard December 04, 1883
Levuka, Fiji
October 02, 1969
Greenmount, Australia
1951
María Enriqueta Camarillo.JPG María Enriqueta Camarillo February 19, 1872
Coatepec, Mexico
February 13, 1968
Mexico City, Mexico
1951
Ferreira de Castro - Ilustração (1Nov1933).png José Maria Ferreira de Castro May 24, 1898
Ossela, Portugal
June 29, 1974
Porto, Portugal
1951, 1952
Silver - replace this image male.svg J. Dover Wilson July 13, 1881
London, United Kingdom
January 15, 1969
Balerno, United Kingdom
1952
JRJimenez.JPG Juan Ramón Jiménez December 24, 1881
Moguer, Spain
May 29, 1958
San Juan, Puerto Rico
1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956 Won the 1956 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Salvador de Madariaga.JPG Salvador de Madariaga July 23, 1886
A Coruña, Spain
December 14, 1978
Muralto, Switzerland
1952, 1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Charles Plisnier December 13, 1896
Ghlin, Belgium
July 17, 1952
Brussels, Belgium
1952
Walter de la Mare by Lady Ottoline Morrell.jpg Walter de la Mare April 25, 1873
London, United Kingdom
June 22, 1956
Twickenham, United Kingdom
1952, 1953
Silver - replace this image male.svg Werner Bergengruen September 16, 1892
Riga, Latvia
September 04, 1964
Baden-Baden, Germany
1952, 1953, 1959, 1960, 1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Julien Benda December 26, 1867
Paris, France
June 07, 1956
Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
Vialar Harcourt 1948.jpg Paul Vialar September 18, 1898
Saint-Denis, France
January 08, 1996
Vaucresson, France
1952
CFP-3 Artus, L.jpg Louis Artus January 10, 1870
Paris, France
May 11, 1960
Paris, France
1952
Silver - replace this image male.svg Van Wyck Brooks February 16, 1886
New Jersey, United States
May 02, 1963
Connecticut, United States
1952
Albert Schweitzer 1955.jpg Albert Schweitzer January 14, 1875
Kaysersberg-Vignoble, France
September 04, 1965
Lambarene, Gabon
1952 Won the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize.
svg Max Mell November 10, 1882
Maribor, Slovenia
December 12, 1971
Vienna, Austria
1953, 1954, 1960, 1962
Bundesarchiv-Bild-183-1984-1116-500,-Gottfried-Benn-Arzt-und-Schriftsteller cropped.jpg Gottfried Benn May 02, 1886
Putlitz, Germany
July 97, 1956
Berlin, Germany
1953, 1954, 1955, 1956
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alberto Hidalgo May 23, 1897
Arequipa, Peru
November 12, 1967
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1953, 1966
Ricardo Rojas 1926.png Ricardo Rojas September 16, 1882
Tucumán, Argentina
July 29, 1957
Buenos Aires, Argentina
1954
Silver - replace this image male.svg Gustave Vanzype June 10, 1869
Brussels, Belgium
September 12, 1955
Brussels, Belgium
1954
Jaroslav Seifert 1981 foto Hana Hamplová.jpg Jaroslav Seifert September 23, 1901
Prague, Czechia
January 10, 1986
Prague, Czechia
1954 Won the 1984 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Georgios Vouyouklatis ?
Greece
?
Greece
1954
CGJung.jpg Carl Jung July 26, 1875
Kesswil, Switzerland
June 06, 1961
Küsnacht, Switzerland
1954
Saint-John Perse 1960.jpg Saint-John Perse May 31, 1887
Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe
September 20, 1975
Hyères, France
1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 Won the 1960 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Eugenio Montale.jpg Eugenio Montale October 12, 1896
Genoa, Italy
September 12, 1981
Milan, Italy
1955, 1961, 1966 Won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Giuseppe Ungaretti (basco).jpg Giuseppe Ungaretti February 08, 1888
Alexandria, Egypt
June 01, 1970
Milan, Italy
1955, 1956, 1958, 1964, 1965
Igor Gouzenko hooded.jpg Igor Gouzenko January 13, 1919
Dmitrov, Russia
June 28, 1982
Mississauga, Canada
1955
Silver - replace this image male.svg Leslie Poles Hartley December 30, 1895
Whittlesey, United Kingdom
December 13, 1972
London, United Kingdom
1955, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1966
Gustav Suits.jpg Gustav Suits November 18, 1883
Võnnu, Estonia
May 23, 1956
Stockholm, Sweden
1955
Silver - replace this image male.svg Reinhold Schneider May 13, 1903
Baden-Baden, Germany
April 06, 1958
Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
1955
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ernst Robert Curtius April 14, 1886
Thann, France
April 19, 1956
Rome, Italy
1955
Silver - replace this image male.svg Christopher Dawson October 12, 1889
Budleigh Salterton, United Kingdom
May 25, 1970
Budleigh Salterton, United Kingdom
1955
Silver - replace this image female.svg Edith Sitwell September 07, 1887
Scarborough, United Kingdom
December 09, 1964
London, United Kingdom
1955, 1958, 1959
Maugham retouched.jpg William Somerset Maugham January 25, 1874
Paris, France
December 16, 1965
Nice, France
1955, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965
Lustra (private print) - Ezra Pound - Frontispiece.jpg Ezra Pound October 30, 1885
Idaho, United States
November 01, 1972
Venice, Italy
1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966
Henri Bosco.jpg Henri Bosco November 16, 1888
Avignon, France
May 04, 1976
Nice, France
1955, 1956, 1965, 1966
Vaz ferreira carlos.jpg Carlos Vaz Ferreira October 15, 1872
Montevideo, Uruguay
January 03, 1958
Montevideo, Uruguay
1955
Adriaan Roland Holst.gif Adriaan Roland Holst May 23, 1888
Amsterdam, Netherlands
August 05, 1976
Bergen, Netherlands
1955, 1961
Silver - replace this image male.svg Arthur Bryant February 18, 1899
Dersingham, United Kingdom
January 22, 1985
Wiltshire, United Kingdom
1955
Picture of Giovanni Papini.jpg Giovanni Papini January 09, 1881
Florence, Italy
July 08, 1956
Florence, Italy
1955
Giorgos Seferis 1963.jpg Giorgos Seferis March 13, 1900
Urla, Turkey
September 20, 1971
Athens, Greece
1955, 1961, 1962, 1963 Won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Pagnol Harcourt 1948.jpg Marcel Pagnol February 28, 1895
Aubagne, France
April 18, 1974
Paris, France
1956, 1959, 1966
Henry de Montherlant - statue.jpg Henry de Montherlant April 20, 1895
Paris, France
September 21, 1972
Paris, France
1956, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Pablo Neruda 1963.jpg Pablo Neruda July 12, 1904
Parral, Chile
September 23, 1973
Santiago, Chile
1956, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1971 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Princess Marthe Bibesco, née Marthe Lucie Lahovary (1886-1973).jpg Marthe Bibesco January 28, 1886
Bucharest, Romania
November 28, 1973
Paris, France
1956
Gonzague de Reynold.jpg Gonzague de Reynold July 15, 1880
Cressier, Switzerland
April 09, 1970
Fribourg, Switzerland
1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960
Christopher Fry.jpg Christopher Fry December 18, 1907
Bristol, United Kingdom
June 30, 2005
Chichester, United Kingdom
1956, 1959, 1960, 1964
Elizabeth Goudge c1975.jpg Elizabeth Goudge April 24, 1900
Wells, United Kingdom
April 01, 1984
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
1956, 1959
Silver - replace this image male.svg Francesco Chiesa July 05, 1871
Sagno, Switzerland
June 13, 1973
Lugano, Switzerland
1956
Gabriel Marcel (c. 1951).jpg Gabriel Marcel December 07, 1889
Paris, France
October 08, 1973
Paris, France
1956, 1957, 1962, 1964, 1965
Luigi Silori e Vasco Pratolini al ridotto del Teatro Eliseo di Roma (1959).jpg Vasco Pratolini October 19, 1913
Florence, Italy
January 12, 1991
Rome, Italy
1956, 1959, 1963
Jorge Luis Borges 1951, by Grete Stern.jpg Jorge Luis Borges August 24, 1899
Buenos Aires, Argentina
June 14, 1986
Geneva, Switzerland
1956, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Bertolt-Brecht.jpg Bertolt Brecht February 10, 1898
Augsburg, Germany
August 14, 1956
East Berlin, Germany
1956
Silver - replace this image female.svg Melpo Axioti July 15, 1905
Athens, Greece
May 22, 1973
Athens, Greece
1956
JulesSupervielle.jpg Jules Supervielle January 16, 1884
Montevideo, Uruguay
May 17, 1960
Paris, France
1956, 1957, 1960
Ernst Jünger.tiff Ernst Jünger March 29, 1895
Heidelberg, Germany
February 17, 1998
Riedlingen, Germany
1956, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Armand Godoy April 01, 1880
Havana, Cuba
March 11, 1964
Lausanne, Switzerland
1956
Samuel Beckett, Pic, 1 (cropped).jpg Samuel Beckett April 13, 1906
Foxrock, Ireland
December 22, 1989
Paris, France
1957, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Lennox Robinson - Project Gutenberg eText 19028.jpg Lennox Robinson October 04, 1886
Cork, Ireland
October 15, 1958
Dublin, Ireland
1957
Vaino Linna color.jpg Väinö Linna December 20, 1920
Urjala, Finland
April 21, 1992
Kangasala, Finland
1957, 1963, 1964
Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico (Italia, 1955) - BEIC 6341423.jpg Carlo Levi November 29, 1902
Turin, Italy
January 04, 1975
Rome, Italy
1957, 1966
Valery Larbaud.jpg Valery Larbaud August 29, 1881
Vichy, France
February 02, 1957
Vichy, France
1957
Jean Paul Sartre 1965.jpg Jean-Paul Sartre June 21, 1905
Paris, France
April 15, 1980
Paris, France
1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964 Won the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but declined the prize.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Knuth Becker January 21, 1891
Hjørring, Denmark
October 30, 1974
Vår, Denmark
1957
Mircea.eliade.jpg Mircea Eliade March 13, 1907
Bucharest, Romania
April 22, 1986
Illinois, United States
1957
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0430-0050-010, Frank Thiess.jpg Frank Thiess March 13, 1890
Ikšķile, Latvia
December 22, 1977
Darmstadt, Germany
1957, 1962
Andre Chamson 1962.jpg André Chamson June 06, 1900
Nîmes, France
November 09, 1983
Paris, France
1957, 1965
Jan Parandowski.jpg Jan Parandowski May 11, 895
Lviv, Ukraine
September 26, 1978
Warsaw, Poland
1957, 1959
Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz.jpg Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz February 20, 1894
Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine
March 02, 1980
Warsaw, Poland
1957, 1963, 1965, 1966
Edith Hamilton.jpg Edith Hamilton August 12, 1867
Dresden, Germany
May 31, 1963
Washington D.C., United States
1957
Rudolf Alexander Schröder.jpg Rudolf Alexander Schröder January 26, 1878
Bremen, Germany
August 22, 1962
Bad Wessee, Germany
1958, 1960
Salvatore Quasimodo 1959.jpg Salvatore Quasimodo August 20, 1901
Modica, Italy
June 14, 1968
Naples, Italy
1958, 1959 Won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Junichiro Tanizaki 02.jpg Jun'ichirō Tanizaki July 24, 1886
Tokyo, Japan
July 30, 1965
Kanagawa, Japan
1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Nishiwaki Junzaburo.jpg Junzaburō Nishiwaki January 20, 1894
Niigata, Japan
June 05, 1982
Niigata, Japan
1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
ElioVittorini.jpg Elio Vittorini July 23, 1908
Syracuse, Italy
February 12, 1966
Milan, Italy
1958
Georges Simenon (1965).jpg Georges Simenon February 13, 1903
Liège, Belgium
September 04, 1989
Lausanne, Switzerland
1958, 1961, 1963, 1965
Illustration of James Gould Cozzens for the Sept. 5, 1957 cover of Time Magazine.tif James Gould Cozzens August 19, 1903
Illinois, United States
August 09, 1978
Florida, United States
1958
Lionel Trilling.jpg Lionel Trilling July 04, 1905
New York, United States
November 05, 1975
New York, United States
1958, 1963, 1965
Johnhersey.jpg John Hersey June 17, 1914
Tianjin, China
March 24, 1993
Florida, United States
1958
Robert Penn Warren.jpg Robert Penn Warren April 24, 1905
Kentucky, United States
September 15, 1989
Vermont, United States
1958, 1965
Miroslav Krleža 1953.jpg Miroslav Krleža July 07, 1893
Zagreb, Croatia
December 29, 1981
Zagreb, Croatia
1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
S. Kragujevic, Ivo Andric, 1961.jpg Ivo Andrić October 10, 1892
Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina
March 13, 1975
Belgrade, Serbia
1958, 1959, 1960, 1961 Won the 1961 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Maurice Bowra April 08, 1898
Jiujiang, China
July 04, 1971
Oxford, United Kingdom
1958, 1961, 1965
Tennessee Williams NYWTS.jpg Tennessee Williams March 26, 1911
Mississippi, United States
February 25, 1983
New York, United States
1958
Silver - replace this image male.svg Fernand Baldensperger May 04, 1871
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, France
February 24, 1958
Paris, France
1958
John-Cowper-Powys 2.jpg John Cowper Powys October 08, 1872
Shirley, United Kingdom
June 17, 1963
Blaenau Ffestiniog, United Kingdom
1958, 1959, 1962
Elizabeth Bowen.jpg Elizabeth Bowen June 07, 1899
Dublin, Ireland
February 22, 1973
London, United Kingdom
1958
ErnestClaes(persp.).jpg Ernest Claes October 24, 1885
Scherpenheuvel-Zichem, Belgium
September 02, 1968
Ixelles, Sweden
1959
Julien Gracq.jpg Julien Gracq July 27, 1910
Mauges-sur-Loire, France
December 22, 2007
Angers, France
1959, 1960, 1961
Portrait Aragon (cropped).jpg Louis Aragon October 03, 1897
Paris, France
December 24, 1982
Paris, France
1959, 1960, 1963, 1965, 1966
Juana de Ibarbourou from Estampas de la Biblia.jpg Juana de Ibarbourou March 08, 1892
Melo, Uruguay
July 15, 1979
Montevideo, Uruguay
1959, 1960, 1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Sochi Raut Roy 1916
India
2004
India
1959
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hans Egon Holthusen April 15, 1913
Rendsburg, Germany
January 21, 1997
Munich, Germany
1959
Étienne Gilson.jpg Étienne Gilson June 13, 1884
Paris, France
September 19, 1978
Auxerre, France
1959, 1962
F. R. Leavis.jpg Frank Raymond Leavis July 14, 1895
Cambridge, United Kingdom
April 14, 1978
Cambridge, United Kingdom
1959, 1962
Anna Seghers (Bundesarchiv-Bild 183-F0114-0204-003) – retouched by Carschten.jpg Anna Seghers November 19, 1900
Mainz, Germany
June 01, 1983
East Berlin, Germany
1959
Osbert Sitwell in The Bookman volume 57 December 1919 p. 102.jpg Osbert Sitwell December 06, 1892
London, United Kingdom
May 04, 1969
Florence, Italy
1959
Sacheverell Sitwell in 1927.png Sacheverell Sitwell November 15, 1897
Scarborough, United Kingdom
October 01, 1988
Towcester, United Kingdom
1959
Silver - replace this image male.svg Miguel Torga August 12, 1907
São Martinho de Anta, Portugal
January 17, 1995
Coimbra, Portugal
1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Charles Mauron June 27, 1899
Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France
December 04, 1966
Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France
1959
Heidegger 4 (1960) cropped.jpg Martin Heidegger September 26, 1889
Messkirch, Germany
May 26, 1976
Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
1959, 1960
Silver - replace this image male.svg Stefan Andres June 26, 1906
Trittenheim, Germany
June 29, 1970
Rome, Italy
1959, 1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Mario Roques July 01, 1875
Callao, Peru
March 08, 1961
Paris, France
1959, 1960
Silver - replace this image male.svg Heimito von Doderer September 05, 1896
Vienna, Austria
December 23, 1966
Vienna Austria
1959, 1960, 1962, 1964
Silver - replace this image female.svg María Raquel Adler ? July 28, 1974
Bernal, Argentina
1959, 1965
Arnold Zweig (1887–1968) © Max Fenichel (1885–1942) OeNB 20431579.jpg Arnold Zweig November 10, 1887
Glogow, Poland
November 26, 1968
East Berlin, Germany
1959, 1962, 1965, 1966
ETH-BIB-Max Frisch-Com C20-015-023-001.jpg Max Frisch May 15, 1911
Zürich, Switzerland
April 04, 1991
Zürich, Switzerland
1959, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Franz Theodor Csokor September 06, 1885
Vienna, Austria
January 05, 1969
Vienna, Austria
1960, 1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg Wesley LaViolette January 04, 1894
Minnesota, United States
July 29, 1978
California, United States
1960
Silver - replace this image male.svg Karl Heinrich Waggerl December 10, 1897
Badgestein, Austria
November 04, 1973
Schwarzach im Pongau, Austria
1960
Aquilino Ribeiro.png Aquilino Ribeiro September13, 1885
Sernancelhe, Portugal
May 27, 1963
Lisbon, Portugal
1960
Lehmann wilhelm 1905.png Wilhelm Lehmann May 04, 1882
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela
November 17, 1968
Eckernförde, Germany
1960
Silver - replace this image female.svg Marie Noël February 16, 1883
Auxerre, France
December 23, 1967
Auxerre, France
1960 Noël is the first nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature on process for sainthood within the Roman Catholic Church.
JBPriestley.jpg John Boyton Priestley September 13, 1894
Bradford, United Kingdom
August 14, 1984
Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
1960, 1964, 1966
Jean Price-Mars.jpg Jean Price-Mars October 15, 1876
Grande Rivière du Nord, Haiti
March 01, 1969
Petion-Ville, Haiti
1960 First Haitian nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Céreste R. C. et son chat 1941.jpg René Char June 14, 1907
L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, France
February 19, 1988
Paris, France
1960, 1963, 1965, 1966
James Thurber NYWTS.jpg James Thurber December 08, 1894
Ohio, United States
November 02, 1961
New York, United States
1960
Elias Venezis.jpg Elias Venezis March 04, 1904
Ayvalık, Turkey
August 03, 1974
Athens, Greece
1960, 1963
58371 Aksel Sandemose.jpg Aksel Sandemose March 19, 1899
Nykobing Mors, Denmark
August 06, 1965
Copenhagen, Denmark
1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Stratis Myrivilis.jpg Stratis Myrivilis June 30, 1890
Lesbos, Greece
July 19, 1969
Athens, Greece
1960, 1962, 1963
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg Heinrich Böll December 21, 1917
Cologne, Germany
July 16, 1985
Kreuzau, Germany
1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1972 Nobel Prize in Literature.
J. R. R. Tolkien, 1940s.jpg John Ronald Reuel Tolkien January 03, 1892
Bloemfontein, South Africa
September 02, 1973
Bournemouth, United Kingdom
1961
Friedrich duerrenmatt 19890427.jpg Friedrich Dürrenmatt January 05, 1921
Konolfingen, Switzerland
December 14, 1990
Neuchâtel, Switzerland
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Michel de Ghelderode.jpg Michel de Ghelderode April 03, 1898
Ixelles, Belgium
April 01, 1962
Brussels, Belgium
1961
Silver - replace this image female.svg Giulia Scappino Murena ?
Italy
?
Italy
1961, 1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg Arthur Waley August 19, 1889
Royal Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom
June 27, 1966
London, United Kingdom
1961, 1962, 1964
Silver - replace this image male.svg Pierre Jean Jouve October 11, 1887
Arras, France
January 08, 1976
Paris, France
1961, 1964
Jean Anouilh.jpg Jean Anouilh June 23, 1910
Bordeaux, France
October 03, 1987
Lausanne, Switzerland
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966
Kawabata Yasunari 1968.jpg Yasunari Kawabata June 14, 1899
Osaka, Japana
April 16, 1972
Kanagawa, Japan
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1968 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Lawrence Durrell.png Lawrence Durrell February 27, 1912
Jalandhar, India
November 07, 1990
Sommières, France
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
C. P. Snow.jpg Charles Percy Snow October 15, 1905
Leicester, United Kingdom
July 01, 1980
London, United Kingdom
1961, 1963, 1964, 1965
AudenVanVechten1939.jpg Wystan Hugh Auden February 21, 1907
York, United Kingdom
September 29, 1973
Vienna, Austria
1961, 1963, 1964, 19965, 1966
Edmund Wilson.jpg Edmund Wilson May 08, 1895
New Jersey, United States
June 12, 1972
New York, United States
1961, 1963, 1965, 1966
Cora sandel.jpg Cora Sandel December 20, 1880
Oslo, Norway
April 03, 1974
Uppsala, Sweden
1961
Simone de Beauvoir2.png Simone de Beauvoir January 09, 1908
Paris, France
April 14, 1968
Paris, France
1961
Pietro Ubaldi.jpg Pietro Ubaldi August 18, 1886
Foligno, Italy
February 29, 1972
São Paulo, Brazil
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Boris Zaitsev 7.jpg Boris Zaytsev February 10, 1881
Oryol, Russia
January 22, 1972
Paris, France
1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg Humphrey Davy Findley Kitto February 06, 1897
Stroud, United Kingdom
January 21, 1982
Bristol, United Kingdom
1962
Roman Jakobson.jpg Roman Jakobson October 10, 1896
Moscow, Russia
July 18, 1982 >br> Massachusetts, United States 1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg André Schwarz-Bart May 23, 1928
Metz, France
September 30, 2006
Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe
1962
Vilhelm Moberg 1967.jpg Vilhelm Moberg August 20, 1898
Algutsboda, Sweden
August 08, 1973
Väddö, Sweden
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hans Erich Nossack January 30, 1901
Hamburg, Germany
November 02, 1977
Hamburg, Germany
1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg Manfred Hausmann September 10, 1898
Kassel, Germany
August 06, 1986
Bremen, Germany
1962
Josep Carner 1970.jpg Josep Carner February 09, 1884
Barcelona, Spain
June 04, 1970
Brussels, Belgium
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Ronald Syme.jpg Ronald Syme March 11, 1903
Eltham, New Zealdn
September 04, 1989
Oxford, United Kingdom
1962
Eyvind.JPG Eyvind Johnson July 29, 1900
Svartbjörnsbyn, United States
August 25, 1976
Stockholm, Sweden
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0008, Carl Zuckmayer.jpg Carl Zuckmayer December 27, 1896
Nackenheim, Germany
January 18, 1977
Saas Fee, Switzerland
1962
William Heinesen.jpg William Heinesen January 15, 1900
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
March 12, 1991
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
1962
Silver - replace this image male.svg Jorge Guillén January 18, 1893
Valladolid, Spain
February 06, 1984
Málaga, Spain
1962, 1963, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image female.svg Ingeborg Bachmann June 25, 1926
Klagenfurt, Austria
October 17, 1973
Rome, Italy
1963
André Breton - photo Henri Manuel.jpg André Breton February 18, 1896
Tinchebray-Bocage, France
September 28, 1966
Paris, France
1963, 1964
Michel-Butor.jpg Michel Butor September 14, 1926
Mons-en-Barœul, France
August 24, 2016
Contamine-sur-Arve, France
1963, 1964
Silver - replace this image male.svg Emilio Cecchi July 14, 1884
Florence, Italy
September 05, 1966
Rome, Italy
1963
Jean Cocteau b Meurisse 1923.jpg Jean Cocteau July 05, 1889
Maisons-Laffitte, France
October 11, 1963
Milly-la-Forêt, France
1963, 1964, 1965
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F010324-0002, Flughafen Köln-Bonn, Adenauer, de Gaulle-cropped.jpg Charles de Gaulle November 22, 1890
Lille, France
November 09, 1970
Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, France
1963 President of France (1959 – 1969)
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ingemar Düring September 02, 1903
Gothenburg, Swedeen
December 23, 1984
Gothenburg, Sweden
1963
René Étiemble en 1998.png René Étiemble January 26, 1909
Mayenne, France
January 07, 2002
[[

Vigny, Val-d'Oise|Vigny]], France

1963
Jean Guéhenno (1).png Jean Guéhenno March 25, 1890
Fougères, France
September 22, 1978
Paris, France
1963, 1964, 1965
Evtushenko.jpg Yevgeny Yevtushenko July 18, 1932
Zima, Russia
April 01, 2017
Oklahoma, United States
1963
Marcel Jouhandeau, années 1930.jpg Marcel Jouhandeau July 26, 1888
Guéret, France
April 07, 1979
Rueil-Malmaison, France
1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Karl Löwith January 09, 1897
Munich, Germany
May 26, 1973
Heidelberg, Germany
1963, 1964
Yukio Mishima cropped.jpg Yukio Mishima January 14, 1925
Tokyo, Japan
November 25, 1970
Tokyo, Japan
1963
Vladimir Nabokov 1973.jpg Vladimir Nabokov April 22, 1899
Saint Petersburg, Russia
July 02, 1977
Montreux, Switzerland
1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Rudolf Pfeiffer September 20, 1889
Augsburg, Germany
May 05, 1979
Dachau, Germany
1963
Silver - replace this image male.svg Henri Queffélec January 29, 1910
Brest, France
January 12, 1992
Paris, France
1963
Kate Roberts 1923.jpg Kate Roberts February 13, 1891
Rhosgadfan, United Kingdom
April 14, 1985
Denbigh, United Kingdom
1963
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpg Nelly Sachs December 10, 1891
Berlin, Germany
May 12, 1970
Stockholm, Sweden
1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature with Shmuel Yosef Agnon.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Ramón José Sender February 03, 1901
Chalamera, Spain
February 16, 1982
California, United States
1963, 1964
Léopold Sédar Senghor.jpg Léopold Sédar Senghor October 09, 1906
Joal-Fadiout, Senegal
December 20, 2001
Verson, France
1963 First Senegalese nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature and First President of Senegal (1960 – 1980)
Gustave Thibon 1982.png Gustave Thibon September 02, 1903
Saint-Marcel-d'Ardèche, France
January 19, 2001
Saint-Marcel-d'Ardèche, France
1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Érico Veríssimo, sem data.tif Erico Verissimo December 17, 1905
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
November 28, 1975
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
1963
Miguel Angel Asturias.jpg Miguel Ángel Asturias October 19, 1899
Guatemala City, Guatemala
June 09, 1974
Madrid, Spain
1964, 1965, 1966 Won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Jérôme Carcopino.jpg Jérôme Carcopino June 27, 1881
Eure, France
March 17, 1970
Paris, France
1964
Camilo José Cela. Fototeca. Biblioteca Virtual del Patrimonio Bibliográfico.jpg Camilo José Cela May 11, 1916
Iria Flavia, Spain
January 17, 2002
Madrid, Spain
1964
Celan .jpg Paul Celan Novemer 23, 1920
Cernăuți, Romania
April 20, 1970
Paris, France
1964, 1966
Gunnar-ekelof.jpg Gunnar Ekelöf September 15, 1907
Stockholm, Sweden
March 16, 1968
Sigtuna, Sweden
1964
Harry Martinson 001.tiff Harry Martinson May 06, 1904
Jämshög, Sweden
February 11, 1978
Solna, Sweden
1964, 1966 Won the 1974 Nobel Prize in Literature with Eyvind Johnson.
Pierre Emmanuel (Académie française).jpg Pierre Emmanuel May 03, 1916
Gan, France
September 24, 1984
Paris, France
1964, 1966
James T. Farrell 1950s.jpg James T. Farrell] February 27, 1904
Illinois, United States
August 22, 1979
New York, United States
1964
NakhaiPortrait.JPG Hossein Ghods-Nakhai ca. 1894
Mazandaran, Iran
December 30, 1977
Shiraz, Iran
1964, 1966
Katherine Anne Porter.jpg Katherine Anne Porter May 15, 1890
Texas, United States
September 18, 1980
Maryland, United States
1964, 1965, 1966
Eugene Ionesco 01.jpg Eugène Ionesco November 26, 1909
Slatina, Romania
March 28, 1994
Paris, France
1964
Robert-lowell-by-elsa-dorfman.jpg Robert Lowell March 01, 1917
Massachusetts, United Kingdom
September 12, 1977
New York, United States
1964, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Hugh MacDiarmid August 11, 1892
Langholm, United Kingdom
September 09, 1978
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
1964
Henri Michaux.jpg Henri Michaux May 24, 1899
Namur, Belgium
October 19, 1984
Paris, France
1964
José María Pemán.png José María Pemán May 08, 1897
Cádiz, Spain
July 19, 1981
Cádiz, Spain
1964, 1966
Silver - replace this image female.svg Judith Wright May 31, 1915
Armidale, Australia
June 25, 2000
Canberra, Australia
1964, 1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Jacques Perret September 08, 1901
Trappes, France
December 10, 1992
Paris, France
1964
Silver - replace this image female.svg Ina Seidel September 15, 1885
Halle (Saale), Germany
October 02, 1974
Schäftlarn, Germany
1964
Anna Akhmatova 1913-1914 by Savely Sorin.jpg Anna Akhmatova June 23, 1889
Odesa, Ukraine
March 05, 1966
Domodedovo, Russia
1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image female.svg Marie Luise Kaschnitz January 31, 1901
Karlsruhe, Germany
October 10, 1974
Rome, Italy
1965
Adorno.jpg Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno September 11, 1903
Frankfurt, Germany
August 06, 1969
Visp, Switzerland
1965
Alceu Amoroso Lima (1935).jpg Alceu Amoroso Lima December 11, 1893
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
August 14, 1983
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1965
Tudor Arghezi.jpg Tudor Arghezi May 21, 1880
Bucharest, Romania
July 14, 1967
Bucharest, Romania
1965
Alejo Carpentier.jpg Alejo Carpentier December 26, 1904
Lausanne, Switzerland
April 24, 1980
Paris, France
1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Sudhindra Nath Ghose 1899
Bengal, Inida
1965
Bengal, India
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Gopal Singh November 29, 1917
Goa, India
August 08, 1990
Goa, India
1965
Giovannino Guareschi.jpg Giovannino Guareschi May 01, 1908
Roccabianca, Italy
July 22, 1968
Cervia, Italy
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Pêr-Jakez Helias February 17, 1914
Pouldreuzic, France
August 13, 1995
Quimper, France
1965
Paustovsky.jpg Konstantin Paustovsky May 31, 1892
Moscow, Russia
July 14, 1968
Moscow, Russia
1965, 1966
Marguerite Yourcenar-Bailleul-1982.10.04.Bernhard De Grendel (9).jpg Marguerite Yourcenar June 08, 1903
Brussels, Belgium
December 17, 1987
Maine, United States
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Juan Antonio de Zunzunegui December 21, 1901
Portugalete, Spain
May 31, 1982
Madrid, Spain
1965
Illyes Gyula (Bahget Iskander).jpg Gyula Illyés November 02, 1902
Pálfa, Hungary
April 15, 1983
Budapest, Hungary
1965, 1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Muhammad Ali Jamalzadeh ?
Iran
?
Iran
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Zeinolabedin Rahnema ?
Iran
?
Iran
1965
Wilhelm Röpke.jpg Wilhelm Röpke October 10, 1899
Schwarmstedt, Germany
February 12, 1966
Geneva, Switzerland
1965
Alan Sillitoe (2009).jpg Alan Sillitoe March 04, 1928
Nottingham, United Kingdom
April 25, 2010
London, united Kingdom
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Carl Erik Soya October 30, 1896
Copenhagen, Denmark
November 10, 1983
Rudkøbing, Denmark
1965
Henri Troyat.jpg Henri Troyat November 01, 1911
Moscow, Russia
March 02, 2007
Paris, France
1965
Silver - replace this image male.svg Alexandre Arnoux February 27, 1884
Digne, France
January 05, 1973
Paris, France
1966
Portrett av Johan Borgen.jpg Johan Borgen April 28, 1902
Oslo, Norway
October 16, 1979
Hvaler, Norway
1966
Carlo Emilio Gadda.jpg Carlo Emilio Gadda November 14, 1893
Milan, Italy
May 21, 1973
Rome, Italy
1966
Witold Gombrowicz Polish passport.jpg Witold Gombrowicz August 04, 1904
Małoszyce, Poland
July 24, 1969
Vence, France
1966
Günter Grass auf dem Blauen Sofa.jpg Günter Grass October 16, 1927
Free City of Danzig, Germany
April 13, 2015
Lübeck, Germany
1966 Won the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Silver - replace this image male.svg Thierry Maulnier October 01, 1909
Alès, France
September 26, 1988
Marnes-la-Coquette, France
1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Henry Muller August 21, 1902
Muhlbach-sur-Bruche, France
November 15, 1980
Paris, France
1966
Silver - replace this image male.svg Walter Pabst March 09, 1907
Darmstadt, Germany
November 18, 1992
Berlin, Germany
1966
Portrait de Pierre-Henri Simon.JPG Pierre-Henri Simon January 16, 1903
Saint-Fort-sur-Gironde, France
September 20, 1972
Ville-d'Avray, France
1966
Arnold Wesker.jpg Arnold Wesker May 24, 1932
London, United Kingdom
April 12, 2016
Brighton, United Kingdom
1966

Similar international prizes[edit]

The Nobel Prize in Literature is not the only literary prize for which all nationalities are eligible. Other notable international literary prizes include the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the Franz Kafka Prize, the International Booker Prize when it was previously awarded for a writer's entire body of work, and in the 1960s the Formentor Prix International. In contrast to the other prizes mentioned, the Neustadt International Prize is awarded biennially. The journalist Hephzibah Anderson has noted that the International Booker Prize "is fast becoming the more significant award, appearing an ever more competent alternative to the Nobel".[115] However since 2016 the International Booker Prize now awards an annual book of fiction translated into English.[116] Previous winners of the International Booker Prize who have gone on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature includes Alice Munro and Olga Tokarczuk. The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is regarded as one of the most prestigious international literary prizes, often referred to as the American equivalent to the Nobel Prize.[117][118] Like the Nobel Prize, it is awarded not for any one work, but for an entire body of work. It is frequently seen as an indicator of who may be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Gabriel García Márquez (1972 Neustadt, 1982 Nobel), Czesław Miłosz (1978 Neustadt, 1980 Nobel), Octavio Paz (1982 Neustadt, 1990 Nobel), Tomas Tranströmer (1990 Neustadt, 2011 Nobel) were first awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature before being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Another award of note is the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award (formerly Prince of Asturias Award) in Letters. During the first years of its existence it was almost exclusively awarded to writers in the Spanish language, but in more recent times writers in other languages have been awarded as well. Writers who have won both the Asturias Award in Letters and the Nobel Prize in Literature include Camilo José Cela, Günter Grass, Doris Lessing and Mario Vargas Llosa.

The America Award in Literature, which does not include a monetary prize, presents itself as an alternative to the Nobel Prize in Literature. To date, Harold Pinter, José Saramago, and Peter Handke are the only writers to have received both the America Award and the Nobel Prize in Literature.

There are also prizes for honouring the lifetime achievement of writers in specific languages, like the Miguel de Cervantes Prize (for Spanish language, established in 1976) and the Camões Prize (for Portuguese language, established in 1989). Nobel laureates who were also awarded the Miguel de Cervantes Prize include Octavio Paz (1981 Cervantes, 1990 Nobel); Mario Vargas Llosa (1994 Cervantes, 2010 Nobel); and Camilo José Cela (1995 Cervantes, 1989 Nobel). José Saramago is the only author to receive both the Camões Prize (1995) and the Nobel Prize (1998) to date.

The Hans Christian Andersen Award is sometimes referred to as "the Little Nobel". The award has earned this appellation since, in a similar manner to the Nobel Prize in Literature, it recognizes the lifetime achievement of writers, though the Andersen Award focuses on a single category of literary works (children's literature).[119]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]