Nobile (aristocracy)

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Coronet of an Italian noble

Nobile, traditionally abbreviated to Nob., is an Italian hereditary title borne by a noble who ranks below a baron, similar to the rank of a baronet.[1] Unlike higher Italian titles which are typically referred to in lieu of an individual's name, nobile is used immediately before the given and surnames, usually in the abbreviated form Nob.. Sometimes is also abbreviated to "N.H." or "N.D." for women.

The word “nobile” is derived from the Latin “nobilis”, meaning honourable.

The heraldic coronet of a nobile consists of a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five pearls, either on stems or set directly upon the rim. The armorial shield of a nobile is surmounted by a silver helm displayed in a ¾ side-view and surmounted by the coronet already described. It is typically displayed above the shield in the full heraldic achievement associated with a noble's the specific title.

History[edit]

The rank of nobile had existed for centuries, used to denote either titled nobles (e.g., baron, count) or their cadets). In this connection, however, by 1800 many signori (lords of the manor) in Sicily and vassals in Piedmont were recognised as barons, whereas formerly they would have been simple nobili.

Prior to the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the Heraldic Court of Milan (the legal body empowered to decide on matters regarding titles of nobility) awarded and registered the term nobile as a title of nobility, until Napoleon's army overran the Austrian Habsburg-controlled Duchy of Milan in 1796. When such a title was granted, the coat of arms of the new “nobile” was entered into the "Book of Coat of Arms of Maria Teresa of Austria" (subsequently kept at the State Archives of Milan {ASMi}), along with a painting of the arms concerned. The records of such grants and the depictions of their corresponding arms show that, at that period, the title of nobile did not include a corresponding coronet of rank.

Following the creation and formal proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, the existing Consulta Araldica, thenceforth denoted as the Italian Heraldic College, recorded nobile, as the lowest rank in the hierarchy of Italian titles of nobility (but compare cavaliere ereditario, patrizio and coscritto).

Law[edit]

The Italian Republic does not recognize titles of nobility. The Italian Constitution of 1948 abolished the Consulta Araldica, and with it any official registry of titles of nobility.

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ J. H. Pinches: "European Nobility and Heraldry", Heraldry Today 1994, p. 146

Bibliography[edit]

  • E. Genta, "Titoli nobiliari", in AA.VV., Enciclopedia del diritto, Varese 1992, vol. XLIV, pag. 674-684.
  • Regolamento della Consulta araldica, approvato con regio decreto del 8 maggio 1870.
  • Enciclopedia Storico-Nobiliare Italiana, MCMXXVIII - ANNO VII
  • Archivio di Stato di Milano
  • Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage of the UK.- 1914 ed.