Nobility Law (Norway)

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The Nobility Law (full name: Law concerning modifications and closer determinations of the Norwegian Nobility's rights; Norwegian: Adelsloven or Lov, angaaende Modificationer og nærmere Bestemmelser af den Norske Adels Rettigheder) was passed by the national parliament in Norway, the Storting, on 1 August 1821. It abolished noble titles and privileges within two generations and required legal proof of nobility in the meantime.

The law reflected the democratic philosophy of the Storting's majority, and was passed effectively unanimously in 1815 and 1818,[1] but was both times vetoed by the King before being passed with a large majority the third time.[2] It initiated the abolition of all noble titles and privileges,[3] while the current nobility and their living legitimate children were allowed to keep their noble status or titles and certain privileges for the rest of their lives. Under the law, nobles who wished to present a claim to nobility before the Norwegian parliament were required to provide documentation confirming their noble status.

Text in English[edit]

§ 1. The countships and the barony in Norway shall, in regard to the administration of the functions of the civil authorities, be placed either under the county wherein the estates are located or under the nearest county; however, the countships may together constitute a county if it most graciously should please His Majesty to appoint for them their own authority.

The assumption of administration by the respective county governor (prefect) shall be effective from 1 October this year.

§ 2. As soon as the currently appointed overbirk judges withdraw, in the aforementioned districts all decisions in cases in the second instance, and other functions proper to the overbirk things, shall be placed in the superior court in the bishopric in which the district is located.

§ 3. The right previously accorded to counts, barons and noblemen, resulting from their privileges or the laws, to appoint or to propose clerical or civil officials on their estates is, in accordance with § 21 of the Constitution, entirely abolished.

§ 4. Likewise, the so-called "neck and hand," or the duty imposed on the nobility to have criminals on their estates arrested, prosecuted, and punished, together with the right of term and restitution following from it and accruing to the nobility, shall henceforth be abolished, so that hereafter, with respect to the arrest, prosecution, and punishment of criminals, as well as the imposition of fines, it shall occur on the estates of the nobility according to the regulations generally in force in the kingdom.

§ 5. The freedom from taxes and tithes to which counts and barons are at the present time entitled with respect to the dues for their primary farm and for a certain quantity of associated tenant farms, together with the freedom from taxes and tithes to which noblemen resident on farms are entitled with respect to their primary farms, shall terminate with the present fief holders or owners, and not be passed down to their heir.

§ 6. The rest of the present privileges and prerogatives of the nobility shall, insofar as they do not conflict with § 108 of the Constitution, remain for the noblemen who today are in possession thereof and for their children born in lawful wedlock at the time of publication of this law, such that they shall retain the same for their lifetime, as long as they legally prove their title thereto before the next regular Storting. After the deaths of these persons, who thus remain in possession of certain noble rights, all hereditary noble status here in the kingdom ceases to exist.

§ 7. Anyone who does not prove his nobility with legal documents before the next regular Storting shall have forfeited his right to present claims of nobility in the future either for himself or for the children whom he now has.[4]

Original text in Danish[edit]

§ 1. Grevskaberne og Baroniet i Norge skulle, i Henseende til de civile Overøvrigheds-Forretningers Bestyrelse, henlægges enten under det Amt, hvori Godserne ere beliggende, eller under nærmeste Amt; dog maae Grevskaberne til sammen udgjøre et Amt, hvis det naadigst maatte behage Hans Majestæt for dem at udnævne egen Overøvrighed.

Forretningernes Overtagelse af vedkommende Amtmænd skal skee fra 1ste October dette Aar.

§ 2. Saasnart de nu beskikkede Overbirkedommere afgaae, skal i foranførte Districter, alle Sagers Paakjendelse i anden Instants, og andre til Overbirkethingene henhørende Forretninger, henlægges under Overretten i det Stift, i hvilket Districtet er beliggende.

§ 3. Den Grever, Baroner og Adelsmænd, ifølge deres Privilegier eller Lovene, forhen tilkommende Ret, at beskikke eller foreslaae geistlige eller civile Embedsmænd paa deres Godser er, ifølge Grundlovens 21 §, aldeles ophævet.

§ 4. Ligeledes skal det saakaldte Hals og Haand, eller den Adelen paalagte Forpligtelse, at lade Forbrydere paa dens Godser anholde, tiltale og afstraffe, samt den deraf flydende Adelen tilkommende Sigt- og Sagefaldsret, for Eftertiden være ophævet, saa at der herefter, i Henseende til Forbryderes Anholdelse, Tiltale og Afstraffelse, saavelsom Bøders Erlæggelse, paa Adelens Godser, skal forholdes efter de almindelige i Riget gjeldende Regler.

§ 5. Den Grever og Baroner for nærværende Tid tilkommende Skatte- eller Tiendefrihed for deres Hovedgaards Taxter og for en vis Qvantitet underliggende Bøndergods, saavelsom den Skatte- eller Tiendefrihed, der tilkommer adelige Sædegaardseiere for deres paaboende Hovedgaarde, skal ophøre med de nuværende Lehnsbesiddere eller Eiere, og ikke gaae over paa deres eftermænd.

§ 6. De øvrige den nuværende Adels privilegier og Forrettigheder skulle, forsaavidt de ikke stride imod Grundlovens 108 §, vedblive for de Adelsmænd, som for nærværende Tid ere i Besiddelse deraf, og for deres, ved denne Lovs Bekjendtgjørelse, i lovligt Ægteskab fødte Børn, saaledes, at disse fremdeles beholde samme for deres Livstid, saafremt de for næste ordentlige Storthing lovligen bevise deres Adkomst dertil. Efter de Personers Død, som saaledes vedblive i Besiddelse af visse adelige Rettigheder, ophører alt arveligt Adelskab her i Riget.

§ 7. Enhver, som ikke for næste ordentlige Storthing ved lovlige Documenter beviser sit Adelskab, skal have tabt sin Ret til, for Fremtiden at gjøre Paastand derpaa, enten for sig selv eller for sine nu havende Børn.

List[edit]

Family Name Birth Death Father Children
Born before and living on 1 August 1821
Rank Ref.
1 Johan Caspar Herman, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lensgreve
Juliane Marie, Countess of Wedel-Jarlsberg Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lenskomtesse
Caroline Sophie Amalie, Countess of Wedel-Jarlsberg Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lenskomtesse
Helene Margrethe, Countess of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1791 1857 Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lenskomtesse
Sophie Frederiche Antoinette, Countess of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1807 1892 Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lenskomtesse
2 Frederich Christopher, Count of Trampe 1779 1832 Adam Frederich, Count of Trampe to Løgismose Adam Frederich Johan (1798–1876) Greve
3 Christian Hendrich, Baron of Hoff-Rosencrone 1768 1837 Hans Edvard von Hoff Edvardine Reinholdine (1820–1901) Lensbaron
4 Carl Ferdinand Maria, Baron of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1781 1857 Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lensbaron?
Christian Frederich, Baron of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1788 1854 Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Lensbaron?
Frederich Wilhelm, Baron of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1787 1863 Frederich Christian Wedel-Jarlsberg Hildur (1814–1901)
Finn Frederich Wilhelm (1815–1901)
Hermann Thorvald (1817–1867)
Frederik Joachim (1819–1880)
Louise Sara Ulriche (1820–1838)
Lensbaron?
Wilhelm Frederich, Baron of Wedel-Jarlsberg 1786 1885 Frederich Anton, Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg Anton Frederich (1813–1858)
Christian August (1813–1870)
Catharina Kirsten (1815–1894)
Petrea (1821–1839)
Lensbaron?
5 Eggert Christopher, Baron Løvenskiold to Ulefos and Holden 1788 1861 Michael Herman, Baron Løvenskiold Herman Severin (1815–1870)
Frederiche Juliane Wilhelmine (1817–1835)
Lensbaron
6 Carl Løvenskiold
Frederich Franz Michael Løvenskiold 1790 1869 Severin Løvenskiold, the older Henriette Benedicte Christiane Dorothea (1819–1888)
Niels Løvenskiold
Severin Løvenskiold, the younger 1777 1856 Severin Løvenskiold, the older Adam Christopher (1804–1886)
Otto Joachim (1811–1882)
7 August Niels Anker Niels Anker
Elen Margrethe Anker Niels Anker
Erich Theodor Christian Bernhard Anker 1785 1858 Carsten Tank Anker Carsten Christian (1817–1898)
Hedevig Betzy Sigismunda Annette (1819–1879)
[5]
Morten Anker 1780 1838 Jess Anker Jess (1808–1864)
Bernt Olaus (1809–1881)
Christian (1811–1885)
John Collett (1816–1866)
[5]
Niels Christopher Anker 1799 1862 Jan Anker [5]
Peder Bernhard Anker 1787 1849 Jess Anker [5]
Peder Martin Anker 1801 1863 Niels Anker All children born after 1821. [5]
Sophie Adelaide Rosalie Anker Niels Anker
8 Hagbarth de Falsen 1791 1836 Enevold de Falsen Enevold (1814–1839)
Henriette Christiane (1815–1884)
John Collett (1817–1879)
Christian Baltazar (1819–1854)
9 Peter Otto Rosenørn Grüner 1783 1847
10 Hans Hagerup Gyldenpalm 1774 Eiler Hagerup Gyldenpalm
11 Andreas Niels Hauch
12 Johannes Nicolay de Kløcker Karen Amalie Johanne (1820–1854)
13 Niels Joachim Knagenhjelm 1796 1852 Christen Knagenhielm Anne Sophie Dorothea (1821–1907)
14 Bredo Hendrich von Munthe af Morgenstierne 1774 1835 Otto Christopher von Munthe af Morgenstierne Ottilia Christine Pauline (1804–1886)
Christian Fredrik Jacob (1806–1886)
Sophie Elisabeth (1808–1892)
Wilhelmine Johanne Helene (1810–1858)
Augusta Julie Georgine (1812–1885)
Wilhelm Ludvig Herman (1814–1888)
15 Peter Tordenskiold
16 Knud Adolph Gyldenstierne Roepstorph 1746 1824 Carl Ludvig Roepstorph
17 Oluf Borch de Schouboe Frederiche (1801–1890)
Anna Petra (1802–1854)
Henriette (1805–1875)
Sophie (1807–1865)
Julie (1809–1878)
Wilhelm Christian (1811–1892)
Ulriche Antoinette (1813–1901)
Ulrich Frederich Anton de Schouboe Julie Elise (1813–1911)
Olufa Frederiche (1815–1892)

The 18th family, Bergh, withdrew their claim, and the claims of Captain Brømbsen and F.J. Cold were dismissed as unproven.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johan Ernst Sars, Norges politiske historie 1815–1885, Supplement to Verdens Gang, Kristiania: Andersen, 1904, OCLC 2179638, p. 52 (in Norwegian)
  2. ^ Norge i det nittende aarhundrede: Tekst og billeder af norske forfattere og Kunstnere, ed. Nordahl Rolfsen, E. Werenskiold, et al., volume 1 Kristiania: Cammermeyer, 1900, OCLC 61074729, p. 140 (in Norwegian)
  3. ^ Lov ang. modifikasjon og nærmere bestemmelse av den norske adels rettigheder 1.8 1821 Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. at Adelsprosjektet, notes 5 and 6 from Julius August S. Schmidt, ed. Love, Anordninger og Tractater, Resolutioner, Kundgjørelser, Departementsskrivelser, Circulærer m. m. for Kongeriget Norge i Tidsrummet fra 1814-1848. Til Brug for den Lovstuderende udtogsviis udgivne, volume 1, 1814–1831, Christiania, 1849, p. 334 (in Norwegian)
  4. ^ The translation is not official.
  5. ^ a b c d e Store norske leksikon: Anker

Literature[edit]

  • Paulsen, P.I. (1931) Norges Lover 1660–1930. Grøndahls & Søns Boktrykkeri, Oslo. pp. 93–94.
  • Storthings-Efterretninger 1814–1833

External links[edit]