|Original author(s)||Ryan Dahl|
|Developer(s)||Node.js Developers, Joyent, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||May 27, 2009|
|Stable release||4.1.1 / September 22, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows (older versions require Cygwin), webOS, NonStop OS|
Node.js was invented in 2009 by Ryan Dahl and other developers working at Joyent. Node.js was created and first published for Linux use in 2009. Its development and maintenance was led by Dahl and sponsored by Joyent, the firm where Dahl worked.
Dahl was inspired to create Node.js after seeing a file upload progress bar on Flickr. The browser did not know how much of the file had been uploaded and had to query the web server. Dahl desired an easier way.
In 2011, a package manager was introduced for Node.js library, called npm. The package manager allows publishing and sharing of open-source Node.js libraries by the community, and is designed to simplify installation, updating and uninstallation of libraries.
In January 2012, Dahl stepped aside, promoting coworker and npm creator Isaac Schlueter to manage the project. In January 2014, Schlueter announced Timothy J. Fontaine would be the new project lead.
In December 2014, Fedor Indutny started io.js, a fork of Node.js. Due to internal conflict over Joyent's governance, io.js was created as an open governance alternative with a separate technical committee.
In February 2015, the intent to form a neutral Node.js Foundation was announced. By June 2015, the Node.js and io.js communities voted to work together under the Node.js Foundation. 
Node.js is primarily used to build network programs such as web servers, making it similar to PHP and Python. The biggest difference between PHP and Node.js is that PHP is a blocking language, where commands execute only after the previous command has completed, while Node.js is a non-blocking language where commands execute in parallel, and use callbacks to signal completion.
Thousands of open-source libraries have been built for Node.js, most of which are hosted on the npm website. Its developer community has two main mailing lists and the IRC channel #node.js on freenode. There is an annual Node.js developer conference, NodeConf.
Node.js operates on a single thread, using non-blocking I/O calls, allowing it to support tens of thousands of concurrent connections without incurring the cost of thread context switching. The design of sharing a single thread between all the requests is intended for building highly concurrent applications, where any function performing I/O must use a callback. In order to accommodate the single-threaded event loop, Node.js utilizes the libuv library which in turn uses a fixed-sized threadpool that is responsible for all non-blocking asynchronous I/O operations.
A downside of this single-threaded approach is that Node.js doesn't allow scaling with the number of CPU cores of the machine it is running on without using an additional module such as cluster, StrongLoop Process Manager, or pm2. However, developers can increase the default number of threads in the libuv threadpool, those threads likely to be delegated to multiple cores by the server operating system.
Node.js contains libuv to handle asynchronous events. Libuv is an abstraction layer for network and file system functionality on both Windows and POSIX-based systems like Linux, Mac OS X, OSS on NonStop and Unix.
npm is the pre-installed package manager for the Node.js server platform. It is used to install Node.js programs from the npm registry, organizing the installation and management of third-party Node.js programs. npm is not to be confused with the CommonJS require() statement. It is not used to load code: instead, it is used to install code and manage code dependencies from the command line. The packages found in the npm registry can range from simple helper libraries like Underscore.js to task runners like Grunt.
Node.js registers itself with the operating system so that it is notified when a connection is made, and the operating system will issue a callback. Within the Node.js runtime, each connection is a small heap allocation. Traditionally, relatively heavyweight OS processes or threads handled each connection. Node.js uses an event loop for scalability, instead of processes or threads. In contrast to other event-driven servers, Node.js's event loop does not need to be called explicitly. Instead callbacks are defined, and the server automatically enters the event loop at the end of the callback definition. Node.js exits the event loop when there are no further callbacks to be performed.
- Desktop IDEs
- Atom (free open-source)
- Brackets (free open-source)
- Eclipse IDE(free open-source)
- Sublime Text (unlimited evaluation, commercial)
- JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA (commercial)
- JetBrains WebStorm (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with TypeScript (commercial)
- NetBeans (free open-source)
- Nodeclipse Enide Studio (free open-source, Eclipse-based)
- NoFlo – flow-based programming environment integrated with GNOME APIs
- Visual Studio Code (cross platform, closed-source freeware)
- Online code editors
- Codeanywhere (cloud service)
- Koding (cloud service)
- Codenvy IDE (cloud service)
- Cloud9 IDE (cloud service)
- Codiad (self hosted service)
- repl.it (self hosted service)
- Runtimes and debuggers
- Microsoft Visual Studio (commercial) with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (free)
- Microsoft WebMatrix (closed-source freeware)
- Visual Studio Code (cross platform, closed-source freeware)
- Nodesource (Enterprise Node, commercial, free for development usage)
- Application performance management
- ruxit (cloud service, commercial) – SaaS based APM solution
- AppNeta (cloud service, commercial) - APM for Node.js and distributed environments.
- Server frameworks: Express.js, Socket.IO, Koa.js, Hapi.js, Total.js, Nodal
- MVC frameworks: Meteor, Derby, Sails, Mean, MeanJS, Tower.js, Nombo, Geddy, Compound, Yahoo! Mojito
- Social networks
- Node.js World is a social networking website for Node.js developers
|Original author(s)||Fedor Indutny|
|Developer(s)||io.js Developers, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||January 14, 2015|
|Stable release||3.0.0 / August 4, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Microsoft Windows|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to io.js.|
io.js is a fork of Node.js, started in December 2014, by a contributor to the Node.js project. It was expected to be marked stable in March 2015. The reason for forking away from Node.js, was that the authors wanted a project outside corporate governance, and have therefore created an "open governance" system consisting of a technical committee which the authors are part of.
As of the week of May 15, 2015, the io.js organization has voted and officially agreed to merge back with the Node.js project under the rubric of a new foundation, the Node Foundation. The combined organization will be named 'nodejs'.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to JXcore.|
Node.js environments available for other programming languages include:
- Luvit is an implementation of Node.js in the language Lua
- Node-julia allows using Julia with Node.js/io.js.
- Server-side scripting
- MEAN (software bundle)
- Twisted (software)
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- StrongLoop Process Manager
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Node.js.|