A Nomarski prism is a modification of the Wollaston prism that is used in differential interference contrast microscopy. It is named after its inventor, Polish physicist Georges Nomarski. Like the Wollaston prism, the Nomarski prism consists of two birefringent crystal wedges (e.g. quartz or calcite) cemented together at the hypotenuse (e.g. with Canada balsam). One of the wedges is identical to a conventional Wollaston wedge and has the optical axis oriented parallel to the surface of the prism. The second wedge of the prism is modified by cutting the crystal so that the optical axis is oriented obliquely with respect to the flat surface of the prism. The Nomarski modification causes the light rays to come to a focal point outside the body of the prism, and allows greater flexibility so that when setting up the microscope the prism can be actively focused.
- Allen, RD; David, GB; Nomarski, G (November 1969). "The zeiss-Nomarski differential interference equipment for transmitted-light microscopy". Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie und mikroskopische Technik. 69 (4): 193–221. PMID 5361069.