Non-Hispanic whites

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Non-Hispanic whites
Non-Hispanic whites by county in the United States
Total population
203,890,513 (total)[1]
61.6% of the total U.S. population (2020)[1]
191,697,647 (white alone)[1]
57.84% of the total US population (2020)[1] and
12,192,866 (mixed race)[1]
3.67% of the total U.S. population (2020)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States, less common in Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, and most major cities
Languages
Predominantly American English
Religion
48% Protestant, 24% Unaffiliated, 19% Catholic, 3% Jewish, 2% Mormon, 2% Other Faiths (2014)[2]
Related ethnic groups
European Americans
European diaspora

Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Latino Whites, or more simply White Americans, are Americans classified by the United States census as "white" and are not of Hispanic ethnicity.[3][4] According to the United States Census Bureau yearly estimates, as of July 1, 2022, Non-Hispanic whites make up about 59.3% of the U.S. population, or 197,639,521 people.[5] The United States Census Bureau defines white to include European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans.[6] Americans of European ancestry are divided into various ethnic groups. More than half of the white population are German, Irish, English, Italian, French and Polish Americans. Many Americans are also the product of other European groups that migrated to parts of the US in the 19th and 20th centuries, as the bulk of immigrants from various countries in Northern, Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, as well as the Caucasus region, migrated to the United States.

The Non-Hispanic White population was heavily derived from British, as well as French settlement of the Americas, in addition to settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans (see Pennsylvania Dutch), Swiss, Dutch, Austrians, and Swedes that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). The early Spanish presence in the country contributed a certain degree of that ancestry to the white population in parts of the south and southwest, as many Americans of Isleño, Basque, or other colonial Spanish heritage do not necessarily identify as "Hispanic or Latino" on the census, or are interchangeable with the "non-Hispanic White" category, as they lack any ties to Latin America, or recent ties to Spain.

Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike. There has also been periodically massive immigration from European and West Asian countries, especially Germany, Ireland, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, France, as well as Poland, Russia, Norway, Finland, the Czech Republic, the countries of the former Ottoman Empire (Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria), Portugal, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Ukraine, Armenia, Iran and more. Significant migration of Jews of European, North African, and Middle Eastern descent into the United States is also notable.

The classification is also typically used to refer to an English-speaking American, in distinction to Spanish speakers.[7] In some parts of the country,[where?] the term Anglo-American is used to refer to non-Hispanic white English speakers as distinct from Spanish and Portuguese speakers although the term is more frequently used to refer to people of British or English descent and might include white people of Hispanic descent who no longer speak Spanish.[8][9][10]

History[edit]

Immigration to the United States over time by region. From after the Hart–Celler Act was passed, European migration became significantly dwarfed by non-European immigration especially from Latin America and Asia in particular.

The first Europeans who came to present United States or Canada were Norse explorers around the year 1000; however, they were ultimately absorbed or killed off, leaving no permanent settlements behind.[11] Later, Pilgrims and colonists came in the 1600s along the East Coast, mainly from England, in search of economic opportunities and religious freedom.[12] Over time emigrants from Europe settled the coastal regions developing a commercial economy. Between one-half and two-thirds of White immigrants to the American colonies between the 1630s and American Revolution had come as indentured servants.[13] The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, an estimated 48% were indentured.[14]

By the time of American Revolution there were about 2.5 million Whites in the colonies.[15] The white population was largely of English, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, German, Dutch and French Huguenot descent at the time.[16] Between the revolution and the 1820s there was relatively little immigration to the United States. Starting after the 1820s large scale migration to the United States began and lasted until the 1920s.[17] Many of the newcomers were Catholics of Irish,[18] Italian,[19] and Polish[20] descent which lead to a nativist backlash. Some Americans worried about the growing Catholic population and wanted to maintain the United States as an Anglo Saxon Protestant nation.[21][22] Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century European mass emigration to the United States and high birthrates grew the white population.[23][24][25]

After the American Revolution, white Americans settled the entire nation west of Appalachian Mountains, ultimately displacing the Natives and populating the entire country by the late 19th century. All immigration to the United States declined markedly between the mid-1920s until the 1960s due to a combination of immigration laws, The Great Depression, and The Second World War.[26] Waves of Jewish, Syrian, and Lebanese immigration also occurred around this time.[27][28][29]

Since 1965 white migration to the United States has been relatively minor compared to other racial and ethnic groups. During the 1990s there was a moderate increase from former communist countries in Eastern Europe.[30] At the same time birthrates amongst Whites have fallen below replacement level.[31] In 1980, non-Hispanic whites made up about 80 percent of the U.S. population, but that number has declined sharply in recent years.[32]

Culture[edit]

White Americans have developed their own music, art, cuisine, fashion, and political economy largely based on a combination of traditional European ones.[33][34] Today, the majority of White Americans are Protestants, although there are also large groups of Catholics and Jews throughout the population.[35] Many Europeans often Anglicized their names and over time most Europeans adopted English as their primary language and intermarried with other white groups.[36][37]

Demographics[edit]

Non-Hispanic White population pyramid in 2020

Population[edit]

Non-Hispanic Whites are the largest racial and ethnic group in America, being the majority of America's population at 59.3%, or 197,639,521 people.[38] Although the percentage has been declining in the last few decades, from 89.5% in 1950 to 59.3% in 2022.[39][38] According to generational data from the 2020 census, the racial diversity of each age group is increasing. White non-Hispanics make up 77% of the population over the age of 75, 67% of the population between the ages of 55 and 64, 55% of the population between the ages of 35 and 44, and just 50% of the population between the ages of 18 and 24.[40] In actual Non-Hispanic whites have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the Non-Hispanic White population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552. This was a growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to population momentum.[41] The population continued to grow to 196,817,552 in 2010 to 197,639,521 in 2022.[38]

White population in America from 1980 - 2020[38][41][42][43]
Year Total Population Percentage of the American population Actual Increase
1980 180,256,103 79.6%
1990 Increase188,128,296 Decrease75.6% Increase4.36%
2000 Increase194,552,774 Decrease69.1% Increase3.41%
2010 Increase196,817,552 Decrease63.7% Increase1.16%
2022(est.) Increase197,639,521 Decrease59.3% Increase0.42%
Non-Hispanic White population pyramid from 1990 to 2020

The reason for falling percentage of non-Latino/Hispanic white Americans in the last century is due to multiple factors:

1. Non-European Immigration. The United States has the largest number of immigrants in the world with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-White and/or Latin American origin. Immigration to the United States from European countries has been in a steady decline since World War II averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 1950s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 1960s, 20% in the 1970s, 11% in the 1980s, 14% in the 1990s, and 13% in the 2000s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[44] The United States does receive a small number of non-Latino White immigrants, mainly from countries such as Canada, Poland, Russia, and the UK.[45]

2. Intermarriage. The United States is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Latino whites who married in 2008 married either a non-White or Latino. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Latino of any race (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and Native Indigenous Americans.[46] The children of such unions would not automatically be classified as white non-Latino. One self-identifies his or her racial and/or ethnic category.

3. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Latino". There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th Black and still be counted as a minority.[47] Also, because this does not apply to Latino origin (one is either Latino or not, but cannot be both Latino and non-Latino), the offspring of Latinos and non-Latinos are usually counted as Latino.[48] In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of US adults with Latino ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Latino.[49] First-generation immigrants from Latin America identify themselves as "Latino" at a very high rate (97%), which slowly falls in each succeeding generation (in the second generation, to 92%; in the third, to 77%; and in the fourth, to 50%).[49]

4. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Latino Whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 years, with non-Latino Whites having the oldest median age (42.3); by contrast, Latinos had the youngest median age (27.6). Non-Latino Blacks (32.9) and non-Latino Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[50] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Latino White population, non-Latino Whites died at a faster rate than non-Latino White births.[51]

Births[edit]

In 2011, for the first time in American history, Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for fewer than half of the births in the country, accounting for 49.6% of total births.[52] This increased to 51.5% in 2021, regaining the majority in the process.[53] This is likely due to the birth rate declining among people of color. For example, between 1990 and 2010, the birth rate declined 29 percent among Blacks, 25 percent among Asians, 21 percent among Hispanics, but only 5 percent among White people.[54]If this trend continues the White birth rate will surpass the Black birth rate in a few years.

A total of 1,887,656 babies were born in 2021, a 2.39% increase from 2020. Additionally, researchers found that the White fertility rate increased from 1.551 in 2020 to 1.598 in 2021, the first substantial rise since 2014.[55]Although the exact reason of why the number of births rose in 2021 is unknown, a study showed that the uptick in births came among college-educated women and native-born Americans.[56]Despite the increase, it is still below the replacement level of 2.100.

According to an analysis released in 2023 by William H. Frey, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, only 47 percent of American children are non-Hispanic white.[57]

Number of White births from 2016 to 2021 [55]
Year Number of Births General Fertility Rate Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate
2016 2,056,332 58.8 10.5 1.719
2017 Decrease1,992,461 Decrease57.2 Decrease10.2 Decrease1.666
2018 Decrease1,956,413 Decrease56.3 Decrease10.0 Decrease1.640
2019 Decrease1,915,912 Decrease55.3 Decrease9.8 Decrease1.610
2020 Decrease1,843,432 Decrease53.0 Decrease9.4 Decrease1.551
2021 Increase1,887,656 Increase54.4 Increase9.7 Increase1.598

Religion[edit]

Population[edit]

In 2014, the religious majority among Whites were Christians at 70%, more specifically Protestants at 48%. But, there are also large groups of Catholics and Jews. Furthermore, 34% of White Americans go to religious services weekly, and an additional 32% go to religious services once or twice a month.[58] Although historically, White Christians made up the majority of the American population, the number of White Christians has now plateaued at about 44% of the country's population.[59]

Population by settlement[edit]

White alone non-Latino population by state or territory (1990–2020)[60][61][62][63][64]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
Pop 2020 % pop
2020
% growth
2010-2020
% pop
1990-2020
Alabama Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% 3,171,351 63.1% -1.0% -11.0%
Alaska Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% 421,758 57.5% -7.4% -22.2%
Arizona Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% 3,816,547 53.4% +3.3% -25.5%
Arkansas Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% 2,063,550 68.5% -5.0% -16.7%
California California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% 13,714,587 34.7% -8.3% -39.3%
Colorado Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% 3,760,663 65.1% +6.8% -19.3%
Connecticut Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% 2,279,232 63.2% -10.5% -24.6%
Delaware Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% 579,851 58.6% -1.2% -26.1%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% 261,771 38.0% +25.0% +38.7%
Florida Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% 11,100,503 51.5% +1.2% -29.6%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% 5,362,156 50.1% -1.0% -28.5%
Hawaii Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% 314,365 21.6% +1.6% -31.2%
Idaho Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% 1,450,523 78.9% +10.2% -11.4%
Illinois Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% 7,472,751 58.3% -8.5% -22.1%
Indiana Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% 5,121,004 75.5% -0.4% -15.7%
Iowa Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% 2,638,201 82.7% -6.8% -10.9%
Kansas Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% 2,122,575 72.3% -4.9% -18.3%
Kentucky Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% 3,664,764 81.3% -2.2% -11.3%
Louisiana Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% 2,596,702 55.8% -5.1% -15.2%
Maine Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% 1,228,264 90.2% -2.1% -8.0%
Maryland Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% 2,913,782 47.2% -7.7% -32.2%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% 4,748,897 67.6% -4.7% -23.0%
Michigan Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% 7,295,651 72.4% -3.6% -12%
Minnesota Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% 4,353,880 76.3% -1.2% -15.3%
Mississippi Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% 1,639,077 55.4% -4.8% -12.2%
Missouri Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% 4,663,907 75.8% -3.9% -12.8%
Montana Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% 901,318 83.1% +3.8% -9.5%
Nebraska Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% 1,484,687 75.7% -1.0% -28.2%
Nevada Nevada 1,929,661 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% 1,425,952 45.9% -3.5% -41.7%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% 1,200,649 87.2% -1.2% -10.4%
New Jersey New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% 4,816,381 51.9% -7.6% -30%
New Mexico New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% 772,952 36.5% -7.3% -26.6%
New York (state) New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% 10,598,907 52.5% -6.4% -24.2%
North Carolina North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% 6,312,148 60.5% +1.4% -19.3 pp
North Dakota North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% 636,160 81.7% +6.4% -13.1%
Ohio Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% 8,954,135 75.9% -4.3% -12.9%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% 2,407,188 60.8% -6.5% -25%
Oregon Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% 3,036,158 71.7% +1.0% -21.0%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% 9,553,417 73.5% -5.4% -16.2%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% 754,050 68.7% -6.2% -23.1%
South Carolina South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% 3,178,552 62.1% +7.3% -9.3%
South Dakota South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% 705,583 79.6% +2.3% -12.7%
Tennessee Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% 4,900,246 70.9% +2.1% -14.2%
Texas Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% 11,584,597 39.8% +1.6% -34.5%
Utah Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% 2,465,355 75.4% +11.0% -17.3%
Vermont Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% 573,201 89.1% -2.9% -9.2%
Virginia Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% 5,058,363 58.6% -2.5% -29.9%
Washington (state) Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% 4,918,820 63.8% +0.9% -26.4%
West Virginia West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% 1,598,834 89.1% -7.4% -7.0%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% 4,634,018 78.6% -2.2% -13.9%
Wyoming Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% 469,664 81.4% -2.9% -10.5%
American Samoa American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1%
Guam Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% 24,548 0.8% -8.9%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6%
United States United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% 191,697,647 57.8% -2.6% –23.5%

In 2020, in 36 out of the 50 US states, non-Latino whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the US overall share of 57.8%; however, the 14 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). The total non-Latino white population shrunk between 2010 and 2020 in 34 out of the 50 states, and the relative share of non-Latino whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.[citation needed]

As of 2020, six states are majority-minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, and Maryland. All of these states saw larger declines in the relative share of their non-Latino white populations between 1990 and 2020 than the national average of -23.5% with Nevada dropping by -41.7%, California by -39.3% and Texas by -34.5%.[citation needed]

Historical population by state or territory[edit]

Non-Mexican white (1910-1930) and non-Latino white % of population (1940-2020) by US state[65][66][67][68]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Alabama Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0% 63.1%
Alaska Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1% 57.5%
Arizona Arizona 59.9% 60.7% 60.6% 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8% 53.4%
Arkansas Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5% 68.5%
California California 93% 91.7% 88.7% 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1% 34.7%
Colorado Colorado 97.6% 96.8% 92.8% 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0% 65.1%
Connecticut Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2% 63.2%
Delaware Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3% 58.6%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8% 38.0%
Florida Florida 58.9% 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9% 51.5%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9% 50.1%
Hawaii Hawaii 31.5% 38.0% 31.1% 31.4% 22.9% 22.7% 21.6%
Idaho Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0% 78.9%
Illinois Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7% 58.3%
Indiana Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5% 75.5%
Iowa Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7% 82.7%
Kansas Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2% 72.2%
Kentucky Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3% 81.3%
Louisiana Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3% 55.8%
Maine Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4% 90.2%
Maryland Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7% 47.2%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1% 67.6%
Michigan Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6% 72.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1% 76.3%
Mississippi Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0% 55.4%
Missouri Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0% 75.8%
Montana Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8% 83.1%
Nebraska Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1% 75.7%
Nevada Nevada 89.7% 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1% 45.9%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3% 87.2%
New Jersey New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3% 51.8%
New Mexico New Mexico 86.6% 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5% 36.5%
New York (state) New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3% 52.5%
North Carolina North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3% 60.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9% 81.7%
Ohio Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1% 75.9%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 87% 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7% 60.8%
Oregon Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5% 71.7%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5% 73.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4% 68.7%
South Carolina South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1% 62.1%
South Dakota South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7% 79.6%
Tennessee Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6% 70.9%
Texas Texas 76.4% 75.7% 73.5% 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3% 39.7%
Utah Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4% 75.4%
Vermont Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3% 89.1%
Virginia Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8% 58.6%
Washington (state) Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5% 63.8%
West Virginia West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2% 89.1%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3% 78.6%
Wyoming Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9% 81.4%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7% 0.8%
United States United States of America 88.4% 89% 88.7% 88.4% 83.5% 79.6% 75.6% 69.1% 63.7% 57.8%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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