Nonanoic acid

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Nonanoic acid
Pelargonic acid.svg
IUPAC name
Nonanoic acid
Other names
  • Pelargonic acid
  • 1-Octanecarboxylic acid
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.574
EC Number
  • 203-931-2
Molar mass 158.241 g·mol−1
Appearance Clear to yellowish oily liquid
Density 0.900 g/cm3
Melting point 12.5 °C (54.5 °F; 285.6 K)
Boiling point 254 °C (489 °F; 527 K)
0.3 g/L
Acidity (pKa) 4.96[1]
1.055 at 2.06 to 2.63 K (−271.09 to −270.52 °C; −455.96 to −454.94 °F)
1.53 at −191 °C (−311.8 °F; 82.1 K)
Main hazards Corrosive (C)
R-phrases (outdated) R34
S-phrases (outdated) (S1/2) S26 S28 S36/37/39 S45
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 114 °C (237 °F; 387 K)
405 °C (761 °F; 678 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Octanoic acid, Decanoic acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Nonanoic acid, also called pelargonic acid, is an organic compound with structural formula CH3(CH2)7CO2H. It is a nine-carbon fatty acid. Nonanoic acid is a colorless oily liquid with an unpleasant, rancid odor. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in organic solvents. The esters and salts of nonanoic acid are called nonanoates.

Its refractive index is 1.4322. Its critical point is at 712 K (439 °C) and 2.35 MPa.

Preparation, occurrence, and uses[edit]

Nonanoic acid occurs naturally as esters in the oil of pelargonium. Together with azelaic acid, it is produced industrially by ozonolysis of oleic acid.[2]

Synthetic esters of nonanoic acid, such as methyl nonanoate, are used as flavorings. Nonanoic acid is also used in the preparation of plasticizers and lacquers. The derivative 4-nonanoylmorpholine is an ingredient in some pepper sprays. The ammonium salt of nonanoic acid, ammonium nonanoate, is an herbicide. It is commonly used in conjunction with glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, for a quick burn-down effect in the control of weeds in turfgrass.

Pharmacological effects[edit]

Nonanoic acid may be more potent than valproic acid in treating seizures.[3] Moreover, in contrast to valproic acid, nonanoic acid exhibited no effect on HDAC inhibition, suggesting that it is unlikely to show HDAC inhibition-related teratogenicity.[3]


  1. ^ Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ David J. Anneken, Sabine Both, Ralf Christoph, Georg Fieg, Udo Steinberner, Alfred Westfechtel "Fatty Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2
  3. ^ a b Chang, P.; Terbach, N.; Plant, N.; Chen, P. E.; Walker, M. C.; Williams, R. S. (2013). "Seizure control by ketogenic diet-associated medium chain fatty acids". Neuropharmacology. 69: 105–114. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.11.004. PMC 3625124. PMID 23177536.

External links[edit]