|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". Nondualism primarily refers to a mature state of consciousness, in which the dichotomy of I-other is 'transcended', and awareness is described as 'centerless' and 'without dichotomies'.[web 1] Although this state of consciousness may seem to appear spontaneous,[note 1] it usually is the "result" of prolonged ascetic and meditational/contemplative practice, which includes ethical injunctions. While the term "nondualism" is derived from Advaita Vedanta, nondual consciousness can be found within Hinduism (Turiya, sahaja), Buddhism (Buddha-nature, rigpa, shentong), and western neo-Platonic traditions (henosis, mystical union).
The Asian idea of nondualism developed in the Vedic and post-Vedic Hindu philosophies, and in the Buddhist traditions. The oldest traces of nondualism in Indian thought is found as Advaita in the earlier Hindu Upanishads such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as well as other pre-Buddhist Upanishads such as the Chandogya Upanishad, which emphasizes on the unity of individual soul called Atman and the Supreme called Brahman. In Hinduism, nondualism has more commonly become associated with the Advaita Vedanta tradition of Adi Shankara.
The Buddhist tradition added the teachings of śūnyatā; the two truths doctrine, the nonduality of the absolute and the relative truth, and the Yogachara notion of "mind/thought only" (citta-matra) or "representation-only" (vijñaptimātra). Vijñapti-mātra and the two truths doctrine, coupled with the concept of Buddha-nature, have also been influential concepts in the subsequent development of Mahayana Buddhism, not only in India, but also in China and Tibet, most notably the Chán (Zen) and Dzogchen traditions.
Western Neo-Platonism is an essential element of both Christian contemplation and mysticism, and of Western esotericism and modern spirituality, especially Unitarianism, Transcendentalism, Universalism and Perennialism.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Definitions
- 3 Hinduism
- 3.1 Vedanta
- 3.2 Kashmir Shaivism
- 3.3 Contemporary vernacular Advaita
- 4 Buddhism
- 4.1 Indian Buddhism
- 4.2 East-Asian Buddhism
- 4.3 Tibetan Buddhism
- 5 Other eastern religions
- 6 Western traditions
- 6.1 Roman world
- 6.2 Medieval Abrahamic religions
- 6.3 Western esotericism
- 7 Scholarly debates
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Advaita of Hinduism and Advaya of Buddhism both refer to nondualism.
"Advaita" (अद्वैत) is from Sanskrit roots a, not; dvaita, dual, is usually translated as "nondualism", "nonduality" and "nondual". The term "nondualism" and the term "advaita" from which it originates are polyvalent terms. The English word's origin is the Latin duo meaning "two" prefixed with "non-" meaning "not".
"Advaya" (अद्वय) is also a Sanskrit word that means "identity, unique, not two, without a second," and typically refers to the two truths doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism, especially Madhyamaka.
One of the earliest usage of the word Advaita is found in verse 4.3.32 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (~800 BCE), and in verses 7 and 12 of the Mandukya Upanishad (variously dated to have been composed between 500 BCE to 200 CE). The term appears in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in the section with a discourse of the oneness of Atman and Brahman, as follows:
An ocean is that one seer, without any duality [Advaita]; this is the Brahma-world, O King. Thus did Yajnavalkya teach him. This is his highest goal, this is his highest success, this is his highest world, this is his highest bliss. All other creatures live on a small portion of that bliss.
The English term "nondual" was also informed by early translations of the Upanishads in Western languages other than English from 1775. These terms have entered the English language from literal English renderings of "advaita" subsequent to the first wave of English translations of the Upanishads. These translations commenced with the work of Müller (1823–1900), in the monumental Sacred Books of the East (1879).
... teaches that the multiplicity of the universe is reducible to one essential reality."
According to Jeff Foster,
'Non-duality'[...] points to the essential oneness (wholeness, completeness, unity) of life, a wholeness which exists here and now,prior to any apparent separation [...] despite the compelling appearance of separation and diversity there is only one universal essence, one reality. Oneness is all there is – and we are included.[web 2]
Jeff Foster further explains
What you are is simply this open space of awareness (consciousness, awakeness, Being) in which absolutely everything seems to come and go, and that space is already at rest; it’s already Home.[web 2]
- The negation of dualistic thinking in pairs of opposites. The Yin-Yang symbol of Taoism symbolises the transcendence of this dualistic way of thinking.[web 3]
- Monism, the nonplurality of the world. Although the phenomenal world appears as a plurality of "things", in reality they are "of a single cloth".[web 3]
- Advaita, the nondifference of subject and object, or nonduality between subject and object.[web 3]
- Advaya, the identity of phenomena and the Absolute, the "nonduality of duality and nonduality",[web 3] c.q. the nonduality of relative and ultimate truth as found in Mdhayamaka and the two truths doctrine.
- Mysticism, a mystical unity between God and man.[web 3]
The idea of nondualism is typically contrasted with dualism, with dualism defined as the view that the universe and the nature of existence consists of two realities, such as the God and the world, or as God and Devil, or as mind and matter, and so on.
The idea of a "nondual consciousness" has gained attraction and popularity in western spirituality and New Age-thinking. It is recognized in the Asian traditions, but also in western and Mediterranean religious traditions, and in western philosophy. Nondual consciousness is perceived in a wide variety of religious traditions:
- Abrahamic traditions:
- Western philosophy:
- Neo-platonism
"Advaita" refers to nondualism, non-distinction between realities, the oneness of Atman and Brahman, as in Vedanta, Shaktism and Shaivism. Although the term is best known from the Advaita Vedanta school of Adi Shankara, "advaita" is used in treatises by numerous medieval era Indian scholars, as well as modern schools and teachers.[note 4]
The Hindu concept of Advaita refers to the idea that all of the universe is one essential reality, and that all facets and aspects of the universe is ultimately an expression or appearance of that one reality. According to Dasgupta and Mohanta, non-dualism developed in various strands of Indian thought, both Vedic and Buddhist, from the Upanishadic period onward. The oldest traces of nondualism in Indian thought may be found in the Chandogya Upanishad, which pre-dates the earliest Buddhism. Pre-sectarian Buddhism may also have been responding to the teachings of the Chandogya Upanishad, rejecting some of its Atman-Brahman related metaphysics.[note 5]
Advaita appears in different shades in various schools of Hinduism such as in Advaita Vedanta, Vishishtadvaita Vedanta (Vaishnavism), Suddhadvaita Vedanta (Vaishnavism), Shaivism and Shaktism. It implies, in Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara, that all of the reality is Brahman, and that the Atman (soul, self) and Brahman (ultimate unchanging reality) are one. Advaita ideas of schools within Hinduism contrasts with its Dvaita schools such as of Madhvacharya who stated that the experienced reality and God are two (dual) and distinct.
Several schools of Vedanta teach a form of nondualism. The best-known is Advaita Vedanta, but other nondual Vedanta schools also have a significant influence and following, such as Vishishtadvaita Vedanta and Shuddhadvaita, both of which are bhedabheda.
The nonduality of the Advaita Vedantins is of the identity of Brahman and the Atman. Advaita has become a broad current in Indian culture and religions, influencing subsequent traditions like Kashmir Shaivism.
The oldest surviving manuscripts on Advaita Vedanta is by Gauḍapāda (6th century CE), who has traditionally been regarded as the teacher of Govinda bhagavatpāda and the grandteacher of Shankara. Advaita is best known from the Advaita Vedanta tradition of Adi Shankara, who states that Brahman is pure Being, Consciousness and Bliss (Sat-cit-ananda).
Advaita, states Murti, is the knowledge of Brahman and self-consciousness (Vijnana) without differences. The goal of Vedanta is to know the "truly real" and thus become one with it. According to Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the highest Reality, The universe, according to Advaita philosophy, does not simply come from Brahman, it is Brahman. Brahman is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is also that which is the cause of all changes. Brahman is the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".
The nondualism of Advaita, relies on the Hindu concept of Ātman which is a Sanskrit word that means "real self" of the individual, "essence",[web 5] and soul. Ātman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. Atman is the Universal Principle, one eternal undifferentiated self-luminous consciousness, asserts Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism.
Advaita Vedanta philosophy considers Atman as self-existent awareness, limitless, non-dual and same as Brahman. Advaita school asserts that there is "soul, self" within each living entity which is fully identical with Brahman. This identity holds that there is One Soul that connects and exists in all living beings, regardless of their shapes or forms, there is no distinction, no superior, no inferior, no separate devotee soul (Atman), no separate God soul (Brahman). The Oneness unifies all beings, there is the divine in every being, and that all existence is a single Reality, state the Advaita Vedantins. The nondualism concept of Advaita Vedanta asserts that each soul is non-different from the infinite Brahman.
Advaita Vedanta – Three levels of reality
- Pāramārthika (paramartha, absolute), the Reality that is metaphysically true and ontologically accurate. It is the state of experiencing that "which is absolutely real and into which both other reality levels can be resolved". This experience can't be sublated (exceeded) by any other experience.
- Vyāvahārika (vyavahara), or samvriti-saya, consisting of the empirical or pragmatic reality. It is ever-changing over time, thus empirically true at a given time and context but not metaphysically true. It is "our world of experience, the phenomenal world that we handle every day when we are awake". It is the level in which both jiva (living creatures or individual souls) and Iswara are true; here, the material world is also true.
- Prāthibhāsika (pratibhasika, apparent reality, unreality), "reality based on imagination alone". It is the level of experience in which the mind constructs its own reality. A well-known example is the perception of a rope in the dark as being a snake.
Similarities and differences with Buddhism
In any event a close relationship between the Mahayana schools and Vedanta did exist, with the latter borrowing some of the dialectical techniques, if not the specific doctrines, of the former.
Advaita Vedanta is related to Madhyamaka via Gaudapda, who took over the Buddhist doctrine that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra). Shankara harmonised Gaudapada's ideas with the Upanishadic texts, and provided an orthodox hermeneutical basis for heterodox Buddhist phenomology.
Gaudapada adopted the Buddhist concept of ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra). The Buddhist term is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings. The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only." Advaita Vedanta has been called "idealistic monism" by scholars, but some disagree with this label. Another concept found in both Madhyamaka Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta is Ajativada ("ajāta"), which Gaudapada adopted from Nagarjuna's philosophy.[note 6] Gaudapada "wove [both doctrines] into a philosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara.[note 7]
Michael Comans states there is a fundamental difference between Buddhist thought and that of Gaudapada, in that Buddhism has as its philosophical basis the doctrine of Dependent Origination according to which "everything is without an essential nature (nissvabhava), and everything is empty of essential nature (svabhava-sunya)", while Gaudapada does not rely on this principle at all. Gaudapada's Ajativada is an outcome of reasoning applied to an unchanging nondual reality according to which "there exists a Reality (sat) that is unborn (aja)" that has essential nature (svabhava), and this is the "eternal, fearless, undecaying Self (Atman) and Brahman". Thus, Gaudapada differs from Buddhist scholars such as Nagarjuna, states Comans, by accepting the premises and relying on the fundamental teaching of the Upanishads. Among other things, Vedanta school of Hinduism holds the premise, "Atman exists, as self evident truth", a concept it uses in its theory of nondualism. Buddhism, in contrast, holds the premise, "Atman does not exist (or, An-atman) as self evident".
Mahadevan suggests that Gaudapada adopted Buddhist terminology and adapted its doctrines to his Vedantic goals, much like early Buddhism adopted Upanishadic terminology and adapted its doctrines to Buddhist goals; both used pre-existing concepts and ideas to convey new meanings. Dasgupta and Mohanta note that Buddhism and Shankara's Advaita Vedanta are not opposing systems, but "different phases of development of the same non-dualistic metaphysics from the Upanishadic period to the time of Sankara."
Vishishtadvaita Vedanta is another main school of Vedanta and teaches the nonduality of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity. It can be described as "qualified monism," or "qualified non-dualism," or "attributive monism."
According to this school, the world is real, yet underlying all the differences is an all-embracing unity, of which all "things" are an "attribute." Ramanuja, the main proponent of Vishishtadvaita philosophy contends that the Prasthana Traya ("The three courses") – namely the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma Sutras – are to be interpreted in a way that shows this unity in diversity, for any other way would violate their consistency.
Vedanta Desika defines Vishishtadvaita using the statement: Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam – "Brahman, as qualified by the sentient and insentient modes (or attributes), is the only reality."
Neo-Vedanta, also called "neo-Hinduism" is a modern interpretation of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism and orientalism, and aims to present Hinduism as a "homogenized ideal of Hinduism" with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine.
Neo-Vedanta, as represented by Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan, is indebted to Advaita vedanta, but also reflects Advaya-philosophy. A main influence on neo-Advaita was Ramakrishna, himself a bhakta and tantrika, and the guru of Vivekananda. According to Michael Taft, Ramakrishna reconciled the dualism of formlessness and form. Ramakrishna regarded the Supreme Being to be both Personal and Impersonal, active and inactive:
When I think of the Supreme Being as inactive – neither creating nor preserving nor destroying – I call Him Brahman or Purusha, the Impersonal God. When I think of Him as active – creating, preserving and destroying – I call Him Sakti or Maya or Prakriti, the Personal God. But the distinction between them does not mean a difference. The Personal and Impersonal are the same thing, like milk and its whiteness, the diamond and its lustre, the snake and its wriggling motion. It is impossible to conceive of the one without the other. The Divine Mother and Brahman are one.
Radhakrishnan acknowledged the reality and diversity of the world of experience, which he saw as grounded in and supported by the absolute or Brahman.[web 6][note 8] According to Anil Sooklal, Vivekananda's neo-Advaita "reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism":
The Neo-Vedanta is also Advaitic inasmuch as it holds that Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is one without a second, ekamevadvitiyam. But as distinguished from the traditional Advaita of Sankara, it is a synthetic Vedanta which reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism and also other theories of reality. In this sense it may also be called concrete monism in so far as it holds that Brahman is both qualified, saguna, and qualityless, nirguna.
Radhakrishnan also reinterpreted Shankara's notion of maya. According to Radhakrishnan, maya is not a strict absolute idealism, but "a subjective misperception of the world as ultimately real."[web 6] According to Sarma, standing in the tradition of Nisargadatta Maharaj, Advaitavāda means "spiritual non-dualism or absolutism", in which opposites are manifestations of the Absolute, which itself is immanent and transcendent:
All opposites like being and non-being, life and death, good and evil, light and darkness, gods and men, soul and nature are viewed as manifestations of the Absolute which is immanent in the universe and yet transcends it.
|Part of a series on|
Kashmir Shaivism is a school of Śaivism, described by Abhinavagupta[note 9] as "paradvaita", meaning "the supreme and absolute non-dualism".[web 7] It is categorized by various scholars as monistic idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism, realistic idealism, transcendental physicalism or concrete monism).
Kashmir Saivism is based on a strong monistic interpretation of the Bhairava Tantras and its subcategory the Kaula Tantras, which were tantras written by the Kapalikas. There was additionally a revelation of the Siva Sutras to Vasugupta. Kashmir Saivism claimed to supersede the dualistic Shaiva Siddhanta. Somananda, the first theologian of monistic Saivism, was the teacher of Utpaladeva, who was the grand-teacher of Abhinavagupta, who in turn was the teacher of Ksemaraja.
The philosophy of Kashmir Shaivism can be seen in contrast to Shankara's Advaita. Advaita Vedanta holds that Brahman is inactive (niṣkriya) and the phenomenal world is an illusion (māyā). In Kashmir Shavisim, all things are a manifestation of the Universal Consciousness, Chit or Brahman. Kashmir Shavisim sees the phenomenal world (Śakti) as real: it exists, and has its being in Consciousness (Chit).
Kashmir Shaivism was influenced by, and took over doctrines from, several orthodox and heterodox Indian religious and philosophical traditions. These include Vedanta, Samkhya, Patanjali Yoga and Nyayas, and various Buddhist schools, including Yogacara and Madhyamika, but also Tantra and the Nath-tradition.
Contemporary vernacular Advaita
Advaita is also part of other Indian traditions, which are less strongly, or not all, organised in monastic and institutional organisations. Although often called "Advaita Vedanta," these traditions have their origins in vernacular movements and "householder" traditions, and have close ties to the Nath, Nayanars and Sant Mat traditions.
Ramana Maharshi (30 December 1879 – 14 April 1950) is widely acknowledged as one of the outstanding Indian gurus of modern times. Ramana's teachings are often interpreted as Advaita Vedanta, though Ramana Maharshi never "received diksha (initiation) from any recognised authority".[web 8] Ramana himself did not call his insights advaita:
D. Does Sri Bhagavan advocate advaita?
Neo-Advaita is a New Religious Movement based on a modern, western interpretation of Advaita Vedanta, especially the teachings of Ramana Maharshi. According to Arthur Versluis, neo-Advaita is part of a larger religious current which he calls immediatism,[web 11] "the assertion of immediate spiritual illumination without much if any preparatory practice within a particular religious tradition."[web 11] Neo-Advaita is criticized for this immediatism and its lack of preparatory practices.[note 11][note 12] Notable neo-advaita teachers are H. W. L. Poonja and his students Gangaji, Andrew Cohen,[note 13], and Eckhart Tolle.
Natha Sampradaya and Inchegeri Sampradaya
The Natha Sampradaya, with Nath yogis such as Gorakhnath, introduced Sahaja, the concept of a spontaneous spirituality. Sahaja means "spontaneous, natural, simple, or easy".[web 15] According to Ken Wilber, this state reflects nonduality.
The Advaya concept of nonduality refers to the "non-two" understanding of reality, which has its origins in Madhyamaka-thought, which in turn is built on earlier Buddhist thought, and expressed in the two truths doctrine. In Nagarjuna's interpretation it is the non-duality of conventional and ultimate truth, or the overcoming of dichotomies such as that between samsara (conditioned or relative reality, rebirth) and nirvana (unconditioned and absolute reality, liberation).
Nondualism in Buddhism is explicitly represented by the concept of Buddha-nature, and Tibetan concepts like rigpa and shentong. It has its roots in Buddhist ideas of luminous mind, the "pure" consciousness which shines through when purified from the defilements of hatred, anger and ignorance. Nondualism can also be found in Yogacara thought, and its concept of the alaija-vijnana. Subsequently, combinations of Buddha-nature thought and Yogacara, and also of Yogacara and Madhyamaka, developed in India, Tibet and China, and can be found in Tibetan Buddhism and Zen.
The nonduality of relative and ultimate truth was further developed and re-interpreted in Chinese Buddhism, where the two truths doctrine came to refer to the nonduality of nirvana and samsara, re-incorporating essentialist notions.
Madhyamaka – nonduality of conventional and ultimate truth
In Madhyamaka Buddhism Advaya refers to the nonduality of conventional and ultimate truth, or the relative (phenomenal) world and the Absolute, such as in samsara and nirvana. Madhyamaka, also known as Śūnyavāda, refers primarily to a Mahāyāna Buddhist school of philosophy founded by Nāgārjuna.
In Madhyamaka, the two truths refer to conventional and ultimate truth. The ultimate truth is "emptiness", or non-existence of inherently existing "things", and the "emptiness of emptiness": emptiness does not in itself constitute an absolute reality. Conventionally, "things" exist, but ultimately, they are "empty" of any existence on their own, as described in Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā:
The Buddha's teaching of the Dharma is based on two truths: a truth of worldly convention and an ultimate truth. Those who do not understand the distinction drawn between these two truths do not understand the Buddha's profound truth. Without a foundation in the conventional truth the significance of the ultimate cannot be taught. Without understanding the significance of the ultimate, liberation is not achieved.[note 14]
"Emptiness" is a consequence of pratītyasamutpāda (dependent arising), the teaching that no dharma ("thing") has an existence of its own, but always comes into existence in dependence on other dharmas. According to Madhyamaka all phenomena are empty of "substance" or "essence" (Sanskrit: svabhāva) because they are dependently co-arisen. Likewise it is because they are dependently co-arisen that they have no intrinsic, independent reality of their own. Madhyamaka also rejects the existence of an absolute reality or Self. Ultimately, "absolute reality" is not an absolute, or the non-duality of a personal self and an absolute Self, but the deconstruction of such reifications.
It also means that there is no "transcendental ground," and that "ultimate reality" has no existence of its own, but is the negation of such a transcendental reality, and the impossibility of any statement on such an ultimately existing transcendental reality: it is no more than a fabrication of the mind.[web 16][note 15] Susan Kahn further explains:
Ultimate truth does not point to a transcendent reality, but to the transcendence of deception. It is critical to emphasize that the ultimate truth of emptiness is a negational truth. In looking for inherently existent phenomena it is revealed that it cannot be found. This absence is not findable because it is not an entity, just as a room without an elephant in it does not contain an elephantless substance. Even conventionally, elephantlessness does not exist. Ultimate truth or emptiness does not point to an essence or nature, however subtle, that everything is made of.[web 17]
In Madhyamaka-Buddhism, "Advaya" is an epistemological approach. It is the recognition that ultimately everything is impermanent (anicca) and devoid of "self" or "essence" (anatta), and that this emptiness does not constitute an "absolute" reality in itself.[note 16].
The later Madhyamikas, states Yuichi Kajiyama, developed the Advaya definition as a means to Nirvikalpa-Samadhi by suggesting that "things arise neither from their own selves nor from other things, and that when subject and object are unreal, the mind, being not different, cannot be true either; thereby one must abandon attachment to cognition of nonduality as well, and understand the lack of intrinsic nature of everything". Thus, the Buddhist nondualism or Advaya concept became a means to realizing absolute emptiness.
In Yogacara, adhyava may also refer to overcoming the dichotomies of cognitum and cognition imposed by conceptual thought. Yogācāra (Sanskrit; literally: "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and (some argue)[clarification needed] ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It developed within Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism in about the 4th century CE.
The concept of adyava in Yogacara is an epistemological stance on the nature of knowledge. Early Buddhism schools such as Sarvastivada and Sautrāntika, that thrived through the early centuries of the common era, postulated a dualism, dvaya, wherein grasping (grahaka, "cognition") and the grasped (gradya, "cognitum") both are really existing. Yogacara postulates an advaya of grasping and the grasped, stating that only the mind (citta-mātra) or the representations we cognize (vijñapti-mātra),[note 17] really exist.
In Yogacara-thought, cognition is a modification of the base-consciousness, alaya-vijnana. By the reification of these modifications into separate consciousnesses, the Eighth Consciousnesses of Yogacara came into existence. In later Buddhist thought, which took an idealistic turn, the storehouse-consciousness or base-consciousness came to be seen as a pure consciousness, from which everything arises. According to the Lankavatara Sutra and the schools of Chan/Zen Buddhism, the alaya-vijnana is identical with the tathagata-garbha[note 18], and is fundamentally pure. Vijñapti-mātra, coupled with Buddha-nature or tathagatagarba, has been an influential concept in the subsequent development of Mahayana Buddhism, not only in India, but also in China and Tibet, most notable in the Chán (Zen) and Dzogchen traditions.
According to Kochumuttom, Yogacara is a realistic pluralism. It does not deny the existence of individual beings, but denies the following:
1. That the absolute mode of reality is consciousness/mind/ideas,
2. That the individual beings are transformations or evolutes of an absolute consciousness/mind/idea,
3. That the individual beings are but illusory appearances of a monistic reality.
Vijñapti-mātra, "consciousness-only" or "representation-only" is one of the main features of Yogācāra philosophy. It is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings. The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only." Several modern researchers object to this translation, and the accompanying label of "absolute idealism" or "idealistic monism". A better translation for vijñapti-mātra is representation-only.
Vijñapti-mātra then means "mere representation of consciousness":
[T]he phrase vijñaptimātratā-vāda means a theory which says that the world as it appears to the unenlightened ones is mere representation of consciousness. Therefore, any attempt to interpret vijñaptimātratā-vāda as idealism would be a gross misunderstanding of it.
The term vijñapti-mātra replaced the "more metaphysical" term citta-mātra used in the Lankavatara Sutra. The Lankavatara Sutra "appears to be one of the earliest attempts to provide a philosophical justification for the Absolutism that emerged in Mahayana in relation to the concept of Buddha". It uses the term citta-mātra, which means properly "thought-only". By using this term it develops an ontology, in contrast to the epistemology of the term vijñapti-mātra. The Lankavatara Sutra equates citta and the absolute. According to Kochumuttom, this is not the way Yogacara uses the term vijñapti:
[T]he absolute state is defined simply as emptiness, namely the emptiness of subject–object distinction. Once thus defined as emptiness (sunyata), it receives a number of synonyms, none of which betray idealism.
The Yogācārins defined three basic modes by which we perceive our world. These are referred to in Yogācāra as the three natures of perception. They are:
- Parikalpita (literally, "fully conceptualized"): "imaginary nature", wherein things are incorrectly comprehended based on conceptual construction, through attachment and erroneous discrimination.
- Paratantra (literally, "other dependent"): "dependent nature", by which the correct understanding of the dependently originated nature of things is understood.
- Pariniṣpanna (literally, "fully accomplished"): "absolute nature", through which one comprehends things as they are in themselves, uninfluenced by any conceptualization at all.
Also, regarding perception, the Yogācārins emphasized that our everyday understanding of the existence of external objects is problematic, since in order to perceive any object (and thus, for all practical purposes, for the object to "exist"), there must be a sensory organ as well as a correlative type of consciousness to allow the process of cognition to occur.
Vijñapti-mātra and the two truths doctrine, as understood in Chinese Buddhism, are closely linked to Buddha-nature. Those teachings have had a profound influence on Mahayana Buddhism, not only in India, but also in China and Tibet, most notably the Chán (Zen) and Dzogchen traditions. They may be related to an archaic form of Buddhism which is close to Brahmanical beliefs, elements of which are preserved in the Nikayas, and survived in the Mahayana tradition. Contrary to popular opinion, the Theravada and Mahayana traditions may be "divergent, but equally reliable records of a pre-canonical Buddhism which is now lost forever." The Mahayana tradition may have preserved a very old, "pre-Canonical" tradition, which was largely, but not completely, left out of the Theravada-canon.
The Buddhist teachings on the Buddha-nature may be regarded as a form of nondualism. Buddha-nature is the essential element that allows sentient beings to become Buddhas. The term, Buddha nature, is a translation of the Sanskrit coinage, 'Buddha-dhātu', which seems first to have appeared in the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, where it refers to 'a sacred nature that is the basis for [beings'] becoming buddhas.' The term seems to have been used most frequently to translate the Sanskrit "Tathāgatagarbha". The Sanskrit term "tathāgatagarbha" may be parsed into tathāgata ("the one thus gone", referring to the Buddha) and garbha ("womb").[note 19] The tathagatagarbha, when freed from avidya ("ignorance"), is the dharmakaya, the Absolute.
Tantra is a religious tradition that originated in India in the middle of the first millennium CE, and has been practiced by Buddhists, Hindus and Jains throughout south and southeast Asia. It views humans as a microcosmos which mirrors the macrocosmos. Its aim is to gain access to the energy or enlightened consciousness of the godhead or absolute, by embodying this energy or consciousness through rituals. It views the godhead as both transcendent and immanent, and views the world as real, and not as an illusion:
Rather than attempting to see through or transcend the world, the practitioner comes to recognize "that" (the world) as "I" (the supreme egoity of the godhead): in other words, s/he gains a "god's eye view" of the universe, and recognizes it to be nothing other than herself/himself. For East Asian Buddhist Tantra in particular, this means that the totality of the cosmos is a "realm of Dharma", sharing an underlying common principle.
Chinese Buddhism – nonduality of mundane and highest reality
In Chinese Buddhism the Two truths doctrine was interpreted as an ontological teaching of three truths, states Whalen Lai, wherein "samsaric being and nirvanic emptiness as well any and all distinctions are not two". The Chinese Buddhist scholars posited that there is a third truth above the mundane truth of samsaric being and the highest truth nirvanic emptiness (sunyata). In one description, everything is posited to be simultaneously "empty, real and neither". According to Lai, most scholars of Chinese Buddhism, unlike Nagarjuna, failed to realize that the two truths were epistemic, not ontological. This mistake was identified and discussed by Jizang of Sanlun school.
Chinese Buddhism evolved over time. Before 400 CE, states Lai, the Chinese understood the Buddhist doctrine to be that "karmic rebirth entailed the transmigration of soul". It was monk Mindu who understood that the Buddha taught a no soul doctrine, and he tried to explain this to his Buddhist sangha, but was vilified for denying the existence of soul. Mindu's ideas, however, began a momentum that led to the emergence of six prajna schools in the 4th and 5th century CE. In the 6th century CE it became clear that anatman and sunyata are central Buddhist teachings, which make the postulation of an eternal self problematic.
Another point of confusion was the Two truths doctrine of Madhyamaka, the mundane truth and the highest truth. Chinese thinking took this to refer to two ontological truths: reality exists at two levels, the mundane level of samsara and the highest level of nirvana emptiness. But in Madhyamaka these are two epistemological truths, two different ways to look at reality. The early Chinese scholars supposed that there is an essential truth above the two truths, which unites both these. This three truths doctrine was different from a similarly named doctrine of Yogacara and Indian Buddhism.
The Huayan school or Flower Garland is a tradition of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy that flourished in China during the Tang period particularly with Fazang (~700 CE). It is based on the Sanskrit Flower Garland Sutra (S. Avataṃsaka Sūtra, C. Huayan Jing) and on a lengthy Chinese interpretation of it, the Huayan Lun. The name Flower Garland is meant to suggest the crowning glory of profound understanding. Huayan teaches the Four Dharmadhatu, four ways to view reality:
- All dharmas are seen as particular separate events;
- All events are an expression of the absolute;
- Events and essence interpenetrate;
- All events interpenetrate.
The Buddha-nature and Yogacara philosophies have had a strong influence on Chán and Zen. The teachings of Zen are expressed by a set of polarities: Buddha-nature – sunyata; absolute-relative; sudden and gradual enlightenment.
The Lankavatara-sutra, a popular sutra in Zen, endorses the Buddha-nature and emphasizes purity of mind, which can be attained in gradations. The Diamond-sutra, another popular sutra, emphasizes sunyata, which "must be realized totally or not at all". The Prajnaparamita Sutras emphasize the non-duality of form and emptiness: form is emptiness, emptiness is form, as the Heart Sutra says. According to Chinul, Zen points not to mere emptiness, but to suchness or the dharmadhatu.
The idea that the ultimate reality is present in the daily world of relative reality fitted into the Chinese culture which emphasized the mundane world and society. But this does not explain how the absolute is present in the relative world. This question is answered in such schemata as the Five Ranks of Tozan and the Oxherding Pictures.
The continuous pondering of the break-through kōan (shokan) or Hua Tou, "word head", leads to kensho, an initial insight into "seeing the (Buddha-)nature. According to Hori, a central theme of many koans is the "identity of opposites", and point to the original nonduality. Victor Sogen Hori describes kensho, when attained through koan-study, as the absence of subject–object duality. The aim of the so-called break-through koan is to see the "nonduality of subject and object",  in which "subject and object are no longer separate and distinct."
Zen Buddhist training does not end with kenshō. Practice is to be continued to deepen the insight and to express it in daily life, to fully manifest the nonduality of absolute and relative. To deepen the initial insight of kensho, shikantaza and kōan-study are necessary. This trajectory of initial insight followed by a gradual deepening and ripening is expressed by Linji Yixuan in his Three Mysterious Gates, the Four Ways of Knowing of Hakuin, the Five Ranks, and the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures which detail the steps on the Path.
Essence-function in Korean Buddhism
The polarity of absolute and relative is also expressed as "essence-function". The absolute is essence, the relative is function. They can't be seen as separate realities, but interpenetrate each other. The distinction does not "exclude any other frameworks such as neng-so or 'subject-object' constructions", though the two "are completely different from each other in terms of their way of thinking". In Korean Buddhism, essence-function is also expressed as "body" and "the body's functions". A metaphor for essence-function is "a lamp and its light", a phrase from the Platform Sutra, where Essence is lamp and Function is light.
Adyava: Gelugpa Prasangika-Madhyamaka
The Gelugpa school, following Tsongkhapa, adheres to the adyava Prasaṅgika Mādhyamaka view, which states that all phenomena are sunyata, empty of self-nature, and that this "emptiness" is itself only a qualification, not a concretely existing "absolute" reality.
Buddha-nature and the nature of mind
In Tibetan Buddhism, the essentialist position is represented by shentong, while the nominalist, or non-essentialist position, is represented by rangtong.
Shentong is a philosophical sub-school found in Tibetan Buddhism. Its adherents generally hold that the nature of mind, the substratum of the mindstream, is "empty" (Wylie: stong) of "other" (Wylie: gzhan), i.e., empty of all qualities other than an inherently existing, ineffable nature. Shentong has often been incorrectly associated with the Cittamātra (Yogacara) position, but is in fact also Madhyamaka, and is present primarily as the main philosophical theory of the Jonang school, although it is also taught by the Sakya and Kagyu schools. According to Shentongpa (proponents of shentong), the emptiness of ultimate reality should not be characterized in the same way as the emptiness of apparent phenomena because it is prabhāśvara-saṃtāna, or "luminous mindstream" endowed with limitless Buddha qualities. It is empty of all that is false, not empty of the limitless Buddha qualities that are its innate nature.
The contrasting Prasaṅgika view that all phenomena are sunyata, empty of self-nature, and that this "emptiness" is not a concretely existing "absolute" reality, is labeled rangtong, "empty of other."
The shentong-view is related to the Ratnagotravibhāga sutra and the Yogacara-Madhyamaka synthesis of Śāntarakṣita. The truth of sunyata is acknowledged, but not considered to be the highest truth, which is the empty nature of mind. Insight into sunyata is preparatory for the recognition of the nature of mind.
Dzogchen is concerned with the "natural state" and emphasizes direct experience. The state of nondual awareness is called rigpa. This primordial nature is clear light, unproduced and unchanging, free from all defilements. Through meditation, the Dzogchen practitioner experiences that thoughts have no substance. Mental phenomena arise and fall in the mind, but fundamentally they are empty. The practitioner then considers where the mind itself resides. Through careful examination one realizes that the mind is emptiness.
Karma Lingpa (1326–1386) revealed "Self-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness" (rigpa ngo-sprod,[note 21]) which is attributed to Padmasambhava.[note 22] The text gives an introduction, or pointing-out instruction (ngo-spro), into rigpa, the state of presence and awareness. In this text, Karma Lingpa writes the following regarding the unity of various terms for nonduality:
With respect to its having a name, the various names that are applied to it are inconceivable (in their numbers).
Some call it "the nature of the mind"[note 23] or "mind itself."
Some Tirthikas call it by the name Atman or "the Self."
The Sravakas call it the doctrine of Anatman or "the absence of a self."
The Chittamatrins call it by the name Chitta or "the Mind."
Some call it the Prajnaparamita or "the Perfection of Wisdom."
Some call it the name Tathagata-garbha or "the embryo of Buddhahood."
Some call it by the name Mahamudra or "the Great Symbol."
Some call it by the name "the Unique Sphere."[note 24]
Some call it by the name Dharmadhatu or "the dimension of Reality."
Some call it by the name Alaya or "the basis of everything."
And some simply call it by the name "ordinary awareness."[note 25]
Other eastern religions
Apart from Hinduism and Buddhism, self-proclaimed nondualists have also discerned nondualism in other religious traditions.
Sikh theology suggests human souls and the monotheistic God are two different realities (dualism), distinguishing it from the monistic and various shades of nondualistic philosophies of other Indian religions. However, Sikh scholars have attempted to explore nondualism exegesis of Sikh scriptures, such as during the neocolonial reformist movement by Bhai Vir Singh of the Singh Sabha. According to Mandair, Singh interprets the Sikh scriptures as teaching nonduality.
Taoism's wu wei (Chinese wu, not; wei, doing) is a term with various translations[note 26] and interpretations designed to distinguish it from passivity. The concept of Yin and Yang, often mistakenly conceived of as a symbol of dualism, is actually meant to convey the notion that all apparent opposites are complementary parts of a non-dual whole.
A modern strand of thought sees "nondual consciousness" as an universal psychological state, which is a common stratum and of the same essence in different spiritual traditions. It is derived from Neo-Vedanta and neo-Advaita, but has historical roots in neo-Platonism, Western esotericism, and Perennialism. The idea of nondual consciousness as "the central essence" is a universalistic and perennialist idea, which is part of a modern mutual exchange and synthesis of ideas between western spiritual and esoteric traditions and Asian religious revival and reform movements.[note 27]
Central elements in the western traditions are Neo-Platonism, which had a strong influence on Christian contemplation and Christian mysticism, and Western esotericism, which also incorporated Neo-Platonism and Gnostic elements including Hermeticism. Western predecessors are, among others, the idea of a Perennial Philosophy, Swedenborgianism, Unitarianism, Orientalism, Transcendentalism, Theosophy, and New Age.
Since its beginning, Gnosticism has been characterized by many dualisms and dualities, including the doctrine of a separate God and Manichaean (good/evil) dualism. Ronald Miller interprets the Gospel of Thomas as a teaching of "nondualistic consciousness".
Some scholars suggest a possible link of more ancient Indian philosophies on Neoplatonism, while other scholars consider these claims as unjustified and extravagant with the counter hypothesis that nondualism developed independently in ancient India and Greece. The nondualism of Advaita Vedanta and Neoplatonism have been compared by various scholars, such as J. F. Staal, Frederick Copleston, Aldo Magris and Mario Piantelli, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Gwen Griffith-Dickson, John Y. Fenton and Dale Riepe.
Medieval Abrahamic religions
Christian contemplation and mysticism
In Christian mysticism, contemplative prayer and Apophatic theology theology are central elements. In contemplative prayer, the mind is focused by constant repetition a phrase or word. Saint John Cassian recommended use of the phrase "O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to help me". Another formula for repetition is the name of Jesus. or the Jesus Prayer, which has been called "the mantra of the Orthodox Church", although the term "Jesus Prayer" is not found in the Fathers of the Church. The author of The Cloud of Unknowing recommended use of a monosyllabic word, such as "God" or "Love".
Apophatic theology is derived from Neo-Platonism via Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. In this approach, the notion of God is stripped from all positive qualifications, leaving a "darkness" or "unground." It had a strong influence on western mysticism. A notable example is Meister Eckhart, who also attracted attention from Zen-Buddhists like D.T. Suzuki in modern times, due to the similarities between Buddhist thought and Neo-Platonism.
The Cloud of Unknowing – an anonymous work of Christian mysticism written in Middle English in the latter half of the 14th century – advocates a mystic relationship with God. The text describes a spiritual union with God through the heart. The author of the text advocates centering prayer, a form of inner silence. According to the text God can not be known through knowledge or from intellection. It is only by emptying the mind of all created images and thoughts that we can arrive to experience God. According to the text God is completely unknowable by the mind. God is not known through the intellect but through intense contemplation, motivated by love, and stripped of all thought.
Thomism, though not non-dual in the ordinary sense, considers the unity of God so absolute that even the duality of subject and predicate, to describe him, can be true only by analogy. In Thomist thought, even the Tetragrammaton is only an approximate name, since "I am" involves a predicate whose own essence is its subject.
Jewish Hasidism and Kabbalism
Judaism has within it a strong and very ancient mystical tradition that is deeply nondualistic. "Ein Sof" or infinite nothingness is considered the ground face of all that is. God is considered beyond all proposition or preconception. The physical world is seen as emanating from the nothingness as the many faces "partsufim" of god that are all a part of the sacred nothingness.
One of the most striking contributions of the Kabbalah, which became a central idea in Chasidic thought, was a highly innovative reading of the monotheistic idea. The belief in "one G-d" is no longer perceived as the mere rejection of other deities or intermediaries, but a denial of any existence outside of G-d.[note 29]
Neoplatonism in Islam
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism) is a scholarly term for a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. They are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. The earliest traditions which later analysis would label as forms of Western esotericism emerged in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity, where Hermetism, Gnosticism, and Neoplatonism developed as schools of thought distinct from what became mainstream Christianity. In Renaissance Europe, interest in many of these older ideas increased, with various intellectuals seeking to combine "pagan" philosophies with the Kabbalah and with Christian philosophy, resulting in the emergence of esoteric movements like Christian theosophy.
The Perennial philosophy has its roots in the Renaissance interest in neo-Platonism and its idea of The One, from which all existence emanates. Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499) sought to integrate Hermeticism with Greek and Jewish-Christian thought, discerning a Prisca theologia which could be found in all ages. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–94) suggested that truth could be found in many, rather than just two, traditions. He proposed a harmony between the thought of Plato and Aristotle, and saw aspects of the Prisca theologia in Averroes, the Koran, the Cabala and other sources. Agostino Steuco (1497–1548) coined the term philosophia perennis.
The western world has been exposed to Indian religions since the late 18th century. The first western translation of a Sanskrit text was made in 1785. It marked a growing interest in Indian culture and languages. The first translation of the dualism and nondualism discussing Upanishads appeared in two parts in 1801 and 1802 and influenced Arthur Schopenhauer, who called them "the consolation of my life". Early translations also appeared in other European languages.
Transcendentalism and Unitarian Universalism
Transcendentalism was an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement that developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the Eastern region of the United States. It was rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, and the skepticism of Hume.[web 28]
The Transcendentalists emphasised an intuitive, experiential approach of religion.[web 29] Following Schleiermacher, an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth.[web 29] In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were read by the Transcendentalists and influenced their thinking.[web 29] The Transcendentalists also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.[web 29][web 30]
Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.
Unitarian Universalism had a strong impact on Ram Mohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj, and subsequently on Swami Vivekananda. Vivekananda was one of the main representatives of Neo-Vedanta, a modern interpretation of selected aspects of Hinduism in line with western esoteric traditions, especially Transcendentalism, New Thought and Theosophy. His reinterpretation was, and is, very successful, creating a new understanding and appreciation of Hinduism within and outside India, and was the principal reason for the enthusiastic reception of yoga, transcendental meditation and other forms of Indian spiritual self-improvement in the West.
Narendranath Datta (Swami Vivekananda) became a member of a Freemasonry lodge "at some point before 1884" and of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in his twenties, a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshab Chandra Sen and Debendranath Tagore. Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians, who were closely connected to the Transcendentalists, who in turn were interested in and influenced by Indian religions early on. It was in this cultic milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western esotericism. Debendranath Tagore brought this "neo-Hinduism" closer in line with western esotericism, a development which was furthered by Keshubchandra Sen, who was also influenced by transcendentalism, which emphasised personal religious experience over mere reasoning and theology. Sen's influence brought Vivekananda fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna.
Vivekananda's acquaintance with western esotericism made him very successful in western esoteric circles, beginning with his speech in 1893 at the Parliament of Religions. Vivekananda adapted traditional Hindu ideas and religiosity to suit the needs and understandings of his western audiences, who were especially attracted by and familiar with western esoteric traditions and movements like Transcendentalism and New thought.
In 1897 he founded the Ramakrishna Mission, which was instrumental in the spread of Neo-Vedanta in the west, and attracted people like Alan Watts. Aldous Huxley, author of The Perennial Philosophy, was associated with another neo-Vedanta organisation, the Vedanta Society of Southern California, founded and headed by Swami Prabhavananda. Together with Gerald Heard, Christopher Isherwood, and other followers he was initiated by the Swami and was taught meditation and spiritual practices.
A major force in the mutual influence of eastern and western ideas and religiosity was the Theosophical Society. It searched for ancient wisdom in the east, spreading eastern religious ideas in the west. One of its salient features was the belief in "Masters of Wisdom",[note 30] "beings, human or once human, who have transcended the normal frontiers of knowledge, and who make their wisdom available to others". The Theosophical Society also spread western ideas in the east, aiding a modernisation of eastern traditions, and contributing to a growing nationalism in the Asian colonies.[note 31]
The New Age movement is a Western spiritual movement that developed in the second half of the 20th century. Its central precepts have been described as "drawing on both Eastern and Western spiritual and metaphysical traditions and infusing them with influences from self-help and motivational psychology, holistic health, parapsychology, consciousness research and quantum physics". The New Age aims to create "a spirituality without borders or confining dogmas" that is inclusive and pluralistic. It holds to "a holistic worldview", emphasising that the Mind, Body and Spirit are interrelated and that there is a form of monism and unity throughout the universe.[web 31] It attempts to create "a worldview that includes both science and spirituality" and embraces a number of forms of mainstream science as well as other forms of science that are considered fringe.
Nondual consciousness and mystical experience
Insight (prajna, kensho, satori, gnosis, theoria, illumination), especially enlightenment or the realization of the illusory nature of the autonomous "I" or self, is a key element in modern western nondual thought. It is the personal realization that ultimate reality is nondual, and is thought to be a validating means of knowledge of this nondual reality. This insight is interpreted as a psychological state, and labeled as religious or mystical experience.
According to Hori, the notion of "religious experience" can be traced back to William James, who used the term "religious experience" in his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience. The origins of the use of this term can be dated further back.
In the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, several historical figures put forth very influential views that religion and its beliefs can be grounded in experience itself. While Kant held that moral experience justified religious beliefs, John Wesley in addition to stressing individual moral exertion thought that the religious experiences in the Methodist movement (paralleling the Romantic Movement) were foundational to religious commitment as a way of life.
Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher and Albert Ritschl to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique, and defend the view that human (moral and religious) experience justifies religious beliefs.
Such religious empiricism would be later seen as highly problematic and was – during the period in-between world wars – famously rejected by Karl Barth. In the 20th century, religious as well as moral experience as justification for religious beliefs still holds sway. Some influential modern scholars holding this liberal theological view are Charles Raven and the Oxford physicist/theologian Charles Coulson.
The notion of "experience" has been criticised. Robert Sharf points out that "experience" is a typical Western term, which has found its way into Asian religiosity via western influences.[note 33]
Insight is not the "experience" of some transcendental reality, but is a cognitive event, the (intuitive) understanding or "grasping" of some specific understanding of reality, as in kensho or anubhava.
"Pure experience" does not exist; all experience is mediated by intellectual and cognitive activity. A pure consciousness without concepts, reached by "cleaning the doors of perception",[note 34] would be an overwhelming chaos of sensory input without coherence.
Nondual consciousness as common essence
A main modern proponent of perennialism was Aldous Huxley, who was influenced by Vivekanda's Neo-Vedanta and Universalism. This popular approach finds supports in the "common-core thesis". According to the "common-core thesis", different descriptions can mask quite similar if not identical experiences:
According to Elias Amidon there is an "indescribable, but definitely recognizable, reality that is the ground of all being." According to Renard, these are based on an experience or intuition of "the Real". According to Amidon, this reality is signified by "many names" from "spiritual traditions throuhout the world":
[N]ondual awareness, pure awareness, open awareness, presence-awareness, unconditioned mind, rigpa, primordial experience, This, the basic state, the sublime, buddhanature, original nature, spontaneous presence, the oneness of being, the ground of being, the Real, clarity, God-consciousness, divine light, the clear light, illumination, realization and enlightenment.
According to Renard, nondualism as common essence prefers the term "nondualism", instead of monism, because this understanding is "nonconceptual", "not graspapable in an idea".[note 35] Even to call this "ground of reality", "One", or "Oneness" is attributing a characteristic to that ground of reality. The only thing that can be said is that it is "not two" or "non-dual":[web 33] According to Renard, Alan Watts has been one of the main contributors to the popularisation of the non-monistic understanding of "nondualism".[note 36]
The "common-core thesis" is criticised by "diversity theorists" such as S.T Katz and W. Proudfoot. They argue that
[N]o unmediated experience is possible, and that in the extreme, language is not simply used to interpret experience but in fact constitutes experience.
The idea of a common essence has been questioned by Yandell, who discerns various "religious experiences" and their corresponding doctrinal settings, which differ in structure and phenomenological content, and in the "evidential value" they present. Yandell discerns five sorts:
- Numinous experiences – Monotheism (Jewish, Christian, Vedantic)
- Nirvanic experiences – Buddhism, "according to which one sees that the self is but a bundle of fleeting states"
- Kevala experiences – Jainism, "according to which one sees the self as an indestructible subject of experience"
- Moksha experiences – Hinduism, Brahman "either as a cosmic person, or, quite differently, as qualityless"
- Nature mystical experience
The specific teachings and practices of a specific tradition may determine what "experience" someone has, which means that this "experience" is not the proof of the teaching, but a result of the teaching. The notion of what exactly constitutes "liberating insight" varies between the various traditions, and even within the traditions. Bronkhorst for example notices that the conception of what exactly "liberating insight" is in Buddhism was developed over time. Whereas originally it may not have been specified, later on the Four Truths served as such, to be superseded by pratityasamutpada, and still later, in the Hinayana schools, by the doctrine of the non-existence of a substantial self or person. And Schmithausen notices that still other descriptions of this "liberating insight" exist in the Buddhist canon.
- Acosmism (belief that the world is illusory)
- Anatta (Belief that there is no self)
- Cosmic Consciousness
- Henosis (Union with the absolute)
- Kenosis (Self-emptying)
- Maya (illusion) (Cosmic illusion)
- Monad (philosophy)
- Nirguna Brahman
- Oceanic feeling
- Open individualism
- Pantheism (Belief that God and the world are identical)
- Pluralism (metaphysics)
- Process Psychology
- Sunyata (Emptiness).
- The All
- Yanantin (Complementary dualism in Native South American culture)
Metaphors for nondualisms
- Jewel Net of Indra, Avatamsaka Sutra
- Blind men and an elephant
- Garden of Eden
- Hermaphrodite, e.g. Ardhanārīśvara
- Mirror and reflections, as a metaphor for the continuum of the subject-object in the mirror-the-mind and the interiority of perception and its illusion of projected exteriority
- Great Rite
- Sacred marriage
- See Cosmic Consciousness, by Richard Bucke
- See Nonduality.com, FAQ and Nonduality.com, What is Nonduality, Nondualism, or Advaita? Over 100 definitions, descriptions, and discussions.
- According to Loy, nondualism is primarily an Eastern way of understanding: "...[the seed of nonduality] however often sown, has never found fertile soil [in the West], because it has been too antithetical to those other vigorous sprouts that have grown into modern science and technology. In the Eastern tradition [...] we encounter a different situation. There the seeds of seer-seen nonduality not only sprouted but matured into a variety (some might say a jungle) of impressive philosophical species. By no means do all these [Eastern] systems assert the nonduality of subject and object, but it is significant that three which do – Buddhism, Vedanta and Taoism – have probably been the most influential. According to Loy, referred by Pritscher:
- This is reflected in the name "Advaita Vision," the website of advaita.org.uk, which propagates a broad and inclusive understanding of advaita.[web 4]
- Edward Roer translates the early medieval era Brihadaranyakopnisad-bhasya as, "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3. Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect."
- "A" means "not", or "non"; "jāti" means "creation" or "origination; "vāda" means "doctrine"
- The influence of Mahayana Buddhism on other religions and philosophies was not limited to Advaita Vedanta. Kalupahana notes that the Visuddhimagga contains "some metaphysical speculations, such as those of the Sarvastivadins, the Sautrantikas, and even the Yogacarins".
- Neo-Vedanta seems to be closer to Bhedabheda-Vedanta than to Shankara's Advaita Vedanta, with the acknowledgement of the reality of the world. Nicholas F. Gier: "Ramakrsna, Svami Vivekananda, and Aurobindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have been labeled "neo-Vedantists," a philosophy that rejects the Advaitins' claim that the world is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine, declares that he has moved from Sankara's "universal illusionism" to his own "universal realism" (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical realism in the European philosophical sense of the term."
- Abhinavgupta (between 10th – 11th century AD) who summarized the view points of all previous thinkers and presented the philosophy in a logical way along with his own thoughts in his treatise Tantraloka.[web 7]
- A Christian reference. See [web 9] and [web 10] Ramana was taught at Christian schools.
- Marek: "Wobei der Begriff Neo-Advaita darauf hinweist, dass sich die traditionelle Advaita von dieser Strömung zunehmend distanziert, da sie die Bedeutung der übenden Vorbereitung nach wie vor als unumgänglich ansieht. (The term Neo-Advaita indicating that the traditional Advaita increasingly distances itself from this movement, as they regard preparational practicing still as inevitable)
- Alan Jacobs: "Many firm devotees of Sri Ramana Maharshi now rightly term this western phenomenon as 'Neo-Advaita'. The term is carefully selected because 'neo' means 'a new or revived form'. And this new form is not the Classical Advaita which we understand to have been taught by both of the Great Self Realised Sages, Adi Shankara and Ramana Maharshi. It can even be termed 'pseudo' because, by presenting the teaching in a highly attenuated form, it might be described as purporting to be Advaita, but not in effect actually being so, in the fullest sense of the word. In this watering down of the essential truths in a palatable style made acceptable and attractive to the contemporary western mind, their teaching is misleading."
- Presently Cohen has distanced himself from Poonja, and calls his teachings "Evolutionary Enlightenment". What Is Enlightenment, the magazine published by Choen's organisation, has been critical of neo-Advaita several times, as early as 2001. See.[web 12][web 13][web 14]
- Nagarjuna, Mūlamadhyamakakārika 24:8-10. Jay L. Garfield, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way
- See, for an influential example, Tsongkhapa, who states that "things" do exist conventionally, but ultimately everything is dependently arisen, and therefor void of inherent existence.[web 16]
- See also essence and function and Absolute-relative on Chinese Chán
- "Represenation-only" or "mere representation."[web 18] Oxford reference: "Some later forms of Yogācāra lend themselves to an idealistic interpretation of this theory but such a view is absent from the works of the early Yogācārins such as Asaṇga and Vasubandhu."[web 18]
- The womb or matrix of the Thus-come-one, the Buddha
- The term "garbha" has multiple denotations. A denotation of note is the garba of the Gujarati: where a spiritual circle dance is performed around a light or candle placed at the centre, bindu. This dance informs the Tathāgatagarbha Doctrine. Interestingly, the Dzogchenpa tertön Namkai Norbu teaches a similar dance upon a mandala, the Dance of the Six Lokas as terma, where a candle or light is similarly placed.
- The classical Madhyamaka-teachings are complemented with western (post-modern) philosophy,[web 23] critical sociology,[web 24] and social constructionism.[web 25] In some cases even explicitly distinguish themselves from (neo-)Advaita approaches.[web 26]
- Full: rigpa ngo-sprod gcer-mthong rang-grol
- This text is part of a collection of teachings entitled "Profound Dharma of Self-Liberation through the Intention of the Peaceful and Wrathful Ones" (zab-chos zhi khro dgongs pa rang grol, also known as kar-gling zhi-khro), which includes the two texts of bar-do thos-grol, the so-called "Tibetan Book of the Dead". The bar-do thos-grol was translated by Kazi Dawa Samdup (1868–1922), and edited and published by W.Y. Evans-Wenz. This translation became widely known and popular as "the Tibetan Book of the Dead", but contains many misatkes in translation and interpretation.
- Rigpa Wiki: "Nature of mind (Skt. cittatā; Tib. སེམས་ཉིད་, semnyi; Wyl. sems nyid) — defined in the tantras as the inseparable unity of awareness and emptiness, or clarity and emptiness, which is the basis for all the ordinary perceptions, thoughts and emotions of the ordinary mind (སེམས་, sem)."[web 27]
- See Dharma Dictionary, thig le nyag gcig
- See also Self Liberation through Seeing with Naked Awareness
- Inaction, non-action, nothing doing, without ado
- See McMahan, "The making of Buddhist modernity" and Richard E. King, "Orientalism and Religion" for descriptions of this mutual exchange.
- The awareness of historical precedents seems to be lacking in nonduality-adherents, just as the subjective perception of parallels between a wide variety of religious traditions lacks a rigorous philosophical or theoretical underpinning.
- As Rabbi Moshe Cordovero explains: "Before anything was emanated, there was only the Infinite One (Ein Sof), which was all that existed. And even after He brought into being everything which exists, there is nothing but Him, and you cannot find anything that existed apart from Him, G-d forbid. For nothing existed devoid of G-d's power, for if there were, He would be limited and subject to duality, G-d forbid. Rather, G-d is everything that exists, but everything that exists is not G-d... Nothing is devoid of His G-dliness: everything is within it... There is nothing but it" (Rabbi Moshe Cordovero, Elimah Rabasi, p. 24d-25a; for sources in early Chasidism see: Rabbi Ya'akov Yosef of Polonne, Ben Poras Yosef (Piotrków 1884), pp. 140, 168; Keser Shem Tov (Brooklyn: Kehos 2004) pp. 237-8; Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, Pri Ha-Aretz, (Kopust 1884), p. 21.). See The Practical Tanya, Part One, The Book for Inbetweeners, Schneur Zalman of Liadi, adapted by Chaim Miller, Gutnick Library of Jewish Classics, p. 232-233
- See also Ascended Master Teachings
- The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Buddhist modernism and Hindu reform movements, and the spread of those modernised versions in the west. The Theosophical Society and the Arya Samaj were united from 1878 to 1882, as the Theosophical Society of the Arya Samaj. Along with H. S. Olcott and Anagarika Dharmapala, Blavatsky was instrumental in the Western transmission and revival of Theravada Buddhism.
- James also gives descriptions of conversion experiences. The Christian model of dramatic conversions, based on the role-model of Paul's conversion, may also have served as a model for Western interpretations and expectations regarding "enlightenment", similar to Protestant influences on Theravada Buddhism, as described by Carrithers: "It rests upon the notion of the primacy of religious experiences, preferably spectacular ones, as the origin and legitimation of religious action. But this presupposition has a natural home, not in Buddhism, but in Christian and especially Protestant Christian movements which prescribe a radical conversion." See Sekida for an example of this influence of William James and Christian conversion stories, mentioning Luther and St. Paul. See also McMahan for the influence of Christian thought on Buddhism.
- Robert Sharf: "[T]he role of experience in the history of Buddhism has been greatly exaggerated in contemporary scholarship. Both historical and ethnographic evidence suggests that the privileging of experience may well be traced to certain twentieth-century reform movements, notably those that urge a return to zazen or vipassana meditation, and these reforms were profoundly influenced by religious developments in the west [...] While some adepts may indeed experience "altered states" in the course of their training, critical analysis shows that such states do not constitute the reference point for the elaborate Buddhist discourse pertaining to the "path".
- William Blake: "If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thru' narrow chinks of his cavern."[web 32]
- In Dutch: "Niet in een denkbeeld te vatten".
- According to Renard, Alan Watts has explained the difference between "non-dualism" and "monism" in The Supreme Identity, Faber and Faber 1950, p.69 and 95; The Way of Zen, Pelican-edition 1976, p.59-60.
- John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5.
- Katz 2007.
- Dasgupta & Mohanta 1998, p. 362.
- Raju 1992, p. 177.
- Loy 1988, p. 9-11.
- Davis 2010.
- George Adolphus Jacob (1999). A concordance to the principal Upanisads and Bhagavadgita. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-208-1281-9.
- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Robert Hume (Translator), Oxford University Press, pages 127-147
- Max Muller, Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press, page 171
- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Robert Hume (Translator), Oxford University Press, page 138
- Paul Deussen (1997), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 491; Sanskrit: ससलिले एकस् द्रष्टा अद्वैतस् भवति एष ब्रह्मलोकः (...)
- R.W. Perrett (2012). Indian Philosophy of Religion. Springer Science. p. 124. ISBN 978-94-009-2458-1.
- S Menon (2011), Advaita Vedanta, IEP, Quote:"The essential philosophy of Advaita is an idealist monism, and is considered to be presented first in the Upaniṣads and consolidated in the Brahma Sūtra by this tradition."
- James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 645–646. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.
- S. Mark Heim (2001). The Depth of the Riches: A Trinitarian Theology of Religious Ends. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-8028-4758-4.
- Espín & Nickoloff 2007, p. 963.
- Loy 1988, p. 9–11.
- Loy 1988, p. 3.
- Pritscher 2001, p. 16.
- Stephen C. Barton (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. Cambridge University Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-107-49455-8.
- Paul F. Knitter (2013). Without Buddha I Could not be a Christian. Oneworld. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-78074-248-9.
- Renard 2010.
- Renard 2010, p. 88.
- Sarma 1996, p. xi-xii.
- renard 2010, p. 88.
- Renard 2010, p. 89.
- Sarma 1996, p. xii.
- Sarma 1996, p. xi.
- Renard 2010, p. 91-92.
- Renard 2010, p. 92.
- Renard 2010, p. 93.
- Renard 2010, p. 96.
- Renard 2010, p. 97.
- Renard 2010, p. 98.
- Mansukhani 1993, p. 63.
- Renard 2010, p. 98-99.
- Espín & Nickoloff 2007, p. 14.
- Gombrich 1990, p. 12-20.
- Edward Roer (Translator), to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pages 3–4Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books
- Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at page 3, OCLC 19373677
- Raju 1992, pp. 504-515.
- [a] McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.;
[b] Jean Filliozat (1991), Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807181, pages 68–69;
[c] Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7, page 167 note 21, Quote (page 13): "Some agamas argue a monist metaphysics, while others are decidedly dualist."
- Joseph Milne (1997), "Advaita Vedanta and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nondual knowledge," International Journal of Hindu Studies, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 165-188
- Comans, Michael (2000). "The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda". Motilal Banarsidass: 183–184.
- Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238–1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Betty Stafford (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita. "Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy." An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215–224
- Craig, Edward (general editor) (1998). Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy: Luther to Nifo, Volume 6. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-07310-3, ISBN 978-0-415-07310-3. Source:  (accessed: Thursday April 22, 2010), p.476
- Raju 1992, p. 178.
- Murti 2008, p. 217.
- Murti 2008, pp. 217–218.
- Potter 2008, p. 6–7.
- James Lochtefeld, "Brahman", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 122
- PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-4067-3262-7, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII
- Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0-88489-997-6, pages 43–47
- Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press, ISBN 978-9042015104, pages 43–44
- Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 91
- [a] Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012), Quote: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul";
[b] John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-280094-7, See entry for Atman;
[c] WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-861025-0, See entry for Atman (self).
- R Dalal (2011), The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6, page 38
- [a] David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21527-7, pages 208–209, Quote: "Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself".;
[b] Richard King (1995), Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2513-8, page 64, Quote: "Atman as the innermost essence or soul of man, and Brahman as the innermost essence and support of the universe. (...) Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of atman with Brahman".
[c] Chad Meister (2010), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-534013-6, page 63; Quote: "Even though Buddhism explicitly rejected the Hindu ideas of Atman (soul) and Brahman, Hinduism treats Sakyamuni Buddha as one of the ten avatars of Vishnu."
- Deussen, Paul and Geden, A. S. The Philosophy of the Upanishads. Cosimo Classics (1 June 2010). P. 86. ISBN 1-61640-240-7.
- S Timalsina (2014), Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of ‘Awareness Only’, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-76223-6, pages 3-23
- Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4, pages 48-53
- A Rambachan (2006), The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-6852-4, pages 47, 99–103
- Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 19-40, 53–58, 79–86
- Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, pages 2–4
- Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4, pages 10–13
- Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107, pages 510–512
- Puligandla 1997, p. 232.
- Arvind Sharma (1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta, Penn State University Press, ISBN 978-0271028323, pages 176-178 with footnotes
- Renard 2010, p. 131.
- John Grimes, Review of Richard King's Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism, Journal of the American Academy of Religion Vol. 66, No. 3 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 684–686
- S. Mudgal, Advaita of Sankara, A Reappraisal, Impact of Buddhism and Samkhya on Sankara's thought, Delhi 1975, p.187"
- Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pages 126, 157
- Isaeva 1992, p. 240.
- Sharma 2000, p. 64.
- JN Mohanty (1980), Understanding some Ontological Differences in Indian Philosophy, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Volume 8, Issue 3, page 205; Quote: "Nyaya-Vaiseshika is realistic; Advaita Vedanta is idealistic. The former is pluralistic, the latter monistic."
- Kochumuttom 1999, p. 1.
- Renard 2010, p. 157.
- Comans 2000, p. 35-36.
- Sarma 1996, p. 127.
- Raju 1992, p. 177-178.
- Kalupahana 1994, p. 206.
- Comans 2000, p. 88–93.
- Dae-Sook Suh (1994), Korean Studies: New Pacific Currents, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824815981, page 171
- John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".
- [a] KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;
[b] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
[c] Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, pages 2-4;
[d] Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now
- John Plott (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Patristic-Sutra period (325 - 800 AD), Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805507, pages 285-288
- King 2002, p. 93.
- Yelle 2012, p. 338.
- King 2002, p. 135.
- Taft 2014.
- "Sri Ramakrisha The Great Master, by Swami Saradananda, (tr.) Swami Jagadananda, 5th ed., v.1, pp.558-561, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras.".
- Gier 2013.
- Sooklal 1993, p. 33.
- Sarma 1996, p. 1.
- Sarma 1996, p. 1-2.
- Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Jee, pp. 103
- The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit
- The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 51
- Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. P.164-167
- Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61
- Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.66
- Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda pp. 56-59
- Pratyãbhijñahṛdayam, Jaideva Singh, Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008 p.24-26
- The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, p.44
- Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119
- Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25.
- Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 26.
- Godman 1994.
- Ebert 2006, p. 18.
- Venkataramiah 2000, p. 328-329.
- Lucas 2011.
- Versluis 2014.
- Marek 2008, p. 10, note 6.
- Marek 2008, p. 10 note 6.
- Jacobs 204, p. 82.
- Jacobs 2004, p. 82.
- Caplan 2009, p. 16-17.
- Lucas 2011, p. 102-105.
- Gleig 2011, p. 10.
- Ken Wilber (2000). One Taste: Daily Reflections on Integral Spirituality. Shambhala Publications. pp. 294–295 with footnotes 33–34. ISBN 978-0-8348-2270-2.
- Leesa S. Davis (2010). Advaita Vedanta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry. A&C Black. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-0-8264-2068-8.
- Nancy McCagney (1997). Nāgārjuna and the Philosophy of Openness. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-8476-8627-8.
- Garfield 1995, p. 296, 298.
- Williams 2000, p. 140.
- Cheng 1981.
- Kalupahana 2006, p. 1.
- Cabezón 2005, p. 9387.
- Kalupahana 1994.
- Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. pp. 42–43, 581. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
- Richard Gombrich (2006). Theravada Buddhism. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-134-90352-8., Quote: "All phenomenal existence [in Buddhism] is said to have three interlocking characteristics: impermanence, suffering and lack of soul or essence."
- Phra Payutto; Grant Olson (1995). Buddhadhamma: Natural Laws and Values for Life. State University of New York Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-7914-2631-9.
- Yuichi Kajiyama (1991). Minoru Kiyota and Elvin W. Jones, ed. Mahāyāna Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 120–122, 137–139. ISBN 978-81-208-0760-0.
- Jones 2005, p. 9897.
- Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet by John Makransky. SUNY Press: 1997. ISBN 0-7914-3431-1 
- Zim, Robert (1995). Basic ideas of Yogācāra Buddhism. San Francisco State University. Source:  (accessed: October 18, 2007).
- King 1995, p. 156.
- Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge. pp. 82–83, 90–96. ISBN 978-1-134-25057-8.
- Kochumuttom 1999, p. 5.
- Kochumuttom 1999.
- Peter Harvey, Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha. In Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic. Curzon Press 1989, pages 96-97.
- Kochumuttom 1999, p. 1-2.
- Kalupahana 1992, p. 135.
- Kalupahana 1992, p. 126.
- Kalupahana 1992, p. 122.
- Kochumuttom 1999, p. 5-6.
- Kochumuttom 1999, p. 6.
- Lindtner 1997.
- Lindtner 1999.
- Akizuki 1990, p. 25-27.
- Ray 1999.
- Reat 1998, p. xi.
- Conze 1967, p. 10.
- King (1991), Buddha Nature, SUNY Press
- Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge 2000, page 160.
- Paul Williams, Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Second Edition, Routledge, Oxford, 2009, p. 317
- Kevin Trainor, Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 207
- White 2000, p. 7.
- White 2000, p. 8-9.
- White 2000, p. 9.
- White 2000, p. 10–11.
- King 2002.
- Whalen Lai (1979). "Nonduality of the Two Truths in Sinitic Madhyamika: Origin of the Third Truth". The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 2 (2): 45–46.
- Lai 2003, pp. 10–11.
- Lai 2003, p. 11.
- Lai 2003, p. 10.
- Lai 2003, pp. 10-11.
- Whalen Lai (1979). "Nonduality of the Two Truths in Sinitic Madhyamika: Origin of the Third Truth". The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 2 (2): 45–65.
- Garfield 2011, p. 76.
- Kasulis 2003, pp. 26–29.
- McRae 2003, pp. 138–142.
- Liang-Chieh 1986, p. 9.
- McRae 2003, pp. 123–138.
- Kasulis 2003, pp. 26–28.
- Buswell 1991, p. 240-241.
- Kasulis 2003, p. 29.
- Hori & 2005-B, p. 132.
- Ford 2006, p. 38.
- Hori 2000, p. 287.
- Hori 2000, p. 289-290.
- Hori 2000, p. 310 note 14.
- Hori 1994, p. 30-31.
- Hori 2000, p. 288-289.
- Sekida 1996.
- Kapleau 1989.
- Kraft 1997, p. 91.
- Glassman 2007, p. 54, 140.
- Yen 1996, p. 54.
- Jiyu-Kennett 2005, p. 225.
- Low 2006.
- Mumon 2004.
- Park, Sung-bae (1983). Buddhist Faith and Sudden Enlightenment. SUNY series in religious studies. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-87395-673-7, ISBN 978-0-87395-673-4. Source:  (accessed: Friday April 9, 2010), p.147
- Park, Sung-bae (2009). One Korean's approach to Buddhism: the mom/momjit paradigm. SUNY series in Korean studies: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-7697-9, ISBN 978-0-7914-7697-0. Source:  (accessed: Saturday May 8, 2010), p.11
- Lai, Whalen (1979). "Ch'an Metaphors: waves, water, mirror, lamp". Philosophy East & West; Vol. 29, no.3, July, 1979, pp.245–253. Source:  (accessed: Saturday May 8, 2010)
- Stearns, Cyrus (2010). The Buddha from Dölpo: A Study of the Life and Thought of the Tibetan Master Dölpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (Rev. and enl. ed.). Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 978-1-55939-343-0.
- Stearns p. 72
- Stearns p. 61
- Pema Tönyö Nyinje, 12th Tai Situpa. Ground, Path and Fruition. Zhyisil Chokyi Ghatsal Charitable Trust. p. 2005. ISBN 978-1-877294-35-8.
- Hookham, S.K. (1991). The Buddha Within: Tathagatagarbha Doctrine According to the Shentong Interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7914-0358-7.
- Lama Shenpen, Emptiness Teachings. Buddhism Connect Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed March, 2010)
- Powers, John (1995). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. pp. 334–342.
- norbu 1989, p. x.
- Norbu 1989, p. x.
- Fremantle 2001, p. 20.
- Norbu 1989, p. ix.
- Norbu 1989, p. xii.
- Reynolds 1989, p. 71–115.
- Karma Lingpa 1989, p. 13–14.
- Nirmal Kumar (2006). Sikh Philosophy and Religion: 11th Guru Nanak Memorial Lectures. Sterling Publishers. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-1-932705-68-3.
- Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2013). Religion and the Specter of the West: Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation. Columbia University Press. pp. 76, 430–432. ISBN 978-0-231-51980-9.
- Mandair, Arvind (2005). "The Politics of Nonduality: Reassessing the Work of Transcendence in Modern Sikh Theology". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 74 (3): 646–673. doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfj002.
- Paul A. Erickson, Liam D. Murphy. A History of Anthropological Theory. 2013. p. 486
- Wolfe 2009, p. iii.
- McMahan 2008.
- Hanegraaf 1996.
- Richard T. Wallis; Jay Bregman (1992). Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. State University of New York Press. pp. 33–44. ISBN 978-0-7914-1337-1.
- Miller, Ronald. The Gospel of Thomas: A Guidebook for Spiritual Practice. page 29, 63
- Michaelson, Jay (2009). Everything Is God: The Radical Path of Nondual Judaism. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-59030-671-6, ISBN 978-1-59030-671-0. Source:  (accessed: Thursday May 6, 2010), p.130
- Lawrence Hatab; Albert Wolters (1982). R Baine Harris, ed. Neoplatonism and Indian Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 27–44, 293–308. ISBN 978-1-4384-0587-2.
- R Baine Harris (1982). Neoplatonism and Indian Thought. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-0587-2.
- J. F. Staal (1961), Advaita and Neoplatonism: A critical study in comparative philosophy, Madras: University of Madras
- Frederick Charles Copleston. "Religion and the One 1979–1981". Giffordlectures.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- Special section "Fra Oriente e Occidente" in Annuario filosofico No. 6 (1990), including the articles "Plotino e l'India" by Aldo Magris and "L'India e Plotino" by Mario Piantelli
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (ed.)(1952), History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, Vol.2. London: George Allen & Unwin. p. 114
- "Creator (or not?)". Gresham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- John Y. Fenton (1981), "Mystical Experience as a Bridge for Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion: A Critique", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, p. 55
- Dale Riepe (1967), "Emerson and Indian Philosophy", Journal of the History of Ideas
- John Cassian, Conferences, 10, chapters 10-11
- Laurence Freeman 1992
- Nicholas Cabasilas, The Life in Christ (St Vladimir's Seminary Press 19740-913836-12-5), p. 32
- James W. Skehan, Place Me with Your Son (Georgetown University Press 1991 ISBN 0-87840-525-9), p. 89
- John S. Romanides, Some Underlying Positions of This Website, 11, note
- The Cloud of Unknowing (Wordsworth Classics of World Literature 2005 ISBN 1-84022-126-7), p. 18
- Paul de Jaegher, Donald Attwater Christian Mystics of the Middle Ages: An Anthology of Writings 2004, p. 86
- Koren, Henry J (1955). An Introduction to the Science of Metaphysics. B. Herder Book Co. ISBN 1258017857, ISBN 978-1258017859
- Michaelson, Jay (2009). Everything Is God: The Radical Path of Nondual Judaism. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-59030-671-6, ISBN 978-1-59030-671-0. Source:  (accessed: Saturday May 8, 2010)
- Slavenburg & Glaudemans 1994, p. 395.
- Schmitt 1966, p. 508.
- Schmitt 1966, p. 513.
- Schmitt 1966.
- Renard 2010, p. 176.
- Renard 2010, p. 177.
- Renard 2010, pp. 177-184.
- Renard 2010, p. 178.
- Renard 2010, p. 183-184.
- Sharf 1995.
- Michelis 2005.
- Dutta 2003, p. 110.
- Michelis 2005, p. 100.
- Michelis 2005, p. 99.
- Kipf 1979, p. 3.
- Versluis 1993.
- Michelis 2005, p. 31-35.
- Michelis 2005, p. 19-90, 97-100.
- Michelis 2005, p. 47.
- Michelis 2005, p. 81.
- Michelis 2005, p. 50.
- Michelis 2004, p. 119-123.
- Roy 2003.
- Renard 2010, p. 185–188.
- Sinari 2000.
- Lavoie 2012.
- Gilchrist 1996, p. 32.
- Johnson 1994, p. 107.
- McMahan 2008, p. 98.
- Gombrich 1996, p. 185–188.
- Fields 1992, p. 83–118.
- Drury 2004, p. 12.
- Drury 2004, p. 8.
- Drury 2004, p. 11.
- Melton, J. Gordon – Director Institute for the Study of American Religion. New Age Transformed, retrieved 2006-06
- Drury 2004, p. 10.
- Hori 1999, p. 47.
- Sharf 2000.
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, page 68, 79
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, page 114, 116–119
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, p. 126–127
- Sharf 2000, p. 271.
- Carrithers 1983, p. 18.
- Sekida 1985, p. 196–197.
- Sekida 1985, p. 251.
- Sharf 1995a.
- Mohr 2000, p. 282-286.
- Low 2006, p. 12.
- Sharf 1995b, p. 1.
- Hori 2000.
- Comans 1993.
- Mohr 2000, p. 282.
- Samy 1998, p. 80-82.
- Mohr 2000, p. 284.
- Spilka e.a. 2003, p. 321–325.
- Spilka e.a. 2003, p. 321.
- Amidon 2012, p. 4.
- Renard 2010, p. 59.
- Anderson 2009, p. xvi.
- Renard 2010, p. 59, p.285 note 17.
- Yandell 1994, p. 19–23.
- Yandell 1994, p. 23–31.
- Yandell 1994, p. 24–26.
- yandell 1994, p. 24–25, 26–27.
- Yandell 1994, p. 24–25.
- Yandell 1994, p. 30.
- Yandell 1994, p. 25.
- Yandell 1994, p. 29.
- Samy 1998, p. 80.
- Bronkhorst 1993, p. 100-101.
- Bronkhorst 1993, p. 101.
- Akizuki, Ryōmin (1990), New Mahāyāna: Buddhism for a Post-modern World, Jain Publishing Company
- Amidon, Elias (2012), The Open Path: Recognizing Nondual Awareness, Sentient Publications
- Anderson, Allan W. (2009), Self-Transformation and the Oracular: A Practical Handbook for Consulting the I Ching and Tarot, Xlibris Corporation
- Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943), Gauḍapādakārikā, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Bhuyan, P. R. (2003), Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent India, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 978-81-269-0234-7
- Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
- Buswell, Robert E. (1991), The "Short-cut" Approach of K'an-hua Meditation: The Evolution of a Practical Subitism in Chinese Ch'an Buddhism. In: Peter N. Gregory (editor) (1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Buswell, Robert E (1993), Ch'an Hermeneutics: A Korean View. In: Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (ed.)(1993), Buddhist Hermeneutics, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Cabezón, José Ignacio (2005), "Tsong Kha Pa", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan
- Caplan, Mariana (2009), Eyes Wide Open: Cultivating Discernment on the Spiritual Path, Sounds True
- Carrithers, Michael (1983), The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka
- Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal (1999), Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective Biography, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-1586-5
- Cheng, Hsueh-LI (1981), "The Roots of Zen Buddhism", Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 8: 451–478
- Comans, Michael (1993), The Question of the Importance of Samadhi in Modern and Classical Advaita Vedanta. In: Philosophy East and West Vol. 43, No. 1 (January 1993), pp. 19-38.
- Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Conze, Edward (1967), Thirty years of Buddhis Studies. Selected essays by Edward Conze (PDF), Bruno Cassirer
- Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (2001), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-24517-3
- Dalal, Roshen (2011), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, Penguin Books India
- Dasgupta, Surendranath (1922), A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ, ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8
- Dasgupta, Sanghamitra; Mohanta, Dilip Kumar (1998), Indian Philosophical Quarterly, 25 (3): 349–366 Missing or empty
- Davis, Leesa S. (2010), Advaita Vedānta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Continuum International Publishing Group
- Dense, Christian D. Von (1999), Philosophers and Religious Leaders, Greenwood Publishing Group
- Drury, Nevill (2004), The New Age: Searching for the Spiritual Self, London, England, UK: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28516-0
- Dutta, Krishna (2003), Calcutta: a cultural and literary history, Oxford: Signal Books, ISBN 978-1-56656-721-3
- Espín, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, Liturgical Press
- Fields, Rick (1992), How The Swans Came To The Lake. A Narrative History of Buddhism in America, Shambhala
- Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika, Oxford University Press
- Garfield, Jay L.; Priest, Graham (2003), "NAGARJUNA AND THE LIMITS OF THOUGHT" (PDF), Philosophy East & West, 53 (1): 1–21
- Garfield, Jay L.; Edelglass, William (2011), The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy, ISBN 9780195328998
- Gier, Nicholas F. (2012), "Overreaching to be different: A critique of Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different", International Journal of Hindu Studies, Springer Netherlands, 16 (3): 259–285, ISSN 1022-4556, doi:10.1007/s11407-012-9127-x
- Gilchrist, Cherry (1996), Theosophy. The Wisdom of the Ages, HarperSanFrancisco
- Godman, David (1994), Living by the Words of Bhagavan, Tiruvannamalai: Sri Annamalai Swami Ashram Trust
- Gombrich, R.F. (1990), Recovering the Buddha's Message (PDF)
- Gombrich, Richard (1996), Theravada Buddhism. A Social History From Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, Routledge
- Gregory, Peter N. (1991), Sudden Enlightenment Followed by Gradual Cultivation: Tsung-mi's Analysis of mind. In: Peter N. Gregory (editor)(1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996), New Age Religion and Western Culture. Esotericism in the mirror of Secular Thought, Leiden/New York/Koln: E.J. Brill
- Harris, Mark W. (2009), The A to Z of Unitarian Universalism, Scarecrow Press
- Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press
- Hayes, Richard P. (1994), Nagarjuna's appeal. In: Journal of Indian Philosophy 22: 299-378
- Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery. In: Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol.20, No. 1, (Winter, 1994), 5-35 (PDF)[permanent dead link]
- Hori, Victor Sogen (1999), Translating the Zen Phrase Book. In: Nanzan Bulletin 23 (1999) (PDF)
- Hori, Victor Sogen (2000), Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): "The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press
- Jacobs, Alan (2004), Advaita and Western Neo-Advaita. In: The Mountain Path Journal, autumn 2004, pages 81-88, Ramanasramam
- Jiyu-Kennett, Houn (2005–A), Roar of the Tigress VOLUME I. An Introduction to Zen: Religious Practice for Everyday Life (PDF), MOUNT SHASTA, CALIFORNIA: SHASTA ABBEY PRESS Check date values in:
- Jiyu-Kennett, Houn (2005–B), Roar of the Tigress VOLUME II. Zen for Spiritual Adults. Lectures Inspired by the Shobogenzo of Eihei Dogen (PDF), MOUNT SHASTA, CALIFORNIA: SHASTA ABBEY PRESS C1 control character in
|title=at position 85 (help); Check date values in:
- Johnson, K. Paul (1994), The masters revealed: Madam Blavatsky and the myth of the Great White Lodge, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-2063-9
- Jones, Ken H. (2003), The New Social Face of Buddhism: A Call to Action, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-365-6
- Jones, Lindsay (2005), Encyclopedia of Religion. (2nd Ed.) Volume 14, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 0-02-865983-X
- Kalupahana, David J. (1992), The Principles of Buddhist Psychology, Delhi: ri Satguru Publications
- Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A History of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Kalupahana, David (2006), Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna, Motilal Banarsidass
- Kapleau, Philip (1989), The three pillars of Zen
- Karma Lingpa (1989), Slef-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press
- Kasulis, Thomas P. (2003), Ch'an Spirituality. In: Buddhist Spirituality. Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World; edited by Takeuchi Yoshinori, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Katz, Jerry (2007), One: Essential Writings on Nonduality, Sentient Publications
- King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press
- King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
- Kipf, David (1979), The Brahmo Samaj and the shaping of the modern Indian mind, Atlantic Publishers & Distri
- Kochumuttom, Thomas A. (1999), A buddhist Doctrine of Experience. A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Kraft, Kenneth (1997), Eloquent Zen: Daitō and Early Japanese Zen, University of Hawaii Press
- Kyriakides, Theodoros (2012), ""Nondualism is philosophy, not ethnography". A review of the 2011 GDAT debate", HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 2 (1): 413–419
- Lai, Whalen (2003), Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. In Antonio S. Cua (ed.): Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (PDF), New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-1-135-36748-0, archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2014
- Lavoie, Jeffrey D. (2012), The Theosophical Society: The History of a Spiritualist Movement, Universal-Publishers
- Lee, Kwang-Sae (2005), East and West: Fusion of Horizons, Homa & Sekey Books, ISBN 1-931907-26-9
- Liang-Chieh (1986), The Record of Tung-shan, William F. Powell (translator), Kuroda Institute
- Lindtner, Christian (1997), "The Problem of Precanonical Buddhism", Buddhist Studies Review, 14: 2
- Lindtner, Christian (1999), "From Brahmanism to Buddhism", Asian Philosophy, 9 (1)
- Low, Albert (2006), Hakuin on Kensho. The Four Ways of Knowing, Boston & London: Shambhala
- Loy, David (1988), Nonduality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy, New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, ISBN 1-57392-359-1
- Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement. Ramana Maharshi and Neo-Advaita in North America", Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 15 (2): 93–114, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93
- Maezumi, Hakuyu Taizan; Glassman, Bernie (2007), The Hazy Moon of Enlightenment: Part of the On Zen Practice Series, Wisdom Publications
- Mandair, Arvind (September 2006), "The Politics of Nonduality: Reassessing the Work of Transcendence in Modern Sikh Theology", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 74 (3): 646–673, doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfj002
- Mansukhani, Gobind (1993). Introduction to Sikhism. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. ISBN 9788170101819.
- Marek, David (2008), Dualität - Nondualität. Konzeptuelles und nichtkonzeptuelles Erkennen in Psychologie und buddhistischer Praxis (PDF)
- McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276
- McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen, The University Press Group Ltd
- Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08953-1
- Michaelson, Jay (2009), Everything Is God: The Radical Path of Nondual Judaism, Shambhala
- Michelis, Elizabeth De (8 December 2005), A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali and Western Esotericism, Continuum, ISBN 978-0-8264-8772-8
- Mohr, Michel (2000), Emerging from Nonduality. Koan Practice in the Rinzai Tradition since Hakuin. In: steven Heine & Dale S. Wright (eds.)(2000), "The Koan. texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism", Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Mukerji, Mādhava Bithika (1983), Neo-Vedanta and Modernity, Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan
- Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press
- Mumon, Yamada (2004), Lectures On The Ten Oxherding Pictures, University of Hawaii Press
- Murti, T.R.V. (2008), The Central Philosophy of Buddhism: A Study of the Madhyamika System, Taylor & Francis Group
- Nakamura, Hajime (2004), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Narasimha Swami (1993), Self Realisation: The Life and Teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi, Sri Ramanasraman
- Nisargadatta (1987), I Am That, Bombay: Chetana
- Norbu, Namkhai (1989), "Foreword", in Reynolds, John Myrdin, Self-liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
- Odin, Steve (1982), Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpenetration, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-87395-568-4
- Pritscher, Conrad P. (2001), Quantum learning beyond duality, Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-420-1387-2
- Puligandla, Ramakrishna (1997), Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd.
- Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; Moore, C. A. (1957), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01958-4
- Rājarshi Muni, Swami (2001), Yoga: the ultimate spiritual path. Second edition, illustrated, Llewellyn Worldwide, ISBN 1-56718-441-3
- Raju, P.T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Rambachan, Anatanand (1994), The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, University of Hawaii Press
- Ray, Reginald (1999), Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations, Oxford University Press
- Reat, N. Ross (1998), The Salistamba Sutra, Motilal Banarsidass
- Reynolds, John Myrdin (1989), "Appendix I: The views on Dzogchen of W.Y. Evans-Wentz and C.G. Jung", in Reynolds, John Myrdin, Self-liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
- Renard, Gary (2004), The Disappearance of the Universe, Carlsbad, CA, USA: Hay House
- Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip
- Roy, Sumita (2003), Aldous Huxley And Indian Thought, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd
- Samy, AMA (1998), Waarom kwam Bodhidharma naar het Westen? De ontmoeting van Zen met het Westen, Asoka: Asoka
- Schmitt, Charles (1966), "Perennial Philosophy: From Agostino Steuco to Leibniz", Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 27, No. 1, (October – December 1966, pp. 505-532)
- Schucman, Helen (1992), A Course In Miracles, Foundation for Inner Peace, ISBN 0-9606388-9-X
- Sen Gupta, Anima (1986), The Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought, New Delhi: South Asia Books, ISBN 81-215-0019-2
- Sarma, chandradhar (1996), The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Sekida, Katsuki (1985), Zen Training. Methods and Philosophy, New York, Tokyo: Weatherhill
- Sekida (translator), Katsuki (1996), Two Zen Classics. Mumonkan, The Gateless Gate. Hekiganroku, The Blue Cliff Records. Translated with commentaries by Katsuki Sekida, New York / Tokyo: Weatherhill
- Shankarananda Swami (2011), Consciousness Is Everything, Palmer Higgs Pty Ltd
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995a), "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience" (PDF), NUMEN, 42
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995b), "Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 22 (3-4)
- Sharf, Robert H. (2000), "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion" (PDF), Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (11-12): 267–87
- Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000), History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature: From the Earliest Beginnings to Our Own Times, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
- Sharma, Arvind (2006), A Primal Perspective on the philosophy of Religion, Springer, ISBN 9781402050145
- Sinari, Ramakant (2000), Advaita and Contemporary Indian Philosophy. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta", Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations
- Slavenburg; Glaudemans (1994), Nag Hammadi Geschriften I, Ankh-Hermes
- Sooklal, Anil (1993), "The Neo-Vedanta Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda" (PDF), Nidan, 5
- Spilka e.a. (2003), The Psychology of Religion. An Empirical Approach, New York: The Guilford Press
- Suzuki, Daisetz Teitarō (1999), Studies in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Suzuki, D.T. (2002), Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist, Taylor & Francis Group
- Taft, Michael (2014), Nondualism: A Brief History of a Timeless Concept, Cephalopod Rex
- Venkataramiah, Muranagala (2000), Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi: On Realizing Abiding Peace and Happiness, Inner Directions, ISBN 1-878019-00-7
- Versluis, Arthur (1993), American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, Oxford University Press
- Versluis, Arthur (2014), American Gurus: From American Transcendentalism to New Age Religion, Oxford University Press
- Warder, A. K. (2000), Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
- Wayman, Alex and Hideko (1990), The Lion's roar of Queen Srimala, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
- White, David Gordon (2000), Yoga in practice, Princeton University Press
- White, David Gordon (2011), Yoga in practice, Princeton University Press
- Wilber, Ken (2000), Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publications
- Williams, Paul (2000), Buddhist Thought, Routledge
- Wolfe, Robert (2009), Living Nonduality: Enlightenment Teachings of Self-Realization, Karina Library Press
- Yandell, Keith E. (1994), The Epistemology of Religious Experience, Cambridge University Press
- Yogani (2011), Advanced Yoga Practices Support Forum Posts of Yogani, 2005-2010, AYP Publishing
- What is Non-Duality?
- What is Non-Duality?
- Elizabeth Reninger, Guide Review: David Loy’s "Nonduality: A Study In Comparative Philosophy"
- Advaita Vision - Ongoing Development
- Sanskrit Dictionary, Atman
- Michael Hawley, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Piyaray L. Raina, Kashmir Shaivism versus Vedanta – A Synopsis
- Sri Ramanasramam, "A lineage of Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi?" Archived 13 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- David Godman (1992), I am – The First Name of God. The Mountain Path, 1992, pp. 26–35 and pp. 126–42
- American Gurus: Seven Questions for Arthur Versluis Archived 17 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- What is Enlightenment? September 1, 2006
- What is Enlightenment? December 31, 2001 Archived 10 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- What is Enlightenment? December 1, 2005
-  (accessed: Friday November 6, 2009)
- Patrick Jennings, Tsongkhapa: In Praise of Relativity; The Essence of Eloquence Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- Susan Kahn, The Two Truths of Buddhism and The Emptiness of Emptiness
- Oxford Reference, vijñapti-mātra
- Emptiness. Buddhist and Beyond
- The Non-Buddhist
- Emptiness teachings
- [Susan Kahn, The Two Truths of Buddhism and The Emptiness of Emptiness
- Review of Richard Rorty's "Philosophy and Social Hope"
- Patrick jennings (2014), Tsongkhapa: In Praise of Relativity; The Essence of Eloquence Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- emptiness.co, Review of Kenneth J. Gergen's "An Invitation to Social Construction"
- emptiness.co, Coming from the Advaitic/Awareness Teachings? Special Pointers
- Rigpa Wiki, Nature of Mind
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Transcendentalism
- Jone John Lewis, What is Transcendentalism?"
- Barry Andrews, THE ROOTS OF UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST SPIRITUALITY IN NEW ENGLAND TRANSCENDENTALISM Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Michael D. Langone, Ph.D. Cult Observer, 1993, Volume 10, No. 1. What Is "New Age"?, retrieved 2006-07
- Quote DB
- Swami Jnaneshvara, Faces of Nondualism
- Katz, Jerry (2007), One: Essential Writings on Nonduality, Sentient Publications
- Loy, David (1988), Nonduality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy, New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, ISBN 1-57392-359-1
- Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip
- Taft, Michael (2014), Nondualism: A Brief History of a Timeless Concept, Cephalopod Rex
- King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
- Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Newland, Guy (2008), Introduction to Emptiness: As Taught in Tsong-kha-pa's Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path, Ithaca
- Sarma, Chandradhar (1996), The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Susan Kahn, The Two Truths of Buddhism and The Emptiness of Emptiness
- Patrick Jennings, Tsongkhapa: In Praise of Relativity; The Essence of Eloquence
- Emptiness, Buddhist and Beyond
- Nigel Wellings (2009), Is there anything there? – the Tibetan Rangtong Shentong debate
- Acharya Mahayogi Sridhar Rana Rinpoche, Vedanta vis-a-vis Shentong
- Alexander Berin, Self-Voidness and Other Voidness
- Advaita Vedanta
- Advaita Vedanta at DMOZ
- David Loy, Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?
- Vedanta Hub - Resources to help with the Study and Practice of Advaita Vedanta
- Comparison of Advaita and Buddhism
- Alexander Berzin, Study Buddhism, Nonduality in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta
- David Paul Boaz, Unbounded Wholeness: Dzogchen and Advaita Vedanta in a Postmodern World
- Eric T. Reynolds, On the relationship of Advaita Vedānta and Mādhyamika Buddhism
- Non-duality Magazine
- Undivided. The Online Journal of Nonduality and Psychology
- Online Seminar on NonDuality
- Sarlo's Guru Rating Service: list of nondual teachers
- advaita.org.uk, Western Teachers and Writers
- Swami Jnaneshvara, Faces of Nondualism
- AtmaPatha - Merging Jesusian & Eastern nondualism