Jump to content

Nonviolent Communication

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marshall Rosenberg (2005)

Nonviolent Communication (NVC) is an approach to enhanced communication, understanding, and connection based on the principles of nonviolence and humanistic psychology. It is not an attempt to end disagreements, but rather a way that aims to increase empathy and understanding to improve the overall quality of life. It seeks empathic dialogue and understanding among all parties. Nonviolent Communication evolved from concepts used in person-centered therapy, and was developed by clinical psychologist Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s and 1970s. There are a large number of workshops and clinical materials about NVC, including Rosenberg's book Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life.[1][2][3][4] Marshall Rosenberg also taught NVC in a number of video lectures available online; the workshop recorded in San Francisco is the most well-known.[5]

NVC is a communication tool with the goal of first creating empathy in the conversation. The idea is that once people hear one another, it will be much easier to talk about a solution which satisfies all parties' fundamental needs.[6] The goal is interpersonal harmony and obtaining knowledge for future cooperation.[7] Notable concepts include rejecting coercive forms of discourse, gathering facts through observing without evaluating, genuinely and concretely expressing feelings and needs, and formulating effective and empathetic requests. Nonviolent Communication is used as a clinical psychotherapy modality and it is also offered in workshops for the general public, particularly with regards to seeking harmony in relationships and at workplaces.


Marshall Rosenberg lecturing in a Nonviolent Communication workshop (1990)

According to Marion Little (2008), the roots of the NVC model developed in the late 1960s, when Rosenberg was working on racial integration in schools and organizations in the Southern United States.[8] The earliest version of the model (observations, feelings, needs, and action-oriented wants) was part of a training manual Rosenberg prepared in 1972.

The development of NVC is highly reliant on concepts developed by Carl Rogers and person-centered therapy. Rogers emphasized: 1) experiential learning, 2) "frankness about one's emotional state," 3) the satisfaction of hearing others "in a way that resonates for them," 4) the enriching and encouraging experience of "creative, active, sensitive, accurate, empathic listening," 5) the "deep value of congruence between one's own inner experience, one's conscious awareness, and one's communication," and, subsequently, 6) the enlivening experience of unconditionally receiving love or appreciation and extending the same. These influenced the concepts described in the section below.[8]

Rosenberg was influenced by Erich Fromm, George Albee, and George Miller to adopt a community focus in his work, moving away from clinical psychological practice. The central ideas influencing this shift by Rosenberg were that: (1) individual mental health depends on the social structure of a community (Fromm), (2) therapists alone are unable to meet the psychological needs of a community (Albee), and (3) knowledge about human behavior will increase if psychology is freely given to the community (Miller).[8]

Rosenberg's early work with children with learning disabilities shows his interest in psycholinguistics and the power of language, as well as his emphasis on collaboration. In its initial development, the NVC model re-structured the pupil-teacher relationship to give students greater responsibility for, and decision-making related to, their own learning. The model has evolved over the years to incorporate institutional power relationships (i.e., police-citizen, boss-employee) and informal ones (i.e. man-woman, rich-poor, adult-youth, parent-child). The ultimate aim is to develop societal relationships based on a restorative, "partnership" paradigm and mutual respect, rather than a retributive, fear-based, "domination" paradigm.[8]

In order to show the differences between communication styles, Rosenberg started to use two animals. Violent communication was represented by the carnivorous Jackal as a symbol of aggression and especially dominance. The herbivorous Giraffe on the other hand, represented his NVC strategy. The Giraffe was chosen as symbol for NVC as its long neck is supposed to show the clear-sighted speaker, being aware of his fellow speakers' reactions; and because the Giraffe has a large heart, representing the compassionate side of NVC. In his courses he tended to use these animals in order to make the differences in communication clearer to the audience.[9]

The model had evolved to its present form (observations, feelings, needs and requests) by 1992. Since the late 2000s, there has been more emphasis on self-empathy as a key to the model's effectiveness. Another shift in emphasis, since 2000, has been the reference to the model as a process. The focus is thus less on the "steps" themselves and more on the practitioner's intentions in speaking ("Is the intent to get others to do what one wants, or to foster more meaningful relationships and mutual satisfaction?") in listening ("Is the intent to prepare for what one has to say, or to extend heartfelt, respectful attentiveness to another?") and the quality of connection experienced with others.[8]

In 2019, a group of certified NVC trainers published a #MeToo statement honouring Marshall Rosenberg's legacy but also acknowledging he had slept with students at some times of his life.[10] The trainers encourage all facilitators to share a warning with prospective clients and students about the potential risks of empathy work and recommended sexual boundaries.[11]


Cards with basic human needs in the hands of exercise group participants.

Nonviolent Communication holds that most conflicts between individuals or groups arise from miscommunication about their human needs, due to coercive or manipulative language that aims to induce fear, guilt, shame, etc. These "violent" modes of communication, when used during a conflict, divert the attention of the participants away from clarifying their needs, their feelings, their perceptions, and their requests, thus perpetuating the conflict.[12]

Alternative names[edit]

In a recorded lecture,[13] Marshall Rosenberg describes the origins of the name Nonviolent Communication. He explains that the name was chosen to connect his work to the word "nonviolence" that was used by the peace movement, thus showing the ambition to create peace on the planet. Meanwhile, Marshall did not like that name since it described what NVC is not, rather than what NVC is. In fact, this goes against an important principle in the fourth component of NVC, i.e. requests. Specifically, in an NVC request, one should ask for what one does want, not what one doesn't want. Because of this, a number of alternative names have become common, most importantly giraffe language, compassionate communication or collaborative communication.


There are four components to practice nonviolent communication, and in this order:

  1. Observation: These are facts (what we are seeing, hearing, or touching) as distinct from our evaluation of meaning and significance. NVC discourages static generalizations. It is said that "When we combine observation with evaluation, others are apt to hear criticism and resist what we are saying." Instead, a focus on observations specific to time and context is recommended.[1]: ch.3 
  2. Feelings: These are emotions or sensations, free of thought and story. These are to be distinguished from thoughts (e.g., "I feel I didn't get a fair deal") and from words colloquially used as feelings but which convey what we think we are (e.g., "inadequate"), how we think others are evaluating us (e.g., "unimportant"), or what we think others are doing to us (e.g., "misunderstood", "ignored"). Feelings are said to reflect whether we are experiencing our needs as met or unmet. Identifying feelings is said to allow us to more easily connect with one another, and "Allowing ourselves to be vulnerable by expressing our feelings can help resolve conflicts."[1]: ch.4 
  3. Needs: These are universal human needs, as distinct from particular strategies for meeting needs. It is posited that "Everything we do is in service of our needs."[14] Marshall Rosenberg refers to Max-Neef's model where needs may be categorised into 9 classes: sustenance, safety, love, understanding/empathy, creativity, recreation, sense of belonging, autonomy and meaning.[15] For more information, the Center for Nonviolent Communication has developed a needs inventory.[16]
  4. Requests: Requests are distinguished from demands in that one is open to hearing a response of "no" without this triggering an attempt to force the matter. If one makes a request and receives a "no" it is not recommended that one gives up, but that one empathizes with what is preventing the other person from saying "yes," before deciding how to continue the conversation. It is recommended that requests use clear, positive, concrete action language.[1]: ch.6 


There are three primary modes of application of NVC:

  • Self-empathy involves compassionately connecting with what is going on inside us. This may involve, without blame, noticing the thoughts and judgments we are having, noticing our feelings, and most critically, connecting to the needs that are affecting us.[14]: ch.4 
  • Receiving empathically, in NVC, involves "connection with what's alive in the other person and what would make life wonderful for them... It's not an understanding of the head where we just mentally understand what another person says... Empathic connection is an understanding of the heart in which we see the beauty in the other person, the divine energy in the other person, the life that's alive in them... It doesn't mean we have to feel the same feelings as the other person. That's sympathy, when we feel sad that another person is upset. It doesn't mean we have the same feelings; it means we are with the other person... If you're mentally trying to understand the other person, you're not present with them."[14]: ch.5  Empathy involves "emptying the mind and listening with our whole being." NVC suggests that however the other person expresses themselves, we focus on listening for the underlying observations, feelings, needs, and requests. It is suggested that it can be useful to reflect a paraphrase of what another person has said, highlighting the NVC components implicit in their message, such as the feelings and needs you guess they may be expressing.[1]: ch.7 
  • Expressing honestly, in NVC, is likely to involve expressing an observation, feeling, need, and request. An observation may be omitted if the context of the conversation is clear. A feeling might be omitted if there is sufficient connection already, or the context is one where naming a feeling isn't likely to contribute to connection. It is said that naming a need in addition to a feeling makes it less likely that people will think you are making them responsible for your feeling. Similarly, it is said that making a request in addition to naming a need makes it less likely that people will infer a vague demand that they address your need. The components are thought to work together synergistically. According to NVC trainer Bob Wentworth, "an observation sets the context, feelings support connection and getting out of our heads, needs support connection and identify what is important, and a request clarifies what sort of response you might enjoy. Using these components together minimizes the chances of people getting lost in potentially disconnecting speculation about what you want from them and why."[17]


A systematic review of research as of 2013 analyzed 13 studies picked from 2,634 citations. Two of these studies came from peer-reviewed journals. Eleven of these suggested an increase in empathy subsequent to the application of NVC (five of these with evidence of statistical significance) and two did not. There have been no randomized studies into NVC. Academic research into NVC only began in the 1990s, and has been increasing with time.[18]

As of 2017, fifteen master's theses and doctoral dissertations are known to have tested the model on sample sizes of 108 or smaller and generally have found the model to be effective.[3][8][19][20]

While it is widely applied in clinical and lay contexts, and very limited research generally shows the technique to be effective in conflict resolution and increasing empathy, psychologists generally do not consider it to have the same standing as evidence-based practices such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. This is due to the low amount of academic research on the method.

Allan Rohlfs, who first met Rosenberg in 1972 and was a founder of the Center for Nonviolent Communication, in 2011 explained a paucity of academic literature as follows:

Virtually all conflict resolution programs have an academic setting as their foundation and therefore have empirical studies by graduate students assessing their efficacy. NVC is remarkable for its roots. Marshall Rosenberg, Ph.D. (clinical psychology, U of Wisconsin) comes from a full time private practice in clinical psychology and consultation, never an academic post. NVC, his creation, is entirely a grassroots organization and never had until recently any foundation nor grant monies, on the contrary funded 100% from trainings which were offered in public workshops around the world. ... Empirical data is now coming slowly as independent researchers find their own funding to conduct and publish empirical studies with peer review.[21]

Bowers and Moffett (2012) asserts that NVC has been absent from academic programs due to a lack of research into the theoretical basis for the model and lack of research on the reliability of positive results.[22]

Connor and Wentworth (2012) examined the impact of 6-months of NVC training and coaching on 23 executives in a Fortune 100 corporation. A variety of benefits were reported, including "conversations and meetings were notably more efficient, with issues being resolved in 50-80 percent less time."[23]

A 2014 study examined the effects of combined NVC and mindfulness training on 885 male inmates of the Monroe Correctional Complex in Monroe, Washington. The training was found to reduce recidivism from 37% to 21%, and the training was estimated as having saved the state $5 million per year in reduced incarceration costs. The training was found to increase equanimity, decrease anger, and lead to abilities to take responsibility for one's feelings, express empathy, and to make requests without imposing demands.[24]

Relationship to spirituality[edit]

In the introduction to Rosenberg's book Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life, [1] NVC is described as a framework of several pre-existing concepts, that Rosenberg found useful on the topic of communication and conflict resolution. Therefore, it is perhaps not surprising that some Christians have found NVC to be complementary to their Christian faith.[25][26][27][28][29] Many people have found Nonviolent Communication to be very complementary to Buddhism, both in theory and in manifesting Buddhist ideals in practice.[30][31][32] Furthermore, the "NVC consciousness" described in NVC have several similarities to the concepts of presence and patience in mindfulness.

As Theresa Latini notes, "Rosenberg understands NVC to be a fundamentally spiritual practice."[25] Marshall Rosenberg describes the influence of his spiritual life on the development and practice of NVC:

I think it is important that people see that spirituality is at the base of Nonviolent Communication, and that they learn the mechanics of the process with that in mind. It's really a spiritual practice that I am trying to show as a way of life. Even though we don't mention this, people get seduced by the practice. Even if they practice this as a mechanical technique, they start to experience things between themselves and other people they weren't able to experience before. So eventually they come to the spirituality of the process. They begin to see that it's more than a communication process and realize it's really an attempt to manifest a certain spirituality.[33]

Rosenberg further states that he developed NVC as a way to "get conscious of" what he calls the "Beloved Divine Energy".[33] Rosenberg considered NVC to be much more than a four-step process for communication, but rather a way of living.

Relationship to other models[edit]

Marion Little examines theoretical frameworks related to NVC. The influential interest-based model for conflict resolution, negotiation, and mediation developed by Fisher, Ury, and Patton at the Harvard Negotiation Project and at the Program on Negotiation in the 1980s appears to have some conceptual overlap with NVC, although neither model references the other.[8]: 31–35  Little suggests The Gordon Model for Effective Relationships (1970) as a likely precursor to both NVC and interest-based negotiation, based on conceptual similarities, if not any direct evidence of a connection.[8]: 35–41  Like Rosenberg, Gordon had worked with Carl Rogers, so the models' similarities may reflect common influences.[8]: 35 

Suzanne Jones sees a substantive difference between active listening as originated by Gordon and empathic listening as recommended by Rosenberg, insofar as active listening involves a specific step of reflecting what a speaker said to let them know you are listening, whereas empathic listening involves an ongoing process of listening with both heart and mind and being fully present to the other's experience, with an aim of comprehending and empathizing with the needs of the other, the meaning of the experience for that person.[34]

Gert Danielsen and Havva Kök both note an overlap between the premises of NVC and those of Human Needs Theory (HNT), an academic model for understanding the sources of conflict and designing conflict resolution processes, with the idea that "Violence occurs when certain individuals or groups do not see any other way to meet their need, or when they need understanding, respect and consideration for their needs."[35][36][37]

Chapman Flack sees an overlap between what Rosenberg advocates and critical thinking, especially Bertrand Russell's formulation uniting kindness and clear thinking.[38]

Martha Lasley sees similarities with the Focused Conversation Method developed by the Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA), with NVC's observations, feelings, needs, and requests components relating to FCM's objective, reflective, interpretive, and decisional stages.[39][40]


NVC has been applied in organizational and business settings,[41][42] in parenting,[43][44][45] in education,[46][47][48][49] in mediation,[50] in psychotherapy,[51] in healthcare,[52] in addressing eating issues,[53] in justice,[54][55][56] and as a basis for a children's book,[57] among other contexts.

Rosenberg related ways he used Nonviolent Communication in peace programs in conflict zones including Rwanda, Burundi, Nigeria, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Serbia, Croatia, Ireland, and the Middle East including the occupied West Bank.[58]

Reportedly, one of the first acts of Satya Nadella when he became CEO of Microsoft in 2014 was to ask top company executives to read Rosenberg's book, Nonviolent Communication.[59]


Several researchers have attempted a thorough evaluation of criticisms and weaknesses of NVC and assessed significant challenges in its application.[18][60][61][62] These span a range of potential problems, from the practical to the theoretical, and include concerns gathered from study participants and researchers.

The difficulty of using NVC as well as the dangers of misuse are common concerns. In addition, Bitschnau[61] and Flack[38] find a paradoxical potential for violence in the use of NVC, occasioned by its unskilled use. Bitschnau further suggests that the use of NVC is unlikely to allow everyone to express their feelings and have their needs met in real life as this would require inordinate time, patience and discipline. Those who are skilled in the use of NVC may become prejudiced against those who are not and prefer to converse only among themselves.

Furthermore, the exclusivity of NVC appears to favor the well-educated, valuing those with more awareness of grammar, word choice, and syntax.[63] [better source needed] This could lead to problems of accessibility for the underprivileged and favoring a higher social class.[dubiousdiscuss]

Oboth suggests that people might hide their feelings in the process of empathy, subverting the nonviolence of communication.[62]

Though intended to strengthen relationships between loved ones, NVC may lead to the outcome of an ended relationship. We are finite creatures with finite resources, and understanding one another's needs through NVC may teach that the relationship causes too much strain to meet all needs.[64]

The massive investment of time and effort in learning to use NVC has been noted by a number of researchers.[18]

Chapman Flack, in reviewing a training video by Rosenberg, finds the presentation of key ideas "spell-binding" and the anecdotes "humbling and inspiring", notes the "beauty of his work", and his "adroitly doing fine attentive thinking" when interacting with his audience. Yet Flack wonders what to make of aspects of Rosenberg's presentation, such as his apparent "dim view of the place for thinking" and his building on Walter Wink's account of the origins of our way of thinking. To Flack, some elements of what Rosenberg says seem like pat answers at odds with the challenging and complex picture of human nature, history, literature, and art offer.[38]

Flack notes a distinction between the "strong sense" of Nonviolent Communication as a virtue that is possible with care and attention, and the "weak sense," a mimicry of this born of ego and haste. The strong sense offers a language to examine one's thinking and actions, support understanding, bring one's best to the community, and honor one's emotions. In the weak sense, one may take the language as rules and use these to score debating points, label others for political gain, or insist that others express themselves in this way. Though concerned that some of what Rosenberg says could lead to the weak sense, Flack sees evidence confirming that Rosenberg understands the strong sense in practice. Rosenberg's work with workshop attendees demonstrates "the real thing." Yet Flack warns that "the temptation of the weak sense will not be absent." As an antidote, Flack advises, "Be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from others," (also known as the robustness principle) and guard against the "metamorphosis of nonviolent communication into subtle violence done in its name."[38]

Ellen Gorsevski, assessing Rosenberg's book, Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion (1999) in the context of geopolitical rhetoric, states that "the relative strength of the individual is vastly overestimated while the key issue of structural violence is almost completely ignored."[65]

PuddleDancer Press reports that NVC has been endorsed by a variety of public figures.[66]

Sven Hartenstein has created a series of cartoons spoofing NVC.[67]

While a number of studies have indicated a high degree of effectiveness, there has been limited academic research into NVC in general.[18] From an evidence-based standpoint, it does not have the same standing as practices such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. Supporters of the theory have generally relied on clinical and anecdotal experience to support its efficacy. Critics generally assume the efficacy of the method on an individual level; most criticism consider issues of equity and consistency. In Internet blog posts, some have described its model as self-contradictory, viewing NVC as a potentially coercive (and thus “violent”) technique with significant potential for misuse.[68][61] The method requires a substantial amount of effort (time) to learn and apply, and assumes a certain level of education.[18]


The Center for Nonviolent Communication (CNVC), founded by Marshall Rosenberg, has trademarked the terms NVC, Nonviolent Communication and Compassionate Communication, among other terms, for clarity and branding purposes.[69]

CNVC certifies trainers who wish to teach NVC in a manner aligned with CNVC's understanding of the NVC process.[70] CNVC also offers trainings by certified trainers.[71]

Some trainings in Nonviolent Communication are offered by trainers sponsored by organizations considered as allied with, but having no formal relationship with, the Center for Nonviolent Communication founded by Marshall Rosenberg.[72][73] Some of these trainings are announced through CNVC.[74] Numerous NVC organizations have sprung up around the world, many with regional focuses.[75][76]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Rosenberg, Marshall (2003). Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Puddledancer Press. ISBN 1-892005-03-4.
  2. ^ "The Center for Collaborative Communication". Retrieved Nov 11, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Jane Branscomb (2011), Summation Evaluation of a Workshop in Collaborative Communication Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine, M.A. Thesis, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University.
  4. ^ Gates, Bob; Gear, Jane; Wray, Jane (2000). Behavioural Distress: Concepts & Strategies. Bailliere Tindall.
  5. ^ San Francisco workshop long versions by Marshall Rosenberg https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5uROBIvcELV7ecGfoLdnDtR5zskQik15 Retrieved 2021-12-27
  6. ^ Inbal Kashtan, Miki Kashtan, Key Assumptions and Intentions of NVC, BayNVC.org
  7. ^ Fullerton, Elaine (February 2009). The development of "Nonviolent Communication" in an early years setting to support conflict resolution and develop an emotional intelligence related to both self and others (PDF) (Report). Teacher Researcher Programme 2007/2008. General Teaching Council for Scotland. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved Sep 22, 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Little, Marion (2008) Total Honesty/Total Heart: Fostering empathy development and conflict resolution skills. A violence prevention strategy Archived 2014-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. MA Thesis, Dispute Resolution, Victoria, B.C., Canada: University of Victoria, 286.
  9. ^ "Learning to speak Giraffe - Nonviolent Communication in action". Seed of Peace. 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  10. ^ "Phases of the Moon, a newsletter from the Maine NVC Network". mainenvcnetwork.org. Retrieved 2023-01-23.
  11. ^ "Responding to Sexual Relations between NVC Trainers and Students/Clients". mainenvcnetwork.org. Retrieved 2023-01-23.
  12. ^ "What is Violent Communication?" (PDF). Heartland Community College. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  13. ^ Marshall didn't like the name Nonviolent Communication https://youtube.com/watch/MsnaIPzqPzw Retrieved 2021-12-27
  14. ^ a b c Rosenberg, Marshall B. (2005). Speak Peace in a World of Conflict: What You Say Next Will Change Your World. Puddledancer Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-892005-17-5.
  15. ^ 9 Needs we all have (Max-Neef) by Marshall Rosenberg https://youtube.com/watch/rSCIASL4k-c Retrieved 2021-12-27
  16. ^ "CNVC Needs Inventory" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-09-08. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  17. ^ Wentworth, Bob. "Roles of the Four Components of NVC". capitalnvc.net.
  18. ^ a b c d e Juncadella, Carme Mampel (October 2013). "What is the impact of the application of the Nonviolent Communication model on the development of empathy? Overvie" (PDF). MSC in Psychotherapy Studies. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  19. ^ "NVC Research". Center for Nonviolent Communication. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  20. ^ Nash, A.L. (2007) Case Study of Tekoa Institute: Illustration of Nonviolent Communication Training's Effect on Conflict Resolution Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. MS Sociology. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia: pp.40
  21. ^ "Note on the Origins of NVC". Northwest Compassionate Communication. Retrieved 22 Sep 2017.
  22. ^ Bowers, Richard; Moffett, Nelle (2012). Empathy in Conflict Intervention: The Key to Successful NVC Mediation. Harmony World Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4776-1460-0.
  23. ^ Connor, J. M.; Wentworth, R. (12–14 July 2012). Training in Collaborative Communication in an Organizational Context: Assessment of Impact. Psychologists for Social Responsibility 30th Anniversary Conference. Washington DC. Retrieved 21 Sep 2017.
  24. ^ Suarez, Alejandra; Dug Y. Lee; Christopher Rowe; Alex Anthony Gomez; Elise Murowchick; Patricia L. Linn (11 February 2014). "Freedom Project: Nonviolent Communication and Mindfulness Training in Prison". SAGE Open. 4 (2014 4): 10. doi:10.1177/2158244013516154.
  25. ^ a b Latini, Theresa (2009). "Nonviolent Communication: A Humanizing Ecclesial and Educational Practice" (PDF). Journal of Education & Christian Belief. 13 (1). Kuyer's Institute for Christian Teaching and Learning: 19–31. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/205699710901300104. S2CID 142887493. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  26. ^ Prieto, Jaime L. Jr. (2010). The Joy of Compassionate Connecting: The Way of Christ through Nonviolent Communication. CreateSpace. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-4515-1425-4.
  27. ^ Rohlfs, Allan (Nov 14, 2012). "Beyond anger and blame: How to achieve constructive conflict". The Christian Century. 129 (23). Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  28. ^ van Deusen Hunsinger, Deborah (October 2009). "Practicing Koinonia" (PDF). Theology Today. 66 (3): 346–367. doi:10.1177/004057360906600306. S2CID 220982415. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  29. ^ Latini, Theresa F. (May 2007). "Nonviolent Communication and the Image of God". Perspectives: A Journal of Reformed Thought. Retrieved Nov 8, 2011.
  30. ^ Shantigarbha (May 8, 2008). "NVC in the FWBO: Heart-to-Heart Communication". FWBO & TBMSG News.
  31. ^ Little, Jason (January 31, 2009). "Buddhism and Nonviolent Communication". Shambhala Times. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  32. ^ Lasater, Judith Hanson; Lasater, Ike K. (2009). What We Say Matters: Practicing Nonviolent Communication. Rodmell Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-930485-24-2.
  33. ^ a b "Spiritual Basis of Nonviolent Communication: A Question and Answer Session with Marshall B. Rosenberg, Ph.D". Center for Nonviolent Communication. Retrieved Dec 1, 2011.
  34. ^ Jones, Suzanne (2009) Traditional Education or Partnership Education: Which Educational Approach Might Best Prepare Students for the Future? Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine MA Thesis, Communication, San Diego, California. USA. San Diego University: 203.
  35. ^ Danielsen, Gert. "Meeting Human Needs, Preventing Violence: Applying Human Needs Theory to the Conflict in Sri Lanka" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  36. ^ Havva Kök, "Nonviolent Communication in Political Conflicts" Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine, USAK Yearbook of International Politics and Law, Volume 2, (2009). pp. 349–362
  37. ^ Burton, John 1990b. Conflict: Basic Human Needs. New York: St. Martins Press.
  38. ^ a b c d Flack, Chapman (September 2006). "The subtle violence of nonviolent language". CrossCurrents. 56 (3). ISSN 0011-1953. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  39. ^ Lasley, Martha (2005) Difficult Conversations: Authentic Communication Leads to Greater Understanding and Teamwork. Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal, Number 7
  40. ^ Stanfield, R. Brian, ed. (2000). The Art of Focused Conversation: 100 Ways to Access Group Wisdom in the Workplace (ICA series). New Society Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-86571-416-8.
  41. ^ Miyashiro, Marie R. (2011). The Empathy Factor: Your Competitive Advantage for Personal, Team, and Business Success. Puddledancer Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-892005-25-0.
  42. ^ Lasater, Ike; Julie Stiles (2010). Words That Work In Business: A Practical Guide to Effective Communication in the Workplace. Puddledancer Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-892005-01-4.
  43. ^ Hart, Sura; Victoria Kindle Hodson (2006). Respectful Parents, Respectful Kids: 7 Keys to Turn Family Conflict into Cooperation. Puddledancer Press. p. 208. ISBN 1-892005-22-0.
  44. ^ Kashtan, Inbal (2004). Parenting From Your Heart: Sharing the Gifts of Compassion, Connection, and Choice. Puddledancer Press. pp. 48. ISBN 1-892005-08-5.
  45. ^ Rosenberg, Marshall B. (2004). Raising Children Compassionately: Parenting the Nonviolent Communication Way. Puddledancer Press. p. 48. ISBN 1-892005-09-3.
  46. ^ Hart, Sura; Victoria Kindle Hodson (2008). The No-Fault Classroom: Tools to Resolve Conflict & Foster Relationship Intelligence. Puddledancer Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-892005-18-2.
  47. ^ Cadden, Catherine Ann (2009). Peaceable Revolution Through Education. Baba Tree. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-9825578-0-8.
  48. ^ Hart, Sura; Victoria Kindle Hodson (2004). The Compassionate Classroom: Relationship Based Teaching and Learning. Puddledancer Press. p. 208. ISBN 1-892005-06-9.
  49. ^ Rosenberg, Marshall B.; Riane Eisler (2003). Life-Enriching Education: Nonviolent Communication Helps Schools Improve Performance, Reduce Conflict, and Enhance Relationships. Puddledancer Press. p. 192. ISBN 1-892005-05-0.
  50. ^ Larsson, Liv (2011). A Helping Hand, Mediation with Nonviolent Communication. Friare Liv Konsult. p. 258. ISBN 978-91-976672-7-2.
  51. ^ "Open Hearted Therapy: A Year-long Program for Therapists". NVC Academy. Retrieved Nov 30, 2011.
  52. ^ Sears, Melanie (2010). Humanizing Health Care: Creating Cultures of Compassion With Nonviolent Communication. Puddledancer Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-892005-26-7.
  53. ^ Haskvitz, Sylvia (2005). Eat by Choice, Not by Habit: Practical Skills for Creating a Healthy Relationship with Your Body and Food. Puddledancer Press. pp. 128. ISBN 1-892005-20-4.
  54. ^ "Freedom Project Seattle". Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  55. ^ "Oregon Prison Project Teaches Empathy, A Key in Lowering Recidivism". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  56. ^ "BayNVC Restorative Justice Project". Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  57. ^ Allen, J.P.; Marci Winters (2011). Giraffe Juice: The Magic of Making Life Wonderful. www.GiraffeJuice.com. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-615-26393-9. Retrieved Sep 22, 2011.
  58. ^ Rosenberg, Marshall (2001). Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion. Encinitas, CA: Puddledancer Press. p. 212.
  59. ^ MacCracken, Harry (18 Sep 2017). "Satya Nadella Rewrites Microsoft's Code". Fast Company. Retrieved 25 Sep 2017.
  60. ^ Altmann, Tobias (2010). Evaluation der Gewaltfreien Kommunikation in Quer- und Längsschnittdaten (PDF) (Unpublished dissertation). University of Leipzig, Institut für Psychologie II. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  61. ^ a b c Bitschnau, Karoline (2008). Die Sprache der Giraffen. Wie die Gewaltfreie Kommunikation Ihr Leben verändern kann. Paderborn (Junfermann).
  62. ^ a b Oboth, Monika (2007). "Inspiration und Herausforderung". Spektrum der Mediation. 28: 9–11.
  63. ^ "The Protective Use of Force - The Natural Child Project". www.naturalchild.org. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  64. ^ Kashtan, Miki (2012-12-07). "Does Nonviolent Communication Work". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  65. ^ Gorsevski, Ellen (2004). Peaceful Persuasion: The Geopolitics of Nonviolent Rhetoric. State University of New York Press. pp. 166, 227–228. ISBN 9781423739432.
  66. ^ "Endorsements of Nonviolent Communication". PuddleDancer Press. Retrieved Nov 30, 2011.
  67. ^ Hartenstein, Sven. "ANVC (Almost Nonviolent Communication)". Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  68. ^ "Nonviolent Communication can be emotionally violent". Real Social Skills. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  69. ^ Guidelines for sharing NVC, cnvc.org
  70. ^ Certification, cnvc.org
  71. ^ Nonviolent Communication International Intensive Training, cnvc.org
  72. ^ "Organizations". nvcworld.com. NVC World. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  73. ^ Organization of the NVC Movement, capitalnvc.net
  74. ^ Training Schedule, cnvc.org
  75. ^ "International Organisations". nvcworld.com. 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
  76. ^ "Find nvc organizations". cnvc.org. 2011. Archived from the original on September 22, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]