Noogenesis

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Noogenesis (Ancient Greek: νοῦς=mind + γένεσις = origin, becoming) is the emergence and evolution of intelligence.[1]

Term origin[edit]

Noogenesis was first mentioned in the posthumously published in 1955 book The Phenomenon of Man by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, an anthropologist and philosopher, in a few places:

"With and within the crisis of reflection, the next term in the series manifests itself. Psychogenesis has led to man. Now it effaces itself, relieved or absorbed by another and a higher function—the engendering and subsequent development of the mind, in one word noogenesis. When for the first time in a living creature instinct perceived itself in its own mirror, the whole world took a pace forward."[2] "There is only one way in which our minds can integrate into a coherent picture of noogenesis these two essential properties of the autonomous centre of all centres, and that is to resume and complement our Principle of Emergence."[3] "The idea is that of noogenesis ascending irreversibly towards Omega through the strictly limited cycle of a geogenesis."[4] "To make room for thought in the world, I have needed to ' interiorise ' matter : to imagine an energetics of the mind; to conceive a noogenesis rising upstream against the flow of entropy ; to provide evolution with a direction, a line of advance and critical points..."[5] - "Omega point".

The lack of any kind of definition of the term has led to a variety of interpretations reflected in the book,[6][7][8] including "the contemporary period of evolution on Earth, signified by transformation of biosphere onto the sphere of intelligence - noosphere",[9] "evolution run by human mind"[10] etc. The most widespread interpretation is thought to be "the emergence of mind, which follows geogenesis, biogenesis and anthropogenesis, forming a new sphere on Earthnoosphere."

Recent developments[edit]

Modern understanding[edit]

Noogenesis: the evolution of the reaction rate .[11] In unicellular organism – the rate of movement of ions through the membrane 10 in -10 degrees m/s, water through the membrane 10 in -6 degree m/s, intracellular liquid (cytoplasm) 2∙10 in -5 degree m/s; Inside multicellular organism - the speed of blood through the vessels ~0.05 m/s, the momentum along the nerve fibers ~100 m/s; In population (humanity) – communications: sound (voice and audio) ~300 km/h, quantum-electron ~3∙10 in 8 degree m/s (the speed of radio-electromagnetic waves, electric current, light, optical, tele-communications).

"In 2005 Eryomin in the monograph[12] proposed new «concept of "noogenesis" in understanding the evolution of intellectual systems»,[13] "concepts of "intellectual systems", "information logistics", "information speed", "intellectual energy", "intellectual potential", - consolidated into a theory of the intellect.",[14] with «combines the biophysical parameters of intellectual energy – the amount of information, its acceleration (frequency, speed) and the distance it’s being sent – into a formula».[15] According the new concept - proposed "hypothesis continue prognostic progressive evolution of the species Homo sapiens",[16] «the analogy between the human brain with the enormous amount of neural cells firing at the same time and a similarly functioning human society».[17]

Iteration of the number of components in Intellectual systems.[12] A - number of neurons in the brain during individual development (ontogenesis), B - number of people (evolution of populations of humanity), C - number of neurons in the nervous systems of organisms during evolution (phylogenesis).
Emergence and evolution of info-interactions within populations of Humanity[12] A - world human population → 7 billion; B - number of literate persons; C – number of reading books (with beginning of printing); D - number of receivers (radio, TV); E - number of phones, computers, Internet users

"A new understanding of the term "noogenesis" as an evolution of the intellect was proposed by Alexey Eryomin. A hypothesis based on recapitulation theory links the evolution of the human brain to the development of human civilization. The parallel between the amount of people living on Earth and the amount of neurons becomes more and more obvious leading us to viewing global intelligence as an analogy for human brain. All of the people living on this planet have undoubtedly inherited the amazing cultural treasures of the past, be it production, social and intellectual ones. We are genetically hardwired to be a sort of "live RAM" of the global intellectual system. Alexey Eryomin suggests that humanity is moving towards a unified self-contained informational and intellectual system. His research has shown the probability of Super Intellect realizing itself as Global Intelligence on Earth. We could get closer to understanding the most profound patterns and laws of the Universe if these kinds of research were given enough attention. Also, the resemblance between the individual human development and such of the whole human race has to be explored further if we are to face some of the threats of the future».[18]

Therefore, generalizing and summarizing:

"Noogenesis - the expansion process in space and development in time (evolution) of intelligent systems (intelligent matter). Noogenesis represents a set of natural, interconnected, characterized by a certain temporal sequence of structural and functional transformations of the entire hierarchy and set of interacting among themselves on the basic structures and processes ranging from the formation and separation of the rational system to the present (the phylogenesis of the nervous systems of organisms; the evolution of humanity as autonomous intelligent systems) or death (in the course of ontogenesis of the human brain)".[19]

Interdisciplinary nature[edit]

The term "noogenesis" can be used in a variety of fields i.e. medicine,[20][21] biophysics,[22] semiotics,[23] mathematics,[24] information technology,[25] psychology etc. thus making it a truly cross-disciplinary one. In astrobiology noogenesis concerns the origin of intelligent life and more specifically technological civilizations capable of communicating with humans and or traveling to Earth.[26] The lack of evidence for the existence of such extraterrestrial life creates the Fermi paradox.

Aspects of emergence and evolution of mind[edit]

To the parameters of the phenomenon ""noo", "intellectus"[edit]

The emergence of the human mind is considered to be one of the five phenomena of emergent evolution.[27] To understand the mind, necessary to determine what the reasonable person's thinking differs from other thinking beings. Such differences include the ability to generate calculations, to combine dissimilar concepts, to use mental symbols, to think abstractly.[28] The knowledge of the phenomenon of intelligent systems - the emergence of reason (noogenesis) boils down to:

Several published works which do not employ the term "noogenesis", however, address some patterns in the emergence and functioning of the human intelligence: working memory capacity ≥ 7,[29] ability to predict, prognosis,[30] hierarchical (6 layers neurons) system of information analysis,[31] consciousness,[32] memory,[33] generated and consumed information properties[34] etc. They also set the limits of several physiological aspects of human intelligence.[35]

Aspects of evolution "sapiens"[edit]

Historical evolutionary development[36] and emergence of H.sapiens as species,[37] include emergence of such concepts as anthropogenesis, phylogenesis, morphogenesis, cephalization,[38] systemogenesis ,[39] cognition systems autonomy.[40]

On the other hand, development of an individual’s intellect deals with concepts of embryogenesis, ontogenesis,[41] morphogenesis, neurogenesis,[42] higher nervous function of I.P.Pavlov and his philosophy of mind.[43] Despite the fact that the morphofunctional maturity is usually reached by the age of 13, the definitive functioning of the brain structures is not complete until about 16–17 years of age.[44]

The future of intelligence[edit]

Bioinformatics, genetic engineering, noopharmacology, cognitive load, brain stimulation, the efficient use of altered states of consciousness, use of non-human cognition, information technology (IT), artificial intelligence (AI) are all believed to be effective methods of intelligence advancement.[18][45]

Issues and further research prospects[edit]

The development of the human brain, perception, cognition, memory and neuroplasticity are unsolved problems in neuroscience. Several megaprojects are being carried out in the American BRAIN Initiative and the European Human Brain Project in attempt to better our understanding of the brain's functionality along with the intention to develop human cognitive performance in the future with artificial intelligence, informational, communication and cognitive technology.[46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Noogenesis // Word Info about English Vocabulary
  2. ^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man. Harper Torchbooks, The Cloister Library, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1961, p. 181.
  3. ^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man. Harper Torchbooks, The Cloister Library, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1961, p. 270.
  4. ^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man. Harper Torchbooks, The Cloister Library, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1961, p. 273.
  5. ^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man. Harper Torchbooks, The Cloister Library, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1961, p. 290.
  6. ^ Glycerio, M. L. & Paulsen, J. B. (1999). Is Noogenesis Progressing? Richmond, VA. [1]
  7. ^ Steinhart E. Teilhard de Chardin and Transhumanism // Journal of Evolution and Technology — Vol. 20 Issue 1 -December 2008 — pgs 1-22 ISSN 1541-0099 [2]
  8. ^ Bailey Sherwin, Christianity and evolution // The Eugenics Review. 1960 October; 52(3): 168—169. [3]
  9. ^ Noogenesis // Environmental encyclopedic dictionary. — Chisinau: editorial of the Moldovan Soviet encyclopedia. — 1990. — 408 p. (ISBN 5-88550-006-1)
  10. ^ Yatsenko N. E. Explanatory dictionary of social science terms. - Lan. — 1999. — 528 p. (ISBN 5-8114-0167-1)
  11. ^ Eryomin A.L. The Laws of Evolution of the Mind // 7th International Teleconference on "Actual Problems of Modern Science". Tomsk, 2012. – P. 133-134.
  12. ^ a b c d Eryomin A.L. Noogenesis and Theory of Intellect. Krasnodar, 2005. — 356 p. (ISBN 5-7221-0671-2)
  13. ^ Dombrovskaya I.S.To the problem of psychological analysis of the cultural genesis of humor // Cultural-historical psychology. 2010. №3. P. 57-59.
  14. ^ Kononovich V.G. The basis of security - oriented information theory. Part 2. There are the informative fields in physical and informative world // Digital Tehnologies. – 2011 - № 9.
  15. ^ Mamedova M.D. The Concept of "Mind" in Chinese and Russian Linguistic Morld-images (on the material of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings). Dushanbe: Russian-Tajik (Slavonic) University, 2015. 245 pp.
  16. ^ Ovchinnikov B. C. Convergence of psychology and psychiatry on the basis of the theory of biological evolution // Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series: Psychology № 19 (278) / 2012. С.98-104.
  17. ^ Orehov B.D. Forecasting of the development of mankind with regard to factor of knowledge. Zhukovsky: MIM LINK, 2015. – 210 p.
  18. ^ a b Krivosheev S. World Mind // Itogy, 2005. - №26(472), P. 77-79.
  19. ^ Eryomin A.L. Noogenesis and Theory of Intellect. Krasnodar, 2005. — p.20, p.331.
  20. ^ Schneemann N. Light perception and noogenesis. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1983 Sep;33(5):183-8.
  21. ^ Vieira AB. Noogenesis of catatonia. For an outline of phenomenologic anthropology. Evol Psychiatr (Paris). 1972 Oct-Dec;37(4):675-92.
  22. ^ Eryomin A.L. Biophysical Fundamentals of the Evolution of the Humankind Mind // Biophysics. Vol. 48, No. 3. 2003. p.544. Translated from Biofizika - Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 3. 2003. P. 573.
  23. ^ Lozovskiy V. Towards the semiotics of noosphere [4] // International Journal «Information Theories & Applications» 2003. Vol.10, pp.29-36 ISSN 1313-0463
  24. ^ Abraham Ralph H. Mathematics and evolution [5]: A manifesto//World Futures: The Journal of Global Education 1987 Volume 23, Issue 4, pp. 237—261.
  25. ^ Hofkirchner W. How to Design the Infosphere: the Fourth Revolution, the Management of the Life Cycle of Information, and Information Ethics as a Macroethics [6]//Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 23 (2010), 1-2; S. 177—192.
  26. ^ Ćirković M.M. (2009). Fermi's paradox: The last challenge for copernicanism? Serbian Astronomical Journal 178:1-20 doi:10.2298/SAJ0978001C
  27. ^ Emergence. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2016.
  28. ^ Hauser M. The Origin of the Mind // Scientific American. - 2009. September. 301. - P. 44-51.
  29. ^ Read D.W. Working memory: A Cognitive Limit to Non-Human Primate Recursive Thinking Prior to Hominid Evolution // Evolutionary Psychology. 2008. — V.6.- P.676-714
  30. ^ Kaku M. The Future of the Mind. 2015. - 502 p.
  31. ^ Hawkins J., Blakeslee S. On Intelligence. NY: Times books, 2005. — 240 p.ISBN 0-8050-7456-2
  32. ^ Ramachandran V.S. The Emerging Mind, 2003 (ISBN 1-86197-303-9).
  33. ^ Kandel E. (2006). In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393329377.
  34. ^ Lyman P., Varian H.R. How Much Information? 2003 / Release of the University of California. Oct.27, 2003. — 112 pp.
  35. ^ Fox D. The limits of Intelligence. Scientific American. June No14, 2011.
  36. ^ Darwin, Ch. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. — 1st ed.. — London: John Murray, 1859.
  37. ^ Linnaeus Carl Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. Lugduni Batavorum [Leyden]: apud Theodorum Haak. 1735. Djvu-файл (2 Mb)
  38. ^ Dana J. D., Cephalization a Fundamental Principle in the Development of the System of Animal Life . American Journal of Science, 3d Ser., Vol. XII, New Haven, October, 1876, pp. 245—251.
  39. ^ Anokhin P. (1963), Systemogenesis as a General Regulator of Brain Development, Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 9, The Developing Brain, Amsterdam, Elsevier (pp.54-86).
  40. ^ Maturano, U. & Varela, F. Autopoiesis and cognition: the realization of the living. Springer, 1980. pp.141.
  41. ^ Haeckel E. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, 1866 [7]
  42. ^ Zhao C, Deng W, Gage FH. Mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis. Cell. 2008;132:645-660 PMID 18295581
  43. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1931) The Scientific Outlook, London: George Allen & Unwin.
  44. ^ Farber D. A. Ontogenesis of brain structures// Scientific bases of psychology (ed. by A. A. Smirnova, A. R. Luria, V. D. Nebylitsyn). Moscow:Pedagogika, 1978. P. 255-277.
  45. ^ Kurzweil R. How to Create a Mind. 2015. - 352 p. (ISBN 978-5-699-81143-4)
  46. ^ Seung S. Connectome. 2015. - 440 p. (ISBN 978-5-9963-1685-4)