Noopept (Russian: Ноопепт; GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is a peptide promoted and prescribed in Russia and neighbouring countries as a nootropic. The registered brand name Noopept (Ноопепт) is trademarked by the manufacturer JSC LEKKO Pharmaceuticals. The compound is patented in both the US and Russia with patent of Russian Federation number 2119496, US Patent number 5,439,930 issued 8/8/1995. It is sold as a dietary supplement in the US and as a medication in other countries.
Noopept is not a racetam (due to not having a 2-oxo-pyrrolidine skeleton), but is generally grouped together in the same category because it shares similar mechanisms of action with the racetam family, mainly modulation of the acetylcholine system, as well as modulation of AMPA receptors. When compared to traditional racetams, it has been found to be, according to studies, 1000 times more potent than the prototypical racetam drug, piracetam. Noopept is a prodrug for the endogenous peptide cycloprolylglycine.
^Gudasheva TA, Boyko SS, Ostrovskaya RU, Voronina TA, Akparov VK, Trofimov SS, Rozantsev GG, Skoldinov AP, Zherdev VP, Seredenin SB (1997). "The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo-L-prolylglycine". European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics22 (3): 245–52. doi:10.1007/BF03189814. PMID9358206.
^Ostrovskaia RU, Gudasheva TA, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB (2002). "[The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept]". Eksperimentalnaia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia (in Russian) 65 (5): 66–72. PMID12596521.