Noorbakhshia Islam is Sufi tradition (tariqa) and a school of Islamic jurisprudence that emphasizes Muslim unity. It is named after a 15th-century Iranian mystic Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani who belonged to the Kubrawiya Sufi order.
The most important sources of Noorbakhshi doctrines are included within three books: Al-Fiqh al-Ahwat and Kitab al-Aitiqadia, both written by Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, and Dawat-e-Sofia, written by Ameer Kabir Syed Ali Hamdani, a Sufi preacher.
In its country of origin, Iran, the order became outright Shi'a some decades after the Safavid dynasty made Twelver Shi'ism the religion of the state in 1501. The same partially occurred in Kashmir either during the lifetime of Shams ud-Din Iraqi, who died in 1527, or in the following decades, during the brief interlude of the Chak dynasty's reign. In Baltistan, the Sufia Nurbakhshiya still survive as a sect with doctrines of its own that combine elements of both Shi'ism and Sunni Sufi Islam.
Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani was the 15th-century Sufi master to whom researchers have paid less attention. Although Nurbakhsh had many scholar-disciples, including Assiri lahiji, none of his disciples made any serious effort to write Nurbakhsh's biography and to preserve his teachings. However, hundreds of thousands of his followers are still present in the most remote areas of Pakistan. They practise his teachings and are still the custodians of his works and teachings five centuries later.[better source needed]
Nurbakhshis believe that the practices are not an assemblage of his personal views but were originally conceived by him from Muhammad through the masters of the spiritual chain. They state that anyone who questions this connection is invited to travel on the long road through the history of mysticism and to compare it with that of Nurbakhsh's teachings.
Decline of Nurbakshi in Kashmir
The dominance of Sunni Islam in the power corridors of Kashmir, after the period of Nurbakshi influence, was restored by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat when he conquered Kashmir[when?]. Dughlat sent Fiqh al-Ahwat to a Sunni council for its analysis, which resulted in a condemnatory fatwa by the council to ensure Orthodox Sunni and Shi'a Islam and tried to limit Sufi influence.
Mir Danial Shaheed and other prominent figures were killed during the resulting clashes.[when?] The onslaught against the Nurbakshi led to bloodshed and the end of the once-popular Sunni Sufi order.
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