Nordic Resistance Movement

Page protected with pending changes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nordic Resistance Movement
FounderKlas Lund (SWE)
Haakon Forwald (NOR)
Esa Henrik Holappa (FIN)
LeaderFredrik Vejdeland[2] (SWE)
Tommy Olsen (NOR)[3]
Antti Niemi (FIN)
Jacob Vullum Andersen (DEN)
Ríkharður Leó Magnússon (ISL)
Foundation1997 (Sweden)
1998 (Norway)
2006 or 2007 (Finland)
2016 (Iceland)
2017 (Denmark)
NewspaperMusta Kivi, Kansallinen Vastarinta (FIN)
Nationellt Motstånd (SWE)
Hard Euroscepticism[7]
Esoteric Nazism
ONA Satanism[4]
Political positionFar-right[4]
AlliesAlliance - Alternative for Norway[13]
Atomwaffen Division[12]
Azov Battalion[14]
National Action
Russian Imperial Movement
Order of Nine Angles[4]
Third Way[14]
Golden Dawn

The Nordic Resistance Movement[Note 2] is a pan-Nordic[15][16] neo-Nazi[17][18][19] movement in the Nordic countries and a political party in Sweden. Besides Sweden, it is established in Norway, Denmark and Iceland, and formerly in Finland before it was banned in 2019. Terrorism expert Magnus Ranstorp has described the NRM as a terrorist organization due to their aim of abolishing democracy along with their paramilitary activities and weapons caches.[20] In 2022, some members of the United States Congress began calling for the organization to be added to the United States Department of State list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.[21][22][23]

Formation and structure[edit]

In December 1997, Klas Lund and some other former members of the White Aryan Resistance (Swedish: Vitt Ariskt Motstånd, also known as VAM) – a militant neo-Nazi network active from 1991 to 1993 – were released from prison after being convicted of robberies, bombings and killings, among other things.[24] They formed the Swedish Resistance Movement (Svenska Motståndsrörelsen or SMR) together with individuals working with the neo-Nazi magazine Folktribunen and members of Nationell Ungdom ("National Youth"), a neofascist and openly racist organisation known for the murder of the anarchist Björn Söderberg.[25][26][27][28][29]

In 2016, the Nordic Resistance Movement was formed, with separate affiliates in Sweden, Finland, and Norway; a Danish affiliate was later disbanded. The Nordic Resistance Movement advocates an immediate stop to what they call mass immigration to the Scandinavian countries, and repatriation of people that are not of Northern European or of closely related descent. It also advocates Nordic self-sufficiency and withdrawal from the European Union.[30]

On 28 February 2018, The Verge reported that Discord had shut down a number of neo-Nazi and alt-right servers, including that of the Nordic Resistance Movement, from their private chat platform, for abuse of their Terms of Service.[31]


Nordic Resistance Movement demonstration

The aim of Nordic Resistance Movement is to establish a Pan-Nordic neo-Nazi republic "consisting of the Nordic countries Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and possibly even the Baltic countries".[32]

The organization says its fight will require bloodshed.[33] The NMR has praised Adolf Hitler[34] and Corneliu Codreanu in their publications. Their main tactics are distributing leaflets and making public speeches in inner-city areas in support of neo-Nazism, denouncing immigration. They also publish the Nationellt Motstånd magazine.[35]


The Nordic Resistance Movement was founded by Klas Lund. In 2020, its leader was Simon Lindberg, and its political wing was managed by Pär Öberg [sv]. It is known for its opposition to non-white immigration to Sweden.[36] The NRM is considered a central actor in Sweden's white power movement.[37] In November 2003 the Swedish Security Service raided homes of leading members, among them Lund, who was later sentenced to prison for illegal possession of firearms.[38]

In May 2006, the Nordic Resistance Movement announced that the National Youth organisation and all its activities and members had been merged with the SRM.[39] In December 2013, armed NRM members attacked an anti-racist demonstration in Stockholm which resulted in riots and clashes. Many were arrested afterwards.[40] In the 2014 Swedish election, two members of the NRM were elected to Sweden Democrats seats in the municipal councils in Ludvika and Borlänge. In what has been described as a "coup"[41] their names were added to Sweden Democrats' ballots that were open for additions.[42][43] Late in 2015, the NRM was registered as a political party in Sweden, headed by the organization's spokesman, Pär Öberg.[44][45][46][47]

Three men with ties to Swedish NRM were sentenced to prison for respectively eight and a half years, five years, and one and a half years on 7 July 2017 for three bombings in Göteborg which took place in November 2016 and January 2017. One person received life-threatening injuries at the bombing of a refugee centre in Västra Frölunda.[5] They were convicted of two of the bombings.[6][48]The men were part of a group of Swedish and Finnish neo-Nazis who went to Russia to receive military training in firearms and explosives from the Russian Imperial Movement. Police also arrested a Russian man connected to the RIM and NRM and confiscated two weapon caches.[49][50]

On 30 September 2017, NRM staged a march with roughly 500 members taking part in Sweden's second largest city Göteborg, timed to coincide with the annual Göteborg Book Fair.[51] Fighting broke out between NRM and counterdemonstrators. Twenty-two NRM members including the organisation's leader Simon Lindberg were arrested on suspicion of violent public disorder, and one counter-demonstrator was arrested on suspicion of attacking a police officer.[52] Swedish Jews were outraged at the demonstration, which took place on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and was originally planned to pass near a synagogue. The march was re-routed and shortened following a court ruling.[citation needed]

On 19 April 2018, fireworks were thrown at the U.S. embassy in Stockholm during a protest against the bombing of Syria. One NRM man was arrested.[53] The same month a member was arrested for plotting to assassinate journalists. Police confiscated a shotgun from the man.[54] On 6 July 2018, members of the NRM assaulted two pro-Israel activists in Gotland.[55][56]

On 6 July 2022, during Almedalen Week, Ing-Marie Wieselgren died after being stabbed at Donners plats in Visby.[57][58] The arrested perpetrator was a 33-year-old man who had previously participated in events organized by the neo-Nazi Nordic Resistance Movement and had written for the neo-Nazi website Nordfront.[59][60]

In May 2022, the Swedish police arrested a man from Falköping for possessing firearms and powerful explosives. The police allege the man plotted mass shooting and bombing. According to Vice News the man possessed material by NRM, Iron March and Atomwaffen Division.[61]

Electoral results[edit]


Election year Votes % Seats +/− Government
2018 2,106 0.03 (#18)
0 / 349
New Extra-parliamentary
2022 847 0.01 (#23)
0 / 349
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary

European Parliament[edit]

Election # of overall votes % of overall votes Seats +/-
2019[62] 644 0.00 (#34)
0 / 20

Nordic Strength[edit]

Nordic Strength (Swedish: Nordisk Styrka) is an underground paramilitary group, formed in August 2019 by the most hard-line NRM members who reject the parliamentary oriented mass organization strategy of the Swedish group as an insufficiently radical approach. The group describes itself as a "fighting organization" ("kamporganisation") and maintains very strict physical standards for its members. The members of the group have been convicted of over 100 violent crimes and weapon offenses and use an old church in Västmanland as their headquarters. Virtually nothing else is known about the underground sect of the already secretive group.[63][64][65]


Pohjoismainen Vastarintaliike is the Finnish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement. It was founded by Esa Henrik Holappa, who would later abandon neo-Nazism and leave the group.[66][67][68] Its current leader is Antti Niemi.[69] Some of the group's activities include planting of propaganda posters and organizing demonstrations. Members also participate in hand-to-hand combat and shooting training arranged by the organization.[70] The group also advocates pan-Finno-Ugrism, or "Kindred-folk ideology" ("Heimoaate"), and unification with ethnically Finnic Estonia is part of the group's program.[32]

The organisation is responsible for multiple violent crimes, including attacking anti-racism and gay pride demonstrations and stabbing participants of a left-wing event.[71] According to an investigation by Yleisradio, two thirds of the members have a conviction for a violent crime.[72] The NRM is responsible for killing an antifascist activist in 2016 in Helsinki. The group also awarded the title of "activist of the year" to a member convicted of torturing a man to death and possessing illegal weapons.[73] The group assaults people they consider political enemies in their homes, a practice they dub "home visits".[74] In 2020, a campaign chairman was left critically injured after being beaten with a clawhammer in his home in Jämsä. A man connected to the group is charged with attempted murder along with another man.[75] The NRM also vandalized the Israeli embassy over 20 times and defaced synagogues, causing the Finnish ambassador to be called to the Israeli foreign ministry in Jerusalem twice.[76] On 5 December 2020, Finnish police arrested a NRM member for murdering a fellow member, this time in Riihimäki.[77][78] On 17 March 2021, Finnish police arrested another NRM member and confiscated several crates of explosives from his apartment.[79]

The NRM along with other nationalist organizations organizes an annual torch march demonstration in Helsinki in memory of the Finnish SS Battalion on the Finnish independence day, which ends at the Hietaniemi cemetery where members visit the tomb of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim and the monument to the Finnish SS Battalion.[80][81] The event has been protested by antifascists, which has led to counterdemonstrators being violently assaulted by the NRM members who act as security. The demonstration attracts close to 3000 participants according to the estimates of the police and hundreds of officers patrol Helsinki to prevent violent clashes.[82][83][74][84] The march has been attended and promoted by the Finns Party, and condemned by left-wing parties, for example Green League MP Iiris Suomela characterized it as "obviously neo-nazi" and expressed her disappointment in it being attended by such a large number of people.[85] The event also attracts neo-nazis from abroad and has been attended by the NRM's foreign allies like Junge Nationalisten, who praised the event and compared it to the Battle of Helsinki, "when Germans and Finns marched side by side and liberated the city from the communists".[86]

In addition to violent crimes, the NRM is closely connected to the proscribed terrorist organization National Action. A Finnish corporal who had served in Afghanistan and was a member of both the NRM and National Action was convicted of terror offenses and membership in the proscribed organization while living in Llansilin. The leader of National Action, Benjamin Raymond, also visited the NRM in Finland and held speeches and was pictured posing with an assault rifle. The NRM also closely cooperates with the neo-Nazi military formation Azov Battalion: Olena Semenyaka, spokeswoman of the paramilitary battalion, mentioned a "foreign legion in Ukraine that international volunteers could join, as well as military training camps at the Azov camp in eastern Ukraine." In 2019, an NRM delegation visited an Azov camp in Kyiv.[14][87][88][89][90] Dozens of the Finns are also part of the Iron March terror network, famous for spawning the Atomwaffen Division.[91] The group distributes the magazine Musta Kivi advocating Esoteric Hitlerism and the Order of Nine Angles and sells books by Savitri Devi and ONA adept Kerry Bolton of the Black Order.[11] It also promotes and sells Siege by James Mason that exhorts accelerationism and terrorism.[12][10] Representatives of the NRM visited James Mason in the United States in 2019 with a touring NRM-affiliated Finnish neo-Nazi music collective, "Bolt of Ukko" (Ukonvasama).[92]

Even though the Finnish NRM rejects parliamentarism unlike the Swedish branch, there have been numerous cases where members of the Finns Party have attracted criticism from the other parties and antifascists for attending events organized by or with the NRM. Several members of the Finns Party took part in an event where the participants shot and threw knives at targets, using photos of members of the Rinne Cabinet and attended an event commemorating Eugen Schauman, who assassinated Nikolay Bobrikov.[93][94] Finns Party Youth members and leaders also attend "Etnofutur" ethnonationalist conferences in Estonia organized by the Blue Awakening together with the NRM. The founder of Blue Awakening and current MP for EKRE Ruuben Kaalep has been described as a neo-nazi and connected to the local proscribed terror group and Atomwaffen affiliate Feuerkrieg Division.[95][96][97][98][99]

On 30 November 2017, the Pirkanmaa District Court banned the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland for having "flagrantly violated the principles of good practice".[100] The ban was appealed and a request by the police for a temporary ban was turned down.[101] In September 2018, the Court of appeal in Turku upheld the ban.[102][103] In March 2019, the Supreme Court placed a temporary ban on the group.[104] On 22 September 2020, the Supreme Court upheld the ban.[105] The Supreme Court noted in its ruling that "The use of violence linked to the organization's activities has to be considered a part of the organization's operations...The operating methods that were considered unlawful represented a substantial part of the organization's operations, and [the organization] only engaged in a limited amount of other types of activities".[106]

The National Bureau of Investigation suspects the Nordic Resistance Movement to be continuing its operations under the names Kohti Vapautta!, Atomwaffen Division Finland and Suomalaisapu.[107] In its annual threat assessment for 2020, the bureau found that despite the ban, the threat of far-right terrorism had risen and identified 400 persons of interest "motivated and with the capacity to perform terrorism in Finland". International links and funding networks were pointed out as a special source of concern.[108] According to the University of Oslo Center for Research on Extremism:

Some NRM activists have reasoned that only radical measures will be effective post-ban, thus coming to support e.g. the accelerationist model of activity. Certain members of the group have also appeared as contributors to publications that promote esoteric forms of neo-Nazism. A corresponding shift towards a more “cultic” direction has also been observed in the United Kingdom after the banning of the National Action (NA).[10]


Nordiske Motstandsbevegelsen is the Norwegian chapter of the Nordic Resistance Movement, founded by Haakon Forwald, former member of Dissection and Misanthropic Luciferian Order.[109][110][111] The leader of the Norwegian branch is Tommy Olsen.[16] They are organized in four subchapters (or nests) in Norway.[112] In 2014, Norwegian police confiscated illegal submachine guns and automatic rifles from a member.[113] In 2019, another member was arrested after hijacking an ambulance, trying to ram a police car and driving into a crowd. Inside the ambulance the police discovered a shotgun and Uzi submachine gun.[114] Norwegian-Russian neo-Nazi Yan Petrovsky was active in NRM and was arrested at the home of a leading Norwegian NRM member Ronny Bårdsen and subsequently deported back to Russia as a threat to national security. Petrovsky was previously trained by RIM and was a founding member and second-in-command of the Rusich Group.[115][116][117][118][119]


There have been newspaper articles since 2016 on ties of the movement to Iceland,[120][121][122] and it has a website with an Icelandic Internet domain.

In September 2019, between 10 and 15 Swedish members of the Nordic Resistance Movement staged an event at Lækjartorg in Reykjavík where they spread flyers and promoted the organisation.[123] The event sparked an anti-Nazi demonstration a few days later which drew an estimated 200 participants.[124]


Nordiske Modstandsbevægelse is the Danish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement and it is led by Jacob Vullum Andersen. In 2019, on the anniversary of the Kristallnacht a Jewish graveyard was vandalized by Danish NRM members in the town of Randers.[125] In 2021, a Jewish graveyard was vandalized on the Passover in the city of Aalborg. Benny Dagan, Israeli ambassador to Denmark, responded that Nazi Nordfront had to be outlawed.[126]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Originally banned in November 2017, but only took effect in March 2019 after Hovrätt upheld the decision, as per Finnish law
  2. ^ NRM; Swedish: Nordiska motståndsrörelsen, NMR; Norwegian: Bokmål: Nordiske motstandsbevegelsen, NMB; Nynorsk: Nordiske motstandsrørsla NMR; Finnish: Pohjoismainen Vastarintaliike, PVL; Icelandic: Norræna mótstöðuhreyfingin, NMH; Danish: Den nordiske modstandsbevægelse, NMB



  1. ^ Holmqvist, Simon (6 June 2017). "Nationaldagsreflektion: Vilken fana ska vi samlas under?". (in Swedish). Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Det sjunkande skeppet NMR får ny kapten".
  3. ^ Kenes, Bulent (28 April 2021). "NMR: A Nordic neo-Nazi organization with aims of establishing totalitarian rule across Scandinavia". European Center for Populism Studies. Retrieved 29 September 2022. Tommy Olsen assumed leadership after Forwald left to join Klas Lund's Nordic Strength in 2019...Led by Ríkharður Leó Magnússon, NMR Iceland held its first demonstration in Reykjavik in September 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d Upchurch, H. E. (22 December 2021). Cruickshank, Paul; Hummel, Kristina (eds.). "The Iron March Forum and the Evolution of the "Skull Mask" Neo-Fascist Network" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. 14 (10). West Point, New York: Combating Terrorism Center: 27–37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2022. Finally, the Nordic Resistance Movement also has a long history with O9A that predates its ties to Iron March. Haakon Forwald, head of the Norwegian branch from 2010 to 2019, was a devotee of a Scandinavian O9A current variously known as the Misanthropic Luciferian Order, the Temple of Black Light, and Current 218. The magazine of the Finnish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement featured articles on O9A spiritual practices and on the work of Kerry Bolton of the Black Order
  5. ^ a b "Nazister döms till fängelse för bombdåden i Göteborg". (in Swedish). Gothenburg: Aftonbladet. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Nazister vill frikännas efter bombdomarna". (in Swedish). Gothenburg: Göteborgs-Posten. 28 July 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  7. ^ "How the expansion of the European Union has facilitated the rise of the New Right in Austria and the United Kingdom". The Sydney Tory. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Neo-Nazi organization to march in Fredrikstad - Norway Today". 30 April 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  9. ^ Nyheter, S. V. T. (7 July 2009). "Extremister hot mot individer". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Västernorrland County: Sveriges Television. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  10. ^ a b c "The case against the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland: an overview and some explanations". University of Oslo Center for Research on Extremism. Retrieved 2 November 2020. It is notable however, that some NRM activists have reasoned that only radical measures will be effective post-ban, thus coming to support e.g. the accelerationist model of activity. Certain members of the group have also appeared as contributors to publications that promote esoteric forms of neo-Nazism. A corresponding shift towards a more "cultic" direction has also been observed in the United Kingdom after the banning of the National Action (NA).
  11. ^ a b "The Iron March Forum and the Evolution of the "Skull Mask" Neo-Fascist Network". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 22 December 2021. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021. Finally, the Nordic Resistance Movement also has a long history with O9A that predates its ties to Iron March. Haakon Forwald, head of the Norwegian branch from 2010 to 2019, was a devotee of a Scandinavian O9A current variously known as the Misanthropic Luciferian Order, the Temple of Black Light, and Current 218. The magazine of the Finnish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement featured articles on O9A spiritual practices and on the work of Kerry Bolton of the Black Order.
  12. ^ a b c "Dangerous Organizations and Bad Actors: Nordic Resistance Movement". Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. 19 November 2022. Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM) is a neofascist and accelerationist organization with a strong propensity for violence...NRM is a neofascist organization with a propensity towards accelerationist tactics. While upholding traditional facets of neofascism, including the goal of establishing a white Nordic ethnostate, NRM's history also points to widespread support for other openly accelerationist organizations and simultaneous endorsements from explicitly accelerationist organizations and networks like the Iron March forum...NRM publicly supports a number of openly militant accelerationist organizations, including Atomwaffen Division (AWD) and Russian Imperial Movement (RIM).
  13. ^ "Alliansen – alternativ for Norge". Antirasistisk Senter (in Norwegian). Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  14. ^ a b c Potter, Nicholas (6 January 2021) "The Pan-European "Ikea Fascism" of Nordiska Motståndsrörelsen" Archived 13 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine Belltower.News "Internationally, the Nordic Resistance Movement is extremely well connected: According to the broadcaster Yle, between 2011 and 2017, around 20 members of the movement were users of the international neo-Nazi forum Iron March. Here, the NMR came into contact with neo-Nazi parties such as Chrysi Avgi (Golden Dawn) in Greece and Casa Pound in Italy, but also with far-right terrorist groups such as the now-banned National Action in the United Kingdom.> In 2015, members of National Action visited the Finnish chapter of NMR. In a blog entry on the British terror group’s website, which has since been taken offline, the head of National Action, Benjamin Raymond, describes a lengthy stay in Finland: He stayed in one of the movement’s shared apartments, gave a speech at Koti, which since 2012 has been the headquarters of the Finnish NMR in the city of Turku, and took part in the group’s hikes. In a photo in Helsinki with members of the NMR, Raymond can be seen posing with an assault rifle. He praises the organisation, discipline and “community feel” of the Swedish and Finnish NMR chapters, as well as mentioning other international comrades from Greece who had also travelled to Finland. The British-Finnish Mikko Vehvilainen, formerly a sergeant in the British Army, has also served as an important link between the two groups: He was a member of National Action and the Finnish NMR before being sentenced to eight years in prison in 2018 for his membership in National Action. The NMR also has links to the Ukrainian Azov Regiment: the far-right podcast “FashCast” published an interview between a member of the Finnish NMR and Olena Semenyaka, the so-called “First Lady” and spokeswoman of the far-right paramilitary volunteer battalion in Ukraine. In the interview, Semenyaka mentions a “foreign legion” in Ukraine that international volunteers could join, as well as military training camps at the Azov camp in eastern Ukraine. A delegation of the Finnish NMR visited the Azov Regiment in Kyiv in 2019...In Germany, the neo-Nazi party Der III. Weg (The Third Way) is an important partner for the NMR. Members of the NMR have visited their far-right friends in Germany several times: At a demo of Der III. Weg in the Berlin district of Hohenschönhausen on October 3, 2020, Fredrik Vejdeland, a leading figure of the Swedish chapter, gave a speech in German. In Würzburg in 2017, NMR leader Simon Lindberg spoke at one of the party’s demonstrations."
  15. ^ Askanius, Tina (29 April 2021). "Women in the Nordic Resistance Movement and their online media practices: between internalised misogyny and "embedded feminism"". Feminist Media Studies. 22 (7): 1763–1780. doi:10.1080/14680777.2021.1916772. ISSN 1468-0777. ...the Nordic Resistance Movement—a pan-Nordic organisation with chapters in Finland, Denmark, Norway and Iceland.
  16. ^ a b Fontaine, Andie Sophia (4 August 2016). "Swedish Neo-Nazis Come To Iceland, Seeking Recruits". The Reykjavík Grapevine. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2021. ...the NRM, which seeks to form a pan-Nordic state...
  17. ^ Askanius, Tina (1 February 2021). "On Frogs, Monkeys, and Execution Memes: Exploring the Humor-Hate Nexus at the Intersection of Neo-Nazi and Alt-Right Movements in Sweden". Television & New Media. 22 (2): 147–165. doi:10.1177/1527476420982234. ISSN 1527-4764. ...the neo-Nazi organization the Nordic Resistance Movement in Sweden...
  18. ^ "Finnish court bans neo-Nazi group". Reuters. 30 November 2017. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2021. A Finnish court banned neo-Nazi group the Nordic Resistance Movement (PVL) on Thursday...
  19. ^ Harkov, Lahav; Joffre, Tzvi (5 October 2020). "Sweden may ban 'racist organizations' after neo-Nazi Yom Kippur campaign". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 15 May 2021. The Nordic Resistance Movement, a neo-Nazi group, targeted Jews in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland with antisemitic harassment during the week before Yom Kippur.
  20. ^ Ankersen, Dag (4 May 2017). "Terrorforskare: "NMR definitivt en terrorgrupp"" [Terrorist researcher: "NMR definitely a terrorist group"]. ETC (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Biden administration pressed by lawmaker to label white supremacists overseas as terrorists". Reuters. 9 March 2022.
  22. ^ "Neo-Nazis Must Go On Terror Blacklist, House Democrats Demand". The Forward. 9 March 2022.
  23. ^ Solberg, Trine (19 October 2019). "Amerikanske demokrater vil ha Den nordiske motstandsbevegelsen på terrorliste" [American Democrats want the Nordic Resistance Movement on the terrorist list]. Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  24. ^ "Gun-Britts son blev offer för nazistvåldet" (in Swedish). Expressen. 21 December 2013.
  25. ^ Aschberg, Richard & Wallin, Ulf (11 February 2000). "Omfattande bevis mot nazisterna". (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  26. ^ "Fakta Sv. Motståndsrörelsen/Nationell Ungdom" (in Swedish). Expo. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007.
  27. ^ "From White Aryan Resistance to Nordic Resistance Movement"
  28. ^ "Registrerade partibeteckningar". Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Nazisters vapengömma sprängd". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 11 March 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Information in English". Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  31. ^ Liao, Shannon (28 February 2018) "Discord shuts down more neo-Nazi, alt-right servers" The Verge
  32. ^ a b "Nordiska motståndsrörelsen delade ut 500 000 flygblad". Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  33. ^ "Exklusiv intervju med första avhopparen från nazistgruppen Svenska motståndsrörelsen" (in Swedish). Adaktusson's blogg. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009.
  34. ^ Lund, Klas (6 February 2009). "Ödets budbärare" [The messenger of fate]. (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2 March 2012.
  35. ^ Svenska motståndsrörelsen (29 December 2017). "Nationellt motstånd: trohet, ära, styrka". Nationellt Motstånd: Trohet, ära, Styrka. OCLC 185269901.
  36. ^ "Adaktusson fortsätter granskningen av nazisterna i Svenska motståndsrörelsen" (in Swedish). TV8. Archived from the original on 28 September 2009.
  37. ^ "Politiskt extremism - Grupper inom vit makt-miljön" (in Swedish). Swedish Security Service. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010.
  38. ^ Stefan Lisinski; Lasse Wierup (25 November 2003). "Nazistledare gripen för vapenbrott" (in Swedish). DN.
  39. ^ "Fakta Sv. Motståndsrörelsen / Nationell Ungdom". (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  40. ^ "Neo-Nazi clashes in Sweden: One year on". The Local Sweden. 12 December 2014.
  41. ^ TT. "Kupp ger nazister SD-mandat". (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  42. ^ "Nazist kuppar in sig på SD-mandat i Ludvika". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  43. ^ "Nazist tar plats i Borlänges kommunfullmäktige". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  44. ^ "Indeed, since 2015 the NRM has been a registered political party in Sweden.
  45. ^ Archived 3 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine "The Nazi party, the Nordic Resistance Movement; NRM, will take part in the municipal elections in Kungälv next autumn"
  46. ^ "For a few years, the Nordic Resistance Movement has been a political party, and holds seats in both Ludvika and Borlänge Municipal Councils"
  47. ^ "The Nazi and Antisemitic party 'The Nordic Resistance Movement; NRM' will for the first time take part in the Politicians' Week in Almedalen, reports Gotlands Allehanda".
  48. ^ "Nazisterna frikänns från ett av bombdåden i Göteborg". (in Swedish). 22 September 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  49. ^ ""За Рассею пострадать хочу". Почему в Швеции судят националиста из СССР". BBC News. 7 April 2020.
  50. ^ "United States Designates Russian Imperial Movement and Leaders as Global Terrorists". US Department of State. 7 April 2020.
  51. ^ "Sweden's literati wrestle with the far right", Politico Europe, 29 September 2017, accessed 1 October 2017.
  52. ^ "NMR-ledaren Simon Lindberg anhållen efter nazimarschen", Aftonbladet, 1 October 2017, accessed 1 October 2017.
  53. ^ "Fireworks thrown at Stockholm US embassy during neo-Nazi protest". The Local Sweden. 19 April 2018.
  54. ^ "Swedish Nazi arrested for planned murder of journalists". The Local Sweden. The Local. 11 August 2018.
  55. ^ "Neo-Nazis assault two pro-Israel activists in Sweden". Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  56. ^ Nazi threat stalks bucolic swedish political fest,, 8 July 2018. Accessed 15 August 2018.
  57. ^ Nilsson, Erik (6 July 2022). "Ing-Marie Wieselgren, 64, knivdödades i Visby". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). ISSN 1101-2412. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  58. ^ Ericson, Adrian (6 July 2022). "Ing-Marie Wieselgren, 64, knivmördades i Visby" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  59. ^ Svensson, Olof (6 July 2022). "Uppgifter: 33-årig nazist gripen för knivdådet i Almedalen". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  60. ^ Wikén, Johan (9 July 2022). "32-åringen bodde i tält innan dådet – hade koll på offrets schema". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  61. ^ "Swedish Police Say They Thwarted Neo-Nazi Bombing and Mass Murder Plot". Vice News. 22 July 2022.
  62. ^ "Röster - Val 2019". (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  63. ^ "Nya nazistgruppens innersta krets – fälld för över 100 brott". 15 October 2020.
  64. ^ "Här är nazisternas nya högkvarter - ett tidigare församlingshus". 15 October 2020.
  65. ^ "NMR splittras – Klas Lund bildar ny nazistgrupp". Arbetaren. 15 October 2020.
  66. ^ Hate Speech International - "A neo-Nazi leader no more"
  67. ^ NRK - "I embraced Hitler's thoughts"
  68. ^ Expo - "He was the leader of the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland - Now he speaks up"
  69. ^ Varisverkosto - "Repentant leader, manslaughter, and Nazi march - Year 2016 for Finland's Nordic Resistance Movement"
  70. ^ "Extreme right radicals seeking more visible presence in Finland". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  71. ^ "Researcher: Jyväskylä knife attack no surprise". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  72. ^ "Ylen selvitys paljastaa: Jopa kahdella kolmesta natsijärjestö PVL:n ja Soldiers of Odinin näkyvimmistä suomalaisjäsenistä on rikostaustaa". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  73. ^ "Polisen missade att identifiera den dömde mördaren på bild". Expressen. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  74. ^ a b "Näin toimii Suomen Vastarintaliike". Yle. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  75. ^ "Analyysi: Oikeus selätti PVL-natsit ja asetti rajat sananvapauden väärinkäytölle". Yle. 22 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  76. ^ "Israelin suurlähetystö joutui äärioikeiston ilkivallan uhriksi – Suurlähettiläs: Suomi oli viimeinen maa, jossa uskoin tällaista tapahtuvan". Iltasanomat. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  77. ^ "PVL:ään kuulunutta uusnatsia epäillään murhasta Riihimäellä". Iltalehti. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  78. ^ "Riihimäen murha: Syytetyn mielentila tutkitaan". Iltalehti. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  79. ^ "KRP:llä suuri mystinen operaatio Oulussa – Kaleva: tapaukseen liittyy Jyväskylän kirjastopuukotuksesta tuomittu uusnatsi". Iltalehti. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  80. ^ "Neo-Nazis marching on the streets in European cities despite EU bans". Brussels Times. 28 March 2023. Helsinki, Finland, 'Towards Freedom' and '612 for freedom' march' in memory of the Finnish SS-battalion which fought with Nazi Germany
  81. ^ "On Europe's Streets:Annual Marches Glorifying Nazism" (PDF). B'nai B'rith, Amadeu Antonio Foundation, Federal Foreign Office. 25 March 2023. The 612-march is a torchlight procession from central Helsinki to the Hietaniemi war cemetery, where members visit the tomb of World War II-era President Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim and the monument to the Finnish SS-Battalion. There are speeches at both the assembly point and at the cemetery, eulogizing the Battle for Helsinki, depicted by speakers as the occasion "when Germans and Finns marched side by side and liberated the city from the communists."
  82. ^ "Äärioikeistolaisten hihamerkit ja anarkistiliput vilahtelivat Helsingissä, kun tuhannet marssivat itsenäisyyspäivän mielenosoituksissa – Poliisi otti kiinni 13 ihmistä". Helsingin Sanomat. 7 October 2020.
  83. ^ "Pohjoismainen vastarintaliike joukkonujakassa itsenäisyyspäivänä - uusnatsit naureskelivat väkivallalle: "Hauskaa!"". Iltasanomat. 7 October 2020.
  84. ^ "Kirjailija Timo Hännikäinen järjesti marssin uusnatsien kanssa". Kansan Uutiset. 7 October 2020.
  85. ^ Suomela, Iiris (7 October 2020). "612-kulkue perustettiin äärioikeiston marssiksi. Jos se ei riitä syyksi vastustaa kulkuetta, niin mikä sitten?".
  86. ^ "ELÄKÖÖN SUOMI! – HURRA FINNLAND!". Junge Nationalisten. 9 October 2020.
  87. ^ "British soldier recruited for far-right group while in army". The Guardian. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  88. ^ "Britannian armeijassa palvellut suomalainen Mikko Vehviläinen sai 8 vuotta vankeutta - valmisteli "rotusotaa"". Iltalehti. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  89. ^ "Neo-Nazi's Hitler Obsession: National Action founder pictured holding assault rifle". The Express. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  90. ^ "Vastarintaliike!". National Action. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  91. ^ "Vuodetut viestit paljastavat: Natsijärjestö PVL yritti kosiskella isoa yleisöä ja käänsi samalla selän kaikista radikaaleimmille seuraajilleen" [The leaked messages reveal: The Nazi organization PVL tried to woo a large audience and at the same time turned its back on its most radical followers] (in Finnish). Finnish Broadcasting Company. 22 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  92. ^ "Uusnatsiryhmä Ukonvasama järjestää natsitapahtuman Aurassa viikonloppuna". Varisverkosto. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  93. ^ "Saat mitä tilaat - perussuomalaiset ovat flirttailleet äärioikeiston suuntaan jo vuosia ja nyt se on ongelma". Iltalehti. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  94. ^ "Mitä "kesäleirillä" oikein tapahtui? Perussuomalaiset selvittää, miksi heidän jäsenensä kilpailivat äärioikeistolaisten kanssa". Iltalehti. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  95. ^ Roger Suso (31 December 2022). "COM UN NEN DE TRETZE ANYS HA POGUT DIRIGIR DES D'ESTÒNIA UNA ORGANITZACIÓ INTERNACIONAL NEONAZI?". ca:Directa. According to the Eesti Ekspress newspaper, Commander had a contact with the deputy of the Conservative People's Party of Estonia (EKRE) and head of the youth section of the formation Ruuben Kaalep.
  96. ^ "EKRE MP Ruuben Kaalep has long history of neo-Nazi activity". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. 10 July 2019. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  97. ^ Silver, Tambur (10 August 2020). "A global neo-Nazi organisation led by a 13-year-old Estonian schoolboy". Estonian World. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  98. ^ "Grupuotė, kurios narys planavo išpuolį Lietuvoje: įtraukti siekiama net ir vaikus (The group whose member planned the attack in Lithuania: even children are sought in involvement)". Delfi (web portal). 26 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  99. ^ "Radikaalit pääsivät niskan päälle perussuomalaisten nuorisojärjestössä – suljetulla keskustelupalstalla julistetaan rotuoppia ja haukutaan Halla-ahoa". Helsingin Sanomat. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  100. ^ "Finnish court bans Neo-Nazi movement". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 30 November 2017. A court in Tampere has prohibited the Nordic Resistance Movement, a group linked with violent racist activities in Finland.
  101. ^ "Court blocks police move to temporarily ban neo-Nazi group". Finnish Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  102. ^ "Åbo hovrätt upplöser Nordiska motståndsrörelsen i Finland - "Jätteviktig milstolpe" säger professor" [Court of Appeal in Turku Dissolves the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland - "Very important milestone" says Professor]. Finnish Broadcasting Company (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  103. ^ Svartström, Anna. "NMR kan demonstrera synligt på självständighetsdagen också i år – överklagar beslut om förbud" [The NRM can demonstrate in public on Independence Day also this year - appeals ban verdict]. (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  104. ^ "Supreme Court bans neo-Nazi group's activities". Finnish Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Korkein oikeus: Väkivaltainen uusnatsijärjestö PVL ei nauti sananvapauden suojaa, joten se on lakkautettava". Finnish Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  106. ^ "Neo-Nazi Nordic Resistance Movement targets Jews on Yom Kippur". Jerusalem Post. 1 October 2020.
  107. ^ "Krp epäilee: Uusnatsijärjestö jatkaa toimintaansa korkeimman oikeuden kiellosta huolimatta". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 29 May 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  108. ^ "Supo: Äärioikeistolaisen terrorismin uhka kohonnut – Kannattajia tunnistettu myös Suomessa". Uusi Suomi. 29 October 2020.
  109. ^ Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Dissection bassist Haakon Forwald leaves the band"
  110. ^ "Røykenbøringen Haakon Forwald først i nazidemonstrasjon i Sverige". 1 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  111. ^ "VG+". Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  112. ^ Hansen, Ståle (27 February 2017). "Nå marsjerer de i gatene igjen". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  113. ^ "Norjan poliisi takavarikoi sarjatuliaseita äärioikeistolaisilta". Iltasanomat. 13 December 2014.
  114. ^ Orange, Richard (22 October 2019). "Two arrested in Oslo after hijacked ambulance was driven at crowds". The Telegram. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  115. ^ ""Ei ole mahdollista" – Moskovassa yllätyttiin Wagneriin kytkeytyneen johtajan kiinniotosta Suomessa". Helsingin Sanomat. 15 December 2023. Jan Petrovski (nyk. Voislav Torden) on ollut mukana Soldiers of Odinin ja Pohjoismaisen vastarintaliikkeen toiminnassa.
  116. ^ Rondeaux, Candace; Deer, Jonathan; Dalton, Ben (26 January 2022). "Neo-Nazi Russian Attack Unit Hints It's Going Back Into Ukraine Undercover". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023.
  117. ^ Gigstad, Knut (Autumn 2021). Foreign neo-Nazi fighters who went to fight in Ukraine (PDF) (Master's thesis in investigative journalism) (in Norwegian). Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Bergen. UJOU350. Several of the people who were involved are relatively well-known figures within neo-Nazi circles, such as Ronny Bårdsen, one of the leading figures in the Nordic Resistance (via Google Translate)
  118. ^ Harald S. Klungtveit (8 April 2023). ""Brenn din lokale moské": Kjent nynazist selger jødehets og muslimhat i egen nettbutikk". Filter Nyheter.
  119. ^ "Enemy of the State or its founding element?". 26 August 2023.
  120. ^ "Nordic neo-nazis set their sights on Iceland". 2 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018.
  121. ^ Fontaine, Andie Sophia (4 August 2016). "Swedish Neo-Nazis Come To Iceland, Seeking Recruits". The Reykjavik Grapevine.
  122. ^ Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM). Counter Extremism Project (Report). Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  123. ^ "Nýnasistar koma saman á Lækjartorgi". Stundin. 5 September 2019. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019.
  124. ^ bókamerki, Setja (7 September 2019). "Standa saman gegn nasisma í rigningunni". Iceland Monitor. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019.
  125. ^ "Neo-Nazi held in Denmark over Jewish cemetery attack". BBC. 23 September 2022.
  126. ^ "Jewish cemetery in Denmark vandalized over Passover with red paint, hanged dolls". Jewish News Syndicate. 23 September 2022.

General sources[edit]

  • Senholt, Jacob C. (2013). "Secret Identities in the Sinister Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism, and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles". The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen (editors). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6.