Norfolk and Western 1218

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Norfolk & Western No. 1218
N&W 1218 Brocton, OH on August 6, 1988 (22541514277).jpg
1218 leads an excursion train at Brocton, Ohio, on August 6, 1988
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
BuilderN&W's Roanoke Shops
Serial number340
Build dateJune 1943
 • Whyte2-6-6-4
 • UIC(1′C)C2′ h4
Gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading dia.33 in (838 mm)
Driver dia.70 in (1,778 mm)[1]
Trailing dia.42 in (1,067 mm)
Length121 ft 9 14 in (37.1 m) including tender[1]
Width11 ft 2 in (3.4 m)
Height16 ft (4.88 m)
Axle load72,000 lb (32.7 tonnes)
Adhesive weight433,350 lb (196.6 tonnes)
Loco weight573,000 lb (259.9 tonnes)
Total weight951,600 lb (431.6 tonnes)[1]
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity60,000 lb (27.2 tonnes)
Water cap22,000 US gal (83,000 l; 18,000 imp gal)
 • Firegrate area
122 sq ft (11.3 m2)
Boiler pressure300 lbf/in2 (2.07 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Tubes and flues
6,052 sq ft (562.2 m2)
 • Firebox587 sq ft (54.5 m2)
 • Heating area2,703 sq ft (251.1 m2)
CylindersFour, simple articulated
Cylinder size24 in × 30 in (610 mm × 762 mm)
Valve gearBaker
Valve typePiston valves
Performance figures
Maximum speed70+ mph[1]
Power output5,400 hp (4,000 kW)
Tractive effortStarting: 125,897 lbf (560.02 kN) Continuous: 114,000 lbf (507.10 kN)[1]
Factor of adh.3.44
OperatorsNorfolk & Western RailwayNorfolk Southern Railway
Number in class19 of 43
  • N&W 1218
LocaleUnited States, South and Midwest
Retired1959 (revenue service)[1]
1991 (excursion service)
RestoredApril 1987[1]
Current ownerVirginia Museum of Transportation
DispositionOn static display, based in Roanoke, Virginia

Norfolk and Western No. 1218 is a four-cylinder simple articulated steam locomotive with a 2-6-6-4 (Whyte system) wheel arrangement. The Norfolk & Western Railway built it in 1943 at its Roanoke Shops in Roanoke, Virginia, and was part of the Norfolk & Western's class A fleet of fast freight locomotives.[2] It was retired from regular revenue service in 1959, it was later restored by Norfolk Southern Railway and operated it in excursion service from 1987 to 1991. Today it is on display at the Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, Virginia.

Historic significance[edit]

No. 1218 is the sole survivor of the Norfolk and Western's class A locomotives, and the only surviving 2-6-6-4 steam locomotive in the world. While smaller than Union Pacific's famous and more numerous "Challenger" Class of 4-6-6-4 locomotives, Norfolk and Western's design racked up unmatched records of performance in service.

During 1218's excursion career, it was the most powerful operational steam locomotive in the world,[3] with a tractive effort of 125,897 pounds-force (560.02 kN), well above Union Pacific 3985, the next-strongest-pulling operational steam locomotive, with a tractive effort of 97,350 lbf [433.0 kN]). Since May 2019, however, No. 1218 became the locomotive with the second highest tractive effort, after Union Pacific 4014, which has a tractive effort of 135,375 lbf (602.18 kN). Unlike diesel-electric locomotives of similar high tractive effort (for starting heavy trains) but typical for a steam locomotive, it could easily run at 70 miles per hour (113 km/h) and more.

Operational history[edit]

Norfolk and Western used No. 1218 and the other class A locomotives primarily for fast freight trains, but they also pulled heavy coal trains on the flatter districts of the Norfolk & Western system, and reportedly even pulled heavy passenger trains at times.

In 1959, when the 1218 was retired, it was purchased by the Union Carbide Co. in Charleston, West Virginia, where it was used as a stationary boiler at a chemical plant.[4] In 1965, No. 1218 was repurchased by New England millionaire F. Nelson Blount for his locomotive collection at Steamtown, U.S.A. in Bellows Falls, Vermont.[4] Three years later, its former owner Norfolk & Western did a cosmetic restoration on 1218 at their East End Shops in Roanoke, Virginia (the same place where it was built).[4] After that, it was put on display at the Roanoke Transportation Museum in 1971.[4]

Norfolk and Western Railway 1218 in excursion service in 1987

In 1982, the Norfolk & Western and the Southern Railway were both merged to form the new Norfolk Southern Railway (NS).[5] On May 10, 1985, No. 1218 was moved out of the park by a pair of NS diesels to be overhauled at the Irondale Steam Shop in Irondale, Alabama.[4] In 1987, No. 1218 was moved under its power for the first time in 28 years and operated for main-line excursion service on Norfolk Southern's steam program.[6]

In 1990, No. 1218 traveled to Saint Louis, Missouri, where it met up with locomotives St Louis Southwestern 4-8-4 No. 819, St Louis San Francisco 4-8-2 No. 1522, and Union Pacific 4-8-4 No. 844 to participate in the NRHS convention at the former Union Station.

On November 3, 1991, during Norfolk Southern's 25th Anniversary of their Steam Program, No. 1218 joined Southern Railway MS Class 2-8-2 No. 4501 and Norfolk and Western J Class No. 611 to triple head a 28-car passenger excursion train from Chattanooga to Atlanta.[7] At Ooltewah, Tennessee, No. 4501 took a few coaches for a complete round trip, turning around at Cleveland, Tennessee.[7] Afterwards, No. 611 and No. 1218 completed the rest of the trip to Atlanta.[7]

At the end of the 1991 season, No. 1218 returned to Irondale, Alabama for an extensive overhaul to have its flues replaced and the firebox repaired.[7] The plan was to have the 1218 running again would be the start of the 1996 operating season, but Norfolk Southern chairman David R. Goode cancelled the steam program in 1994 due to serious safety concerns, rising insurance costs, the expense of maintaining steam locomotives, a yard switching accident with nine passenger cars in Lynchburg, Virginia, and decreasing rail network availability.[7][8][9][10]

After the Norfolk Southern steam program was concluded, the 1218 was partially reassembled and towed back to Roanoke to be stored at the East End Shops in 1996, the year its overhaul was supposed to be completed.[8] In 2001, the Norfolk Southern donated the 1218 to the City of Roanoke,[11] clearing the way for the engine to once again be put on display at the Virginia Museum of Transportation. In June 2003, the museum completed its new Claytor Pavilion and along with it, the 1218 was ready to put back on display. After a cosmetic restoration by Norfolk Southern, the 1218 was towed to the Virginia Museum of Transportation on June 11, 2003, and pushed into place in its new home next to Norfolk & Western 611. On April 2, 2012, the City of Roanoke officially donated both the 1218 & 611 to the Virginia Museum of Transportation.

Current status[edit]

N&W 1218 on display at the Virginia Museum of Transportation. To the right are N&W Class G-1 #6, N&W Y6A-Class #2156, and PRR GG1 #4919.

Today, 1218 is owned by the Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, Virginia, and is displayed along with N&W 2156, a Y6a Class 2-8-8-2, (on loan from the National Transportation Museum in St. Louis, Missouri) where they are the star attractions in the museum's Claytor Pavilion. 1218 has been cosmetically restored, though not operational since the overhaul started in 1992 was never completed. Although the undertaking would be considerable, fans believe it to be capable of being returned to operation, with the incomplete boiler and firebox repairs being the primary scope of work remaining from the aborted overhaul. In 2007, Norfolk Southern pulled the 1218 and 611 to its Roanoke Shops for the shops' 125th Anniversary celebration.[12]

N&W Class J 611 resides at the Museum when it is not running excursions or at the NC Transportation Museum in Spencer, NC, where it was restored to operating condition in 2015. The Virginia Transportation Museum owns the 611 and operates the excursions as Norfolk Southern no longer operates a steam program, though they continue to recognize the excellent corporate public relations that derive from the excursions and have been very cooperative in coordinating such trips. In the meantime, N&W 1218 continues to sit on display inside a shed, next to another former N&W steam locomotive, G-1 #6.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "All Aboard - Steam locomotive to power day-long excursions from Greenville". Gaffney Leader. Gaffney, SC. March 20, 1987. p. 7 – via open access
  2. ^ Ball, Ellen (August 13, 1987). "Travel Talk". Muncie Evening Press. Muncie, IN. p. 26 – via open access
  3. ^ "Mighty locomotive will steam to Fort Wayne". Battle Creek Enquirer. Battle Creek, MI. June 24, 1990. p. 20 – via open access
  4. ^ a b c d e Wrinn (2000), pp. 73-74.
  5. ^ Wrinn (2000), p. 61.
  6. ^ Wrinn (2000), pp. 79-82.
  7. ^ a b c d e Wrinn (2000), pp. 90–91.
  8. ^ a b Wrinn (2000), pp. 102-109.
  9. ^ Phillips, Don (November 6, 1994). "Rail Service - Popular steam engines will take last journeys". Indianapolis Star (first ed.). Indianapolis, IN. p. 192 – via open access
  10. ^ Associated Press (October 30, 1994). "Norfolk Southern ends excursions". Daily Press (main ed.). Newport News, VA. p. 22 – via open access
  11. ^ Associated Press (August 18, 2001). "Roanoke chugs away on museum honoring locomotive photographer". Daily Press (main ed.). Newport News, VA. p. 24 – via open access
  12. ^ McKinney, Wayne (2014). Roanoke Locomotive Shops and the Norfolk & Western Railroad. Images of Rail. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publications. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4671-2111-8. LCCN 2013946232 – via Google Books.
  • Wrinn, Jim (2000), Steam's Camelot: Southern and Norfolk Southern Excursions in Color (1st ed.), TLC Publishing, ISBN 1-883089-56-5

Further reading[edit]

  • King, Ed (2009). The A: Norfolk and Western's Mercedes of Steam (2nd ed.). N&W Historical Society. ISBN 978-0970479464.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Rosenburg, Ron; Archer, Eric H. (1973). Norfolk & Western Steam (The Last 25 Years) (1st ed.). Quadrant Press Inc. ISBN 0-915276-00-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links[edit]