He joined the Royal Flying Corps in May 1916. He began his pilot's career as an instructor and test pilot. He was posted to 48 Squadron to fly a Bristol F.2 Fighter on 20 August 1917. He became a flight commander, then rose to command the unit. While there, he drove six enemy planes down out of control between 11 November 1917 and 8 March 1918. He left the squadron in May 1918, and became an instructor back in England.
^ abcdChristopher F. Shores, Norman L. R. Franks, Russell Guest (1990). Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915-1920. Grub Street. p. 281.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)ISBN0-948817-19-4, ISBN978-0-948817-19-9