|Ivor Norman Richard Davies
Ph.D., F.B.A., F.R.Hist.S., D.Litt.
8 June 1939 |
Bolton, Lancashire, England
|Institutions||School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College, London
Wolfson College, University of Oxford
|Alma mater||Magdalen College, University of Oxford (B.A. Hons)
University of Sussex (M.A.)
Jagiellonian University (Ph.D.)
|Notable awards||Order of the White Eagle
Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Davies was born to Richard and Elizabeth Davies in Bolton, Lancashire. He is of Welsh descent. He studied in Grenoble, France, from 1957 to 1958 and then under A. J. P. Taylor at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he earned a B.A. in History in 1962. He was awarded an M.A. at the University of Sussex in 1966 and also studied in Perugia, Italy. He intended to study for a Ph.D. in the Soviet Union but was denied an entry visa, so instead he went to Kraków, Poland, to study at the Jagiellonian University and did research on the Polish–Soviet War. As this war was denied in the official communist Polish historiography of that time, he was obliged to change the title of his dissertation to The British Foreign Policy towards Poland, 1919–20. After he obtained his Ph.D. in Kraków in 1968, the English text appeared under the title White Eagle, Red Star. The Polish-Soviet War 1919–20 in 1972.
From 1971, Davies taught Polish history at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies of University College, London, where he was professor from 1985 to 1996, when he retired. He subsequently became Supernumerary Fellow at Wolfson College, Oxford from 1997 to 2006. Throughout his career, Davies has lectured in many countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, China, Poland and in most of the rest of Europe as well.
Stanford University's History Department denied him a tenured faculty position in 1986 (on an 11 against, 10 for and 1 abstaining, vote). Davies subsequently sought to obtain $3 million in damages from the university, arguing he had been the victim of discrimination on the grounds of his political views (with the claim being "defamation," "breach of contract" and "tortious interference" with a business. The case ultimately collapsed when Davies was unable to depose Professor Harold Kahn of Noe Valley as to what Kahn (who refused to be deposed) had said about Davies in closed faculty hearings. The court ruled that because of California's right of privacy "even if we assume that...... a candidate may be denied tenure for improper" [e.g., defamatory] "reasons, we are of the opinion that the right of a faculty member to discuss with his colleagues the candidate's qualifications thoroughly and candidly, in confidence and without fear of compelled disclosure, is of such paramount value that it ought not to be impaired." The court then upheld the university's right to decide on faculty appointments on the basis of any criteria .
Davies' first book, White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20 was published in 1972. His 1981 book God's Playground, a comprehensive overview of Polish history, was published officially only after the fall of communism. In 1984, Davies published Heart of Europe, a briefer history of Poland, in which the chapters are arranged in reverse chronological order.
In the 1990s, Davies published Europe: A History (1996) and The Isles: A History (1999), about Europe and the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, respectively. Each book is a narrative interlarded with numerous sidepanel discussions of microtopics.
In 2002, at the suggestion of the city's mayor, Bogdan Zdrojewski, Davies and his former research assistant, Roger Moorhouse, co-wrote a history of Wrocław / Breslau, a Silesian city. Titled Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City, the book was published simultaneously in English, Polish, German and Czech.
Davies also writes essays and articles for the mass media. Among others, he has worked for the BBC as well as British and American magazines and newspapers, such as The Times, The New York Review of Books and The Independent. In Poland, his articles appeared in the liberal Catholic weekly Tygodnik Powszechny.
Davies' book Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw describes the Warsaw Uprising. It was followed by Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory (2006). In 2008 Davies participated in the documentary film "The Soviet Story".
Some Jewish historians, most vocally Lucy Dawidowicz and Abraham Brumberg, object to Davies' historical treatment of the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Poland. They accuse him of minimizing historic antisemitism, and of promoting a view that accounts of the Holocaust in international historiography largely overlook the suffering of non-Jewish Poles. Davies's supporters contend that he gives due attention to the genocide and war crimes perpetrated by both Hitler and Stalin on Polish Jews and Poles. Davies himself argues that "Holocaust scholars need have no fears that rational comparisons might threaten that uniqueness. Quite the opposite." and that "... one needs to re-construct mentally the fuller picture in order to comprehend the true enormity of Poland's wartime cataclysm, and then to say with absolute conviction 'Never Again'."
In 1986, Dawidowicz's criticism of Davies' historical treatment of the Holocaust was cited as a factor in a controversy at Stanford University in which Davies was denied a tenured faculty position for alleged "scientific flaws". Davies sued the university for breach of contract and defamation of character, but in 1989 the court ruled that it did not have jurisdiction in an academic matter.
Awards and distinctions
Davies holds a number of honorary titles and memberships, including honorary doctorates from the universities of the Jagiellonian University (since 2003), Lublin, Gdańsk and Warsaw (since 2007), memberships in the Polish Academy of Learning (PAU), the Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea, and the International Honorary Council of the European Academy of Diplomacy, and fellowships of the British Academy and the Royal Historical Society. Davies received an honorary DLitt degree from his alma mater the University of Sussex.
Member of the committee for the Order of the Smile.
President of the Polish government-in-exile Edward Bernard Raczyński decorated Davies with the Order of Polonia Restituta. On 22 December 1998 President of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski awarded him the Grand Cross (1st class) of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. Finally, on 11 November 2012, Davies was decorated with the Order of the White Eagle, Poland's highest civilian award.
Norman Davies has been appointed to the Advisory Board of the European Association of History Educators - EUROCLIO. In 2008 he was awarded the Order of the Cross of St Mary's Land 3rd Class by the Republic of Estonia.
- 1972: White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20. (2004 edition: ISBN 0-7126-0694-7)
- 1977: Poland, Past and Present. A Select Bibliography of Works in English. ISBN 0-89250-011-5
- 1981: God's Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 1: The Origins to 1795, Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925339-0 / ISBN 0-19-925340-4.
- 1984: Heart of Europe. A Short History of Poland. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285152-7.
- 2001: Heart of Europe: The Past in Poland's Present Oxford University Press, USA; New edition ISBN 0-19-280126-0
- 1991: Jews in Eastern Poland and the USSR, 1939–46. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-06200-1
- 1996: Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820171-0
- 1997: Auschwitz and the Second World War in Poland: A lecture given at the Representations of Auschwitz international conference at the Jagiellonian University. Universitas. ISBN 83-7052-935-6
- 1999: Red Winds from the North. Able Publishing. ISBN 0-907616-45-3
- 1999: The Isles. A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513442-7
- 2002 (with Roger Moorhouse): Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-06243-3
- 2004: Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-333-90568-7
- 2006: Europe East and West: A Collection of Essays on European History. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-06924-1
- 2006: Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3
- 2011: Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-338-0
- "State appellate court upholds Stanford in Davies case". Stanford University News Service. Stanford University. 1991-09-05. Retrieved 2008-08-03. "Davies's works have been criticized at Stanford and elsewhere, by such experts as Lucy S. Dawidowicz (author of The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945) who said they felt Davies minimized historic anti-Semitism in Poland and tended to blame Polish Jews for their fate in the Holocaust. Davies' supporters contend that Poles suffered as much as Jews did in the war and could have done very little to save any of the 3 million Jews living in Poland at the time of the Nazi invasion in 1939. Davies had sought $3 million in damages from the university for what he called fraud, misrepresentation, breach of contract, discrimination and defamation."
- The Independent, Saturday, 29 August 2009
- Applebaum, Anne (May 1997). "Against the old clichés - Review of Europe: A History by Norman Davies". The New Criterion (New York). Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- http://www.coleurope.eu/sites/default/files/uploads/page/coebrochure2013_lr.pdf, College of Europe | Collège d'Europe Brochure
- "The Soviet Story » People in the film". Retrieved 2008-08-03.[dead link]
- Lucy Dawidowicz, "The Curious Case of Marek Edelman". Observations. Commentary, March 1987, pp. 66–69. See also reply by Norman Davies and others in Letters from Readers, Commentary, August, 1987 pp. 2–12.
- Abraham Brumberg, "Murder Most Foul", Times Literary Supplement, 2 March 2001. Essay on Neighbors by Jan T. Gross. Tony Judt and Abraham Brumberg. Letters, Times Literary Supplement, London 6 April 2001. See also response by Norman Davies, Letters, Times Literary Supplement, London 13 April 2001.
- Norman Davies, "Russia, the missing link in Britain's VE Day mythology", The Times, London, 1 May 2005.
- Norman Davies, lecture, University of Cincinnati Department of History and the Center for Holocaust and Humanity Education, Cincinnati, OH. April 26, 2005.
- "Gesamtliste der Mitglieder". European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Salzburg. Retrieved 2008-08-03.[dead link]
- "Fellows of the Royal Historical Society, D - F" (MSWord). Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- Sussex Lectures 2006: Europe at war, 1939–45: not freedom's victory
- "Poland honours historian Norman Davies"
- Snowman, Daniel "Norman Davies" p. 36–38 from History Today, Volume 55, Issue 7, July 2005.
- America, December 18, 1982, p. 394.
- American Historical Review, April, 1991, p. 520.
- American Scholar, fall, 1997, p. 624.
- Atlantic Monthly, December, 2002, Benjamin Schwarz, review of God's Playground: A History of Poland, p. 127.
- Booklist, September 15, 1996, p. 214; December 15, 1997, Gilbert Taylor, "A History of Europe," p. 682; February 1, 2000, p. 1006; May 1, 2004, Jay Freeman, review of Rising '44: The Battle of Warsaw, p. 1538.
- Commentary, March, 1987, p. 66.
- Current History, November, 1984, p. 385.
- Economist, March 6, 1982, p. 104; February 10, 1990, p. 92; November 16, 1996, p. S3; December 4, 1999, p. 8; April 27, 2002, "What's in a Name: Central European History."
- History Today, May, 1983, p. 54; March, 2000, Robert Pearce, "The Isles: A History," p. 55.
- Kirkus Reviews, March 15, 2004, review of Rising '44, p. 256.
- Library Journal, March 15, 1997, p. 73; February 1, 2000, p. 100.
- Nation, November 21, 1987, p. 584.
- National Review, June 5, 2000, John Derbyshire, "Disunited Kingdom"; May 17, 2004, David Pryce-Jones, "Remember Them," p. 46.
- New Republic, November 15, 1982, p. 25; September 22, 1997, p. 36.
- New Statesman, May 21, 1982, p. 21; August 31, 1984, p. 26.
- New Statesman & Society, December 20, 1996, Norman Davies, "How I Conquered Europe," pp. 36–38; October 17, 1997, David Herman, review of Europe: A History, pp. 30–32; May 15, 1998, Michael Pinto-Duschinsky, "The Hunted, Not the Hunters," p. 35. November 15, 1999, Alistair Moffat, "Jobs and Foxes Will Flee to England," p. 35; December 13, 1999, Geoffrey Wheatcroft, "Forging Our History," p. 57.
- New York Review of Books, September 29, 1983, p. 18; May 15, 1997, p. 30.
- New York Times Book Review, December 5, 1982, p. 52; March 4, 1984, p. 34; December 23, 1984, p. 5; June 22, 1986, p. 34; December 7, 1986, p. 84; December 1, 1996, p. 15.
- Observer (London, England), October 10, 1999, Andrew Marr, "A History Lesson for Wee Willie," p. 29.
- Publishers Weekly, August 26, 1996, p. 83; November 24, 1997, "A History of Europe," p. 64; January 24, 2000, p. 301.
- Sunday Times (London, England), October 17, 1999, Niall Ferguson, "Breaking up Is Hard to Do if You're British," p. NR4.
- Times (London, England), October 30, 1999, Richard Morrison, "Britain Dies as Mr. Tough Rewrites the Past," p. 21.
- Wilson Library Bulletin, October, 1986, p. 68.
- World and I, August, 2004, Richard M. Watt, "The Warsaw Insurrection: How Polish Capital Ferociously Resisted World War II Occupiers."*
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Norman Davies.|
- Small English homepage at www.normandavies.com
- "Review of Europe at War"
- Britain and the Warsaw Rising. Essay, 2004.
- Official press release on the case of Davies vs. Stanford University
- A Polish site about Norman Davies (in Polish), includes a gallery and parts of translated text
- Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures: Poland's Heritage
- BBC Interview with audio and transcript