Norman Lloyd, 2007
November 8, 1914
Jersey City, New Jersey
Norman Lloyd (born Norman Perlmutter; November 8, 1914) is an American actor, producer, and director with a career in entertainment spanning nine decades. He has worked in every major facet of the industry including radio, theatre, television and film dating back to the Great Depression, and at 101 years of age is the oldest working Hollywood actor of 2015.
In the 1930s he apprenticed with Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory Theatre and worked with such influential companies as the Federal Theatre Project's Living Newspaper unit, the Mercury Theatre founded by Orson Welles and John Houseman, and the Group Theatre. Lloyd's long professional association with Alfred Hitchcock began with his memorable performance as a Nazi agent in the 1942 film Saboteur. He also appeared in Spellbound (1945), and went on to produce Hitchcock's long-running anthology television series, Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Lloyd directed and produced episodic television throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. As an actor he has appeared in over 60 films and television shows, with his roles including Bodalink in Limelight, Mr. Nolan in Dead Poets Society and Mr. Letterblair in The Age of Innocence. In the 1980s, Lloyd gained a new generation of fans for playing Dr. Daniel Auschlander, one of the starring roles on the medical drama St. Elsewhere.
Early life and theatre
Norman Lloyd was born Norman Perlmutter on November 8, 1914, in Jersey City, New Jersey. His family was Jewish and lived in Brooklyn, New York. His father, Max Perlmutter, was an accountant who later became a salesman and proprietor of a furniture store. His mother, Sadie Horowitz Perlmutter, was a bookkeeper and housewife. She had a good voice and a lifelong interest in the theatre, and she took her young son to singing and dancing lessons.:1 Lloyd became a child performer, appearing at vaudeville benefits and women's clubs, and was a professional by the age of nine.:3
Lloyd graduated from high school when he was 15 and began studies at New York University, but left at the end of his sophomore year. "All around me I could see the way the Depression was affecting everyone; for my family, for people in business like my father, it was a terrible time," he wrote. "I just wasn't going to stay in college, paying tuition to get a degree to be a lawyer, when I could see lawyers that had become taxi drivers.":4 Lloyd's father died in 1945, at age 55, "broken by the world that he was living in."
In 1932, at age 17, Lloyd auditioned and became the youngest of the apprentices under the direction of May Sarton at Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory Theatre in New York City.:11, 235 He then joined Sarton's Apprentice Theatre in New Hampshire, continuing his studies with her and her associate, Eleanor Flexner.:15–19 The group rehearsed a total of ten modern European plays and performed at The New School for Social Research and in Boston.:16–17, 235 Members of the Harvard Dramatic Club saw Lloyd on stage and offered him the lead in a play directed by Joseph Losey.:20–21 He rejoined Sarton's group, for whom Losey directed a Boston production of Gods of the Lightning. When Sarton was forced to give up her company, Losey suggested that Lloyd audition for a production of André Obey's Noah (1935). It was Lloyd's first Broadway show.:22–26
Through Losey, Lloyd became involved in the social theatre of the 1930s, beginning with an acting collective called The Theatre of Action. The group was preparing a production of Michael Blankfort's The Crime (1936), :236 directed by Elia Kazan. One of the company members was actress Peggy Craven, who became Lloyd's wife.:28
Losey brought Lloyd into the Federal Theatre Project — which Lloyd called "one of the great theaters of all time"— and its Living Newspapers,:31 which dramatized contemporary events. They initially prepared Ethiopia, about the Italian invasion, which was deemed too controversial and was terminated. The first completed presentation was Triple-A Plowed Under (1936), followed by Injunction Granted (1936) and Power (1937).:236
When Orson Welles and John Houseman left the Federal Theatre Project to form their own independent repertory theatre company, the Mercury Theatre, Lloyd was invited to become a charter member. He played a memorable role in its first stage production, Caesar (1937), Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar — streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force. In a scene that became the fulcrum of the show, Cinna the Poet (Lloyd) dies at the hands not of a mob but of a secret police force. Lloyd called it "an extraordinary scene [that] gripped the audience in a way that the show stopped for about three minutes. The audience stopped it with applause. It showed the audience what fascism was; rather than an intellectual approach, you saw a physical one."
The Mercury prepared The Shoemaker's Holiday to go into repertory with Caesar beginning in January 1938. During the December 25 performance of Caesar — when the sets, lighting and costumes for Shoemaker were ready but no previews had taken place — Welles asked the cast if they cared to present a surprise preview immediately after the show. He invited the audience to stay and watch the set changes, and the curtain rose at 1:15 a.m. Lloyd recalled it as "the wildest triumph imaginable. The show was a smash during its run — but never again did we have a performance like that one.":50–51
Lloyd performed on the first of four releases in the Mercury Text Records series, phonographic recordings of Shakespeare plays adapted for educators by Welles and Roger Hill. The Merchant of Venice features Lloyd in the roles of Salanio and Launcelot Gobbo. Released on Columbia Masterworks Records in 1939, the recording was reissued on CD in 1998.
Lloyd played the role of Johnny Appleseed in Everywhere I Roam (1938–39), a play by Arnold Sundgaard:59 that was developed by the Federal Theatre Project and staged on Broadway by Marc Connelly.:266 "It was a lovely experience, although the play failed," Lloyd recalled. "For me, it was a success; in those days, before the Tony Awards, the critics' Ten Best Performers list at the end of the year was the greatest recognition. For my performance, I was selected to be on the list by the critics.":59
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015)|
In late summer 1939 Lloyd was invited to Hollywood, to join Welles and other Mercury Theatre members in the first film being prepared for RKO Pictures — Heart of Darkness. Given a six-week guarantee at $500 a week, he took part in a reading for the film,:62–65 which was to be presented entirely through a first-person camera. After elaborate pre-production the project never reached production because Welles was unable to trim $50,000 from its budget,:31 something RKO insisted upon as revenue was declining sharply in Europe by autumn 1939.:215–216 Welles asked the actors to stay a few more weeks as he put together another film project, but Lloyd was ill-advised by a member of the radio company and impulsively returned to New York. "Those who stayed did Citizen Kane," Lloyd wrote. "I have always regretted it.":65
Lloyd later returned to Hollywood to play a Nazi spy in Alfred Hitchcock's Saboteur (1942), starting a long friendship and professional association with Hitchcock. After a few more villainous film roles, Lloyd also worked behind the camera as an assistant on Lewis Milestone's Arch of Triumph (1948). A friend of John Garfield, Lloyd appeared with him in He Ran All the Way, Garfield's last film before the Hollywood blacklist ended his film career.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015)|
A marginal victim of the blacklist, Lloyd was rescued professionally by Hitchcock, who had previously used the actor in Saboteur and Spellbound (1945). Hitchcock hired Lloyd as an associate producer and a director on his television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents in 1958. Previously, Lloyd directed the sponsored film A Word to the Wives (1955) with Marsha Hunt and Darren McGavin. He continued directing and producing episodic television throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He took an unusual role in the Night Gallery episode "A Feast of Blood" as the bearer of a cursed brooch, which he inflicts upon a hapless woman, played by Sondra Locke, who had spurned his romantic advances.
In the 1980s Lloyd played Dr. Auschlander in the television drama St. Elsewhere over its six-season run (1982–88). Originally scheduled for only four episodes, Lloyd became a regular for the remainder of the series. In addition to Ed Flanders and William Daniels, St. Elsewhere included a roster of relative unknowns, including Ed Begley, Jr., Denzel Washington, Stephen Furst, Eric Laneuville, David Morse and Howie Mandel. Mandel, who played rowdy and unorthodox ER resident Dr. Wayne Fiscus, recalled that "He was very inspirational between scenes, always cheering up everybody, and always smiles when Norman Lloyd passed through."
In 1989 he made his first film role in nearly a decade, playing Mr. Nolan, the authoritative headmaster of Welton Academy in Dead Poets Society. Initially, Lloyd was hesitant when asked to audition, because he thought the director and producers could judge whether or not he was right for the part by watching his acting on St. Elsewhere. Director Peter Weir was living in Australia and had not seen St. Elsewhere. Lloyd agreed to audition for him after winning his daily tennis match. From 1998–2001 he played Dr. Isaac Mentnor in the UPN science fiction drama Seven Days. His numerous television guest-star appearances include The Joseph Cotten Show, Murder, She Wrote, The Twilight Zone, Wiseguy, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Wings, The Practice and Civil Wars.
He has played in various radio plays for Peggy Webber's California Artists Radio Theater and Yuri Rasovsky's Hollywood Theater of the Ear. His most recent film role was in Trainwreck (2015) which he acted in at age 99. He is the subject of the documentary Who Is Norman Lloyd?, which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on September 1, 2007. In 2010 he guest starred in an episode of ABC's Modern Family. On December 5, 2010, he presented An Evening with Norman Lloyd at the Colony Theatre in Burbank, California, where he spoke of his career and answered questions from the audience.
Following the death of Olaf Pooley on July 14, 2015, Lloyd became the oldest living actor to have appeared in Star Trek.
Lloyd began practicing his lifelong hobby of tennis at the age of eight. "With the application and time I have devoted to it, I should have been a reigning World Champion", he said in a 2000 interview. His opponents have included Charlie Chaplin, Joseph Cotten and Spencer Tracy. Lloyd was still playing twice a week until July 2015, when he had a fall. He stopped driving in 2014 at his son's insistence.
Select theatre credits
|October 26, 1932–1933||Liliom||Stretcher bearer (uncredited)||Civic Repertory Theatre, New York City||Directed by Eva Le Gallienne:11, 235|
|December 12, 1932–1933||Alice in Wonderland||Walk on (uncredited)||Civic Repertory Theatre, New York City||Directed by Eva Le Gallienne:235|
|1933||A Secret Life, The Children's Tragedy, Naked, Fear, The Armored Train, The Call of Life, The Sowers||Various||The New School for Social Research, New York City||Apprentice Theatre, executive director May Sarton:235|
|1934||A Bride for the Unicorn||Jay||Harvard Dramatic Club||Directed by Joseph Losey:235|
|1935||Dr. Knock||Knock||Peabody Playhouse, Boston||Associated Actors (May Sarton):21–22, 235|
|1935||Gallery Gods||Peabody Playhouse, Boston||Associated Actors (May Sarton):21–22, 235|
|1935||Gods of the Lightning||Macready||Peabody Playhouse, Boston||Associated Actors (May Sarton); directed by Joseph Losey:21–22, 235|
|February 3–March 1935||Noah||Japhet||Longacre Theatre, New York City||Broadway debut:236|
|1935||School for Wives||Peterborough Players, Peterborough, New Hampshire||Summer stock:21–22, 235|
|1936||The Crime||Civic Repertory Theatre, New York City||Two nights, presented The Theatre Union; directed by Elia Kazan:30, 236|
|March 14–May 2, 1936||Triple-A Plowed Under||Leads in vaudeville sketches||Biltmore Theatre, New York City||Living Newspaper, Federal Theatre Project; directed by Joseph Losey:33, 236:390|
|July 24–October 20, 1936||Injunction Granted||Clown||Biltmore Theatre, New York City||Living Newspaper, Federal Theatre Project; directed by Joseph Losey:34, 236:390|
|February 22–July 10, 1937||Power||Angus J. Buttoncooper, the Consumer||Ritz Theatre, New York City||Living Newspaper, Federal Theatre Project; directed by Brett Warren:37, 236:390|
|November 11, 1937–May 28, 1938||Caesar||Cinna the Poet||Mercury Theatre and National Theatre, New York City||Debut of the Mercury Theatre; directed by Orson Welles:339|
|January 1–April 28, 1938||The Shoemaker's Holiday||Roger, commonly called Hodge||Mercury Theatre and National Theatre, New York City||In repertory with Caesar; directed by Orson Welles:341|
|December 29, 1938–January 1939||Everywhere I Roam||Johnny Appleseed||National Theatre, New York City||Directed by Marc Connelly
Lloyd named to the critics' Ten Best Performers list:59
|April 1939||Quiet City||David||Belasco Theatre, New York City||Three Sunday nights; directed by Elia Kazan for The Group Theatre:59–60, 237|
|April 12–May 11, 1940||Medicine Show||New Yorker Theatre, New York City||Commercially produced Living Newspaper on health in the U.S.:65–66, 237|
|1940||Pigeons and People||Dock Street Theatre, Charleston, South Carolina||:237|
|February 5–22, 1941||Liberty Jones||Shubert Theatre, New York City||:66, 237|
|September 3–27, 1941||Village Green||Henry Miller Theatre, New York City||:66, 237|
|February 4–13, 1943||Ask My Friend Sandy||Sandy||Biltmore Theatre, New York City||:237|
|December 25, 1950–February 3, 1951||King Lear||Fool||National Theatre, New York City||Directed by John Houseman:239|
|1954||Madame Will You Walk||Dockweil||Phoenix Theatre, New York City||:240|
|1955||Don Juan in Hell||Devil||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:240|
|1956||Measure for Measure||Lucio||American Shakespeare Festival, Stratford Connecticut
Phoenix Theatre, New York City
|Directed by John Houseman and Jack Landau:240|
|1974||Major Barbara||Undershaft||Mark Taper Forum, Los Angeles, California||:244|
|July 1–12, 1992||The Will and Bart Show||Will||Williamstown Theatre Festival, Williamstown, Massachusetts||Written by Jim Lehrer:233–234|
|December 5, 2010||An Evening with Norman Lloyd||Himself||Colony Theatre, Burbank, California|||
|1951||The Cocktail Party||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:239|
|1952||The Lady's Not for Burning||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:239|
|1953||I Am a Camera, You Never Can Tell, Dial M for Murder, The Postman Always Rings Twice||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:239|
|1954||Madame Will You Walk||Phoenix Theatre, New York City||Co-director with Hume Cronyn:240|
|March 11–April 1954||The Golden Apple||Phoenix Theatre, New York City||Best Musical, New York Drama Critics Circle:163, 239|
|1954||The Winslow Boy, Anniversary Waltz, Sabrina Fair, The Seven Year Itch, The Vacant Lot||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:240|
|1955||The Rainmaker, Native Uprising, Billy Budd, The Time of the Cuckoo||La Jolla Playhouse, San Diego, California||:240|
|1956||The Taming of the Shrew||American Shakesperare Festival, Stratford, Connecticut
Phoenix Theatre, New York City
Select radio credits
|October 24, 1937||Columbia Workshop||Private Schnook||"I've Got the Tune", radio opera by Marc Blitzstein:51–52|
|July 13, 1940||The Listener's Playhouse||"No Program Tonight, or The Director's Dilemma"|
|June 1, 1941||Columbia Workshop||"26 by Corwin: Appointment"|
|July 5, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"Listen to the People"|
|July 12, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"Soldier of the Cloth"|
|July 19, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"The Schoolhouse at the Front"|
|August 2, 1943||Cavalcade of America||Narrator||"Nine Men Against the Arctic"|
|August 9, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"Shortcut to Tokyo"|
|August 16, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"The Major and the Mules"|
|August 23, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"The Weapon That Saves Lives"|
|September 23, 1943||Words at War||"They Shall Not Have Me":726|
|December 13, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"Check Your Heart at Home"|
|December 27, 1943||Cavalcade of America||"U-Boat Prisoner"|
|January 3, 1944||Cavalcade of America||"Bullseye for Sammy"|
|February 7, 1944||Cavalcade of America||"Prologue to Glory"|
|February 21, 1944||Cavalcade of America||"The Purple Heart Comes to Free Meadows"|
|February 22, 1944||Words at War||"Assignment USA"; repeated April 4, 1944|
|March 21, 1944||Words at War||"Der Fuehrer"|
|April 26, 1944||Arthur Hopkins Presents||"Redemption"|
|May 24, 1945||Suspense||"My Own Murderer"|
|July 17, 1945||Columbia Presents Corwin||Clerk||"The Undecided Molecule", verse story by Norman Corwin:167|
Select film and television credits
|1945||The Unseen||Jasper Goodwin|||
|1945||A Walk in the Sun||Archimbeau|||
|1945||Within These Walls||Pete Moran|||
|1946||A Letter for Evie||DeWitt Pyncheon|||
|1946||The Green Years||Adam Leckie|||
|1947||The Beginning or the End||Dr. Troyanski|||
|1948||No Minor Vices||Dr. Sturdevant|||
|1949||Scene of the Crime||Sleeper|||
|1949||The Black Book||Jean-Lambert Tallien||:238|
|1949||Calamity Jane and Sam Bass||Jim Murphy|||
|1950||The Flame and the Arrow||Apollo, the troubadour|||
|1951||The Flame of Stamboul||Louis Baracca||:239|
|1951||He Ran All the Way||Al Molin|||
|1952||The Light Touch||Anton|||
|1956||The United States Steel Hour (TV series)||Francis Oberon||"We Must Kill Toni"|
|1956||Kraft Television Theatre (TV series)||Andrew J. Fogarty||"Paper Foxhole"|
|1956||Kraft Television Theatre (TV series)||"The Plunge"|
|1957||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Lieutenant Orsatti||"Nightmare in 4D"|
|1957||General Electric Theater (TV series)||Johnny||"The Earring"|
|1957||The Joseph Cotten Show: On Trial (TV series)||Duke of Buckingham||"The Trial of Colonel Blood"|
|1958||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Charles Brailing||"Design for Loving"|
|1959||Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond (TV series)||Harold Stern||"Delusion"|
|1960||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Narrator||"The Day of the Bullet"|
|1960||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||The Little Man||"The Little Man Who Wasn't There":241|
|1960||New Comedy Showcase (TV series)||"Slezak and Son"|
|1961||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Leo Thorby||"Maria"|
|1970||The Most Deadly Game (TV series)||Norman||"Nightbirds"|
|1972||O'Hara, U.S. Treasury (TV series)||"Operation Mr. Felix"|
|1972||Night Gallery (TV series)||Henry Mallory||"A Feast of Blood"|
|1972||The Scarecrow (TV)||Dickon|||
|1973||The Gondola (TV)||Lewis|||
|1975||Kojak (TV series)||Harry Fein||"Night of the Piraeus"|
|1976||The New Deal for Artists (TV)||Himself||Documentary|
|1977||Audrey Rose||Dr. Steven Lipscomb|||
|1978||The Dark Secret of Harvest Home||Amrys Penrose|
|1980||The Nude Bomb||Carruthers|||
|1982||Quincy M.E. (TV series)||Cornelius Sumner||"Stolen Tears"|
|1982–88||St. Elsewhere (TV series)||Dr. Daniel Auschlander||132 episodes|
|1985||The Paper Chase (TV series)||Professor||"Laura's Struggle"|
|1986||Murder, She Wrote (TV series)||Lloyd Marcus||"If the Frame Fits"|
|1986||The Twilight Zone (TV series)||Merlin||"The Last Defender of Camelot"|
|1989||Wiseguy (TV series)||General Leland Masters||Four episodes|
|1989||Amityville: The Evil Escapes (TV)||Father Manfred|||
|1989||Dead Poets Society||Mr. Nolan|||
|1991||Journey of Honor||Father Vasco|||
|1991||Murder, She Wrote (TV series)||Philip Arkham||"The Committee"|
|1992||Civil Wars (TV series)||Gordon Wimsatt||"Oceans White with Phone"|
|1992||Home Fires (TV series)||Dr. Marcus||Six episodes|
|1993||The Age of Innocence||Mr. Letterblair|||
|1993||Murder, She Wrote (TV series)||Edward St. Cloud||"Murder in White"|
|1993||Star Trek: The Next Generation (TV series)||Professor Galen||"The Chase"|
|1995||The Omen (TV)||Aaron|||
|1996||Wings (TV series)||Lyle Bartlett||"Bye George"|
|1997||The Practice (TV series)||D. A. Asher Silverman||"Part VI"|
|1998||The Practice (TV series)||D. A. Asher Silverman||"Line of Duty"|
|1998–2001||Seven Days (TV series)||Dr. Isaac Mentnor||49 episodes|
|2000||The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (TV)||Wossamotta U. President|||
|2000||Fail Safe||Defense Secretary Swenson|||
|2001||The Song of the Lark (TV)||Madison Bowers|||
|2003||Charlie: The Life and Art of Charles Chaplin||Himself||Documentary|
|2003||The Practice (TV series)||D. A. Asher Silverman||"We the People"|
|2005||In Her Shoes||The Professor|||
|2007||Who Is Norman Lloyd?||Himself||Documentary|
|2010||Modern Family (TV series)||Donald||"Manny Get Your Gun"|
|2014||Magician: The Astonishing Life and Work of Orson Welles||Himself||Documentary|
|1948||Arch of Triumph||Associate to the Director:238|
|1949||The Red Pony||Assistant to the Producer:239|
|1952||Chevron Theatre (TV series)||Director, "That's My Pop", "Annual Honeymoon", "The Bacular Clock", "Mungahra", "The Survey Man", "Meet the Little Woman", "The Reluctant Burglar", "One Thing Leads to Another":239|
|1952||Gruen Playhouse (TV series)||Director, "Dream Man", "A Boy with a Gun", "Bird of Prey", "For Life":239|
|1952||Omnibus (TV series)||Director, "Mr. Lincoln", five half-hour films:239|
|1954–55||A Word to the Wives, The Right Touch, Room for Improvement||Director, industrial films:240|
|1957–58||Suspicion (TV series)||Associate Producer:241|
|1957–62||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Associate Producer:240|
|1958||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Director, "$2,000,000 Defense", "Six People, No Music", "Safety for the Witness":241|
|1959||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Director, "Your Witness", "Human Interest Story", "No Pain", "Anniversary Gift". "Special Delivery", "Man from the South", "Say of the Bullet":241|
|1960||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Director, "Hooked", "Very Moral Theft", "Contest for Aaron Gold", "O Youth! O Beauty!":241|
|1961||Alfred Hitchcock Presents (TV series)||Director, "Incident in a Small Jail", "I Spy", "You Can't Be a Little Girl All Your Life", "Strange Miracle", "The Faith of Aaron Menefree":241|
|1962–63||Alfred Hitchcock Hour (TV series)||Producer:242|
|1962||Alfred Hitchcock Hour (TV series)||Director, "Final Vow":241|
|1962||Alcoa Premiere (TV series)||Director, "The Jail":241|
|1963–65||Alfred Hitchcock Hour (TV series)||Executive Producer:242|
|1964||Alfred Hitchcock Hour (TV series)||Director, "The Jar", "The Lifework of Juan Diaz":242|
|1968||Journey to the Unknown (TV series)||Executive Producer:242|
|1968||The Smugglers (TV)||Director, Producer:239|
|1968||Companions in Nightmare (TV)||Director, Producer:239|
|1971||Columbo (TV series)||Director, "Lady in Waiting"|
|1972||Carola (TV)||Director, Producer:242|
|1972–76||Hollywood Television Theatre (TV series)||Executive Producer
Director, "Nourish the Beast", "Knuckle", "Ascent of Mount Fuji", "The Fatal Weakness", "Philemon", "Actor", "The Carpenters", "Awake and Sing":208, 242–243
|1980–82||Tales of the Unexpected (TV series)||Producer, American episodes
Director, "Youth from Vienna", "Wet Saturday":244
- "Hollywood's Oldest Working Actor, 100, Reveals His Secret To Longevity".
- New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1915; Election District: 54; Assembly District: 22; City: New York; County: Kings; Page: 84. Ancestry.com. New York, State Census, 1915 [database online]. Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Katz, Ephraim, Fred Klein; Ronald Dean Nolan, The Film Encyclopedia (Third Edition). New York: HarperPerennial, 1998. ISBN 9780062734921 page 1838.
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- Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census [database online]. Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2010. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census [database online]. Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2002. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1925; Election District: 08; Assembly District: 16; City: Brooklyn; County: Kings; Page: 43. Ancestry.com. New York, State Census, 1925 [database online]. Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Lloyd, Norman (1993) . Stages of Life in Theatre, Film and Television. New York: Limelight Editions. ISBN 9780879101664.
- "Max Perlmutter". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Bhattacharya, Sanjiv (August 27, 2015). "Meet Norman Lloyd, the 100-year-old star of Trainwreck". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Blankfort, Michael (1936). The Crime. New York: New Theatre League.
- "Broadway thesp Peggy Lloyd dies at 98". Variety. 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Lattanzio, Ryan (2014). "Orson Welles' World, and We're Just Living in It: A Conversation with Norman Lloyd". EatDrinkFilms.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Welles, Orson; Hill, Roger (1939). The Mercury Shakespeare. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 413059.
- "Columbia Standard C Album Sets". Hopper Columbia Discography. ISBN 978-1-4478-4414-3. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- The Merchant of Venice. E. Sussex, England: Pearl (GEMS 0029), Pavilion Records Ltd. 1998. ISBN 1899644229. OCLC 44617179.
- Flanagan, Hallie (1965). Arena: The History of the Federal Theatre. New York: Benjamin Blom, reprint edition . OCLC 855945294.
- Atkinson, Brooks (December 30, 1938). "Living Newspaper Story of America in the Sundgaard and Connely 'Everywhere I Roam'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Everywhere I Roam". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1992). This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
- Brady, Frank (1989). Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-385-26759-2.
- "Norman Lloyd Interview". Archive of American Television. September 7, 2000. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Keck, William (October 15, 2010). "Keck's Exclusives: St. Elsewhere Vet Guests on Modern Family". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- "The Colony Theatre presents An Evening With Norman Lloyd". Theatre in Los Angeles. November 15, 2010. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- King, Susan (April 12, 2014). "UCLA Honors the Daring Work of Norman Lloyd". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014.
- Foundas, Scott (November 7, 2014). "Norman Lloyd at 100: Hollywood’s Living Memory". Variety. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- McCarthy, Todd (September 6, 2008). "Film Review: Me and Orson Welles". Variety. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Liliom". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Alice in Wonderland". Samuel French, Inc. 1932. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Alice in Wonderland". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Noah". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Triple A Plowed Under". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Injunction Granted". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Power". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "News of the Stage; 'Julius Caesar' Closes Tonight". The New York Times. May 28, 1938. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Quiet City". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "Medicine Show". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- Atkinson, Brooks (April 13, 1940). "The Play: 'Medicine Show' Is a Living Newspaper Survey of the Health Problem in America". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "Liberty Jones". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "Village Green". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "Ask My Friend Sandy". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "King Lear". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "The Will & Bart Show". Williamstown Theatre Festival. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- Calta, Louis (March 11, 1954). "Premiere Tonight of 'Golden Apple'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "'Teahouse' Picked by Drama Critics". The New York Times. April 14, 1954. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- "I've Got the Tune". The Marc Blitzstein Web Site. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
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- Norman Lloyd at Filmreference.com