Norman Makin

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The Honourable
Norman Makin
AO
Makin-young.jpg
Born Norman John Oswald Makin
(1889-03-31)31 March 1889
Petersham, New South Wales
Died 20 July 1982(1982-07-20) (aged 93)
Adelaide, South Australia
Nationality Australian
Occupation Metal worker
Spouse(s) Ruby Florence nee Jennings
Children Lloyd John Makin
Parent(s) John Hulme Makin and Elizabeth, née Yates[1]
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Hindmarsh
In office
13 December 1919 – 14 August 1946
Preceded by William Archibald
Succeeded by Albert Thompson
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Sturt
In office
29 May 1954 – 10 December 1955
Preceded by Keith Wilson
Succeeded by Keith Wilson
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Bonython
In office
10 December 1955 – 1 November 1963
Preceded by New seat
Succeeded by Martin Nicholls
7th Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
In office
20 November 1929 – 16 February 1932
Preceded by Sir Littleton Groom
Succeeded by George Mackay
Personal details
Political party Australian Labor Party

Norman John Oswald Makin AO (31 March 1889 – 20 July 1982) was an Australian politician and diplomat. He was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1919 to 1946 for Hindmarsh, from 1954 to 1955 for Sturt, and from 1955 to 1963 for Bonython. He was Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives from 1929 to 1932 and served as Minister for the Navy, Minister for Munitions (1941–1946) and Minister for Aircraft Production (1945–1946) under John Curtin, Frank Forde and Ben Chifley. He was the first President of the United Nations Security Council in 1946, and served as Ambassador to the United States from 1946 to 1951.[2]

Early life[edit]

Makin was born in Petersham, New South Wales, the son of an itinerant worker. His family moved to Melbourne in 1891 and to Broken Hill in 1898, where he attended Broken Hill Superior Public School. He left school at thirteen and became a parcel boy for Boan Bros. drapers. He was a member of the Shop Assistants' Union at fourteen; he worked for two stationers and newsagents, sold The Barrier Miner in the streets of Broken Hill, and was chief assistant at the C. Day & Co bookstore at eighteen. He was largely self-educated and became a keen reader, and was involved in local debating and literary societies. In 1909, while still a shop assistant, he was a witness for the defence at the conspiracy trial of trade unionist Tom Mann.[3] At eighteen, Makin undertook an apprenticeship in pattern-making and engineering, and was employed in various mines; he joined the Amalgamated Society of Engineers.[1][4][5]

He moved to Adelaide in 1911, and married Ruby Florence Jennings on 10 August 1912. He worked in a Kapunda foundry, and for James Martin & Co at Gawler. He had difficulty finding work at times due to his political activities, and returned to Broken Hill for a period, but returned to Adelaide in 1914 to work at Gray Bros. at Port Adelaide, and then in the Islington Railway Workshops. Having been involved in the labour movement from an early age, Makin was president of the North Adelaide district branch of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1914 and secretary of its political committee in 1917.[6] He was an unsuccessful Labor candidate for Barossa at the 1915 state election, reportedly riding over 2000 miles during the campaign, and again for Wakefield at the 1917 federal election. He publicly campaigned against conscription during World War I, and was president of the South Australian branch of the Labor Party from 1918 to 1919, in the aftermath of the 1916 Labor split over the issue.[1][4][7][8][9][10][11] In 1918, he published a book on the progress of the labour movement in South Australia entitled A Progressive Democracy.[12]

Makin was a lifelong Methodist, and in 1977 received a certificate from the church commending him on having been a lay preacher for seventy years.[5]

First political career[edit]

Makin was elected to the House of Representatives for Hindmarsh at the 1919 federal election, defeating Nationalist MP and 1916 Labor defector William Archibald in an acrimonious campaign.[13] He was re-elected without difficulty in 1922, 1925 and 1928, reverting Hindmarsh to its traditional status as a safe Labor seat. He spent ten years in Opposition before the election of the Scullin Labor government in 1929.[1] While in opposition, he served as secretary to the Labor caucus and had been touted in 1925 as a potential successor to John Gunn as state Labor leader and Premier of South Australia.[14][15]

Upon the election of the Scullin government, Makin was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, defeating four candidates in the Labor selection vote.[16] As with his Labor predecessor Charles McDonald, he declined the ceremonial wig and gown.[17] He was described as having been a "well-respected" Speaker, and was commended for his "dignity and impartiality" as Speaker as the 1931 Labor split unfolded.[18][19] Following the defeat of the Scullin government in 1931 amidst the split, Makin was an outspoken loyalist of official Labor, alleging that he had been subject to an attempt to bribe him to leave the party, condemning both the pro-Premiers' Plan and Lang Labor defectors, and repeatedly clashing with Premier Lionel Hill.[20][21][22][23] His staunch opposition to the Premiers' Plan led to him being rumoured as a potential challenger to Scullin for the federal Labor leadership, although he denied interest and no challenge eventuated.[24][25][26][27] At the 1931 federal election, Makin was the only Labor member elected from South Australia.

During his second stint in opposition in the 1930s, he was again secretary of the Labor caucus, and served as federal president of the Labor Party from 1936 to 1938.[28][1]

Makin was one of the three Labor members on the Advisory War Council from October 1940.[29] By 1941, when Labor returned to power under John Curtin, of who Makin was a close supporter, Makin had an undeniable claim to office, and became Minister for the Navy and Minister for Munitions – key posts in a wartime government.[30] In 1945 he also became Minister for Aircraft Production.[31] He established good relations with service chiefs and played an important role in Australia's successful transition to a wartime economy. He advocated for munitions factories to be retained in government control and adapted to civilian use to boost post-war manufacturing.[32] When Curtin died in 1945, Makin contested the leadership along with Ben Chifley and caretaker Prime Minister Frank Forde, but was unsuccessful, with Chifley winning 45 votes, Forde 15, Makin 7, and H. V. Evatt 1.[33]

As diplomat[edit]

Makin had sought a diplomatic post as early as 1944, and had been in consideration for the positions of High Commissioner to Canada and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, but had been convinced by Curtin that he could not be spared.[34][35] He was Acting Minister for External Affairs for four months during the absence overseas of H. V. Evatt until January 1946, during which time negotiations for the Australian–Thai Peace Treaty took place and Australia re-established a Commissioner in Singapore.[36][37] In January 1946, he was selected by Chifley to lead the Australian delegation to the first General Assembly of the United Nations, having previously represented Australia at the London conference in early 1945.[38][39] The government had initially planned to send only an official delegation to the United Nations, but made a late decision to send Makin after significant criticism that the lack of ministerial presence was inadequate for the importance of the event. The selection of Makin was nonetheless criticised by the opposition and some media due to a perception that he lacked experience in external affairs and did not have the stature of a figure such as Evatt.[40][41][42][43]

On 14 January 1946, the day Makin arrived in London, Australia won a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council; as the provisional rules appointed the body's president by rotation among members in alphabetical order, Makin became the first President of the United Nations Security Council from 17 January to 16 February that year and presided over its first meeting.[44][45][46] He described it as "the most impressive day of my life".[47] His presidency included responses to the Iran crisis of 1946, the Indonesian National Revolution and the presence of British troops in Greece, and the appointment of the first Secretary-General.[48][49][50] Canadian journalist Ross Munro, in comments widely reported in the Australian press, sharply criticised Makin's tenure as President of the Security Council, claiming that he was insufficiently strong or decisive, that Makin seemed "uncertain about procedural matters" and was hesitant in applying and interpreting the United Nations Charter; Munro quoted one delegate who had commented that Makin "seemed overawed", and other correspondents that he "was too anxious to please".[51][52] The Sydney Morning Herald reported that Makin's chairmanship had been "scathingly criticised in the lobbies" in England, while The Daily Mirror defended Makin, stating that he had "conducted proceedings with scrupulous fairness, great care, obvious sincerity and no small degree of skill", and deriding what they labelled a "campaign to belittle and disparage" him.[53] He again served as President of the Security Council when the presidency returned to Australia in January 1947.[54]

In June 1946, Chifley announced that Makin would be appointed as Australian Ambassador to the United States, a decision that had been expected since December 1945, while also elevating the position in rank from resident minister. He arrived in Washington, D.C. and presented his credentials in September.[55][56][57] He retained his Cabinet posts until the 1946 election, reportedly because Chifley was unsure whether his desired successor would replace Makin.[58] The United States ambassadorship was a position of great importance in the gathering Cold War atmosphere of the post-war years, atop a rapidly-expanding Australian presence in Washington. The teetotal Makin found the cocktail party circuit "arduous", and although he acknowledged the opportunities for more informal diplomacy, resented the limitations of the demanding social calendar on his home life. His practice of drinking only orange juice at such events was described as "almost unique among high-living diplomats".[59] In 1947, he was involved in canvassing support in the United Nations for the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, and signed the papers bringing Australia into the International Monetary Fund.[60][61] He remained in the post after Labor lost government to Robert Menzies in 1949, and served until 1951. His last official act as ambassador was to read the opening prayers for the United States Senate.[62][63]

Return to politics and later life[edit]

After leaving his diplomatic post, Makin returned to Australia. In October 1951, several months after his return, he campaigned for a "no" vote in the 1951 referendum on banning the Communist Party.[64] In 1954, he decided to return to electoral politics, although he was by then 65 years old. At the 1954 election he captured the marginal Liberal seat of Sturt for Labor, defeating incumbent Keith Wilson with a 53 percent primary and two-party vote from a 5.4 percent swing.[65][66] Sturt was significantly redistributed prior to the 1955 election. Most of the Labor-friendly territory in Sturt was shifted to the newly created Bonython. While this redistribution made Sturt notionally Liberal, Bonython was notionally a comfortably safe Labor seat. Makin opted to transfer to Bonython, which he won easily.[67][68] While still a Member of Parliament in 1961 he authored a book with brief biographies of all leaders of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party until that time.[69] He retired at the 1963 election, following an amendment to Labor Party rules that introduced a mandatory retirement age of seventy, though Makin unsuccessfully appealed the decision to the federal executive.[70] He remained active in Labor affairs for many years following his retirement.[1]

He died in 1982 at the age of 93, at Glenelg, where he had spent his last years in a Uniting Church aged care home, and was cremated. He was survived by two sons, who published Makin's memoirs, The Memoirs of Norman John Oswald Makin, 31 March 1889 – 20 July 1982, posthumously later that year.[5][1] He was the second-last surviving member of the Curtin Cabinet behind Frank Forde, who died the following year.[71]

Honours[edit]

He was made an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) in the 1980 Australia Day Honours.[72]

The House of Representatives electorate of Makin, established in 1984 in Adelaide's northeastern suburbs, is named after him.[73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Lowe, David (2012). "Makin, Norman John (1889–1982)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  2. ^ "James Scullin: Key people". Australia's Prime Ministers. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  3. ^ "Trial of Tom Mann". The Chronicle. LI (2,645). Adelaide. 1 May 1909. p. 42. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  4. ^ a b ""Paper, Sir?"". The News. XIII (1,953) (Home ed.). Adelaide. 18 October 1929. p. 8. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  5. ^ a b c "OBITUARY". The Canberra Times. 56 (17,100). 23 July 1982. p. 12. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  6. ^ "A Union's Withdrawal". The Daily Herald. 7 (2170). Adelaide. 5 March 1917. p. 4. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  7. ^ "Mr. Makin's New Post". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 21 December 1945. p. 9. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  8. ^ "Society of Engineers". The Express and Telegraph. LI (15,284). South Australia. 31 July 1914. p. 2 (4 O'Clock). Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  9. ^ "Barossa". The Daily Herald. 6 (1558). Adelaide. 20 March 1915. p. 9. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  10. ^ "Labor Candidate Honored". The Daily Herald. 6 (1619). Adelaide. 31 May 1915. p. 3. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  11. ^ "No Vote Assured Hindmarsh Awake". The Daily Herald. 8 (2402). Adelaide. 30 November 1917. p. 6. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  12. ^ "Our Bookshelf". Westralian Worker (622). Western Australia. 12 July 1918. p. 2. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  13. ^ "Division of Hindmarsh". The Daily Herald. X (3038). Adelaide. 15 December 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  14. ^ "A New Leader?". The Recorder (8,558). South Australia. 9 August 1926. p. 1. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  15. ^ "Lucky Members Selected for Labor's Ministry". Evening News (19446). Sydney. 22 October 1929. p. 9. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  16. ^ "The Scullin Ministry". The Canberra Times. 4 (627). 23 October 1929. p. 1. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  17. ^ "Topics of the Week". The Chronicle. LXXII (3,815). Adelaide. 31 October 1929. p. 45. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  18. ^ Fraser, Malcolm (17 August 1982). "Condolence Motion for Norman Makin". Government of Australia. Retrieved 26 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Was Calm in Midst of Confusion". The Evening News (2978). Queensland. 19 March 1931. p. 7. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  20. ^ "Labof M.P.'s in Verbal War". The News. XIX (2,870). Adelaide. 29 September 1932. p. 10. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  21. ^ "The Federal Speaker". The Age (23760). Victoria, Australia. 5 June 1931. p. 9. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  22. ^ "Makin-Hill Controversy". The Barrier Miner. XLIV (13,222). New South Wales. 19 October 1931. p. 3. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  23. ^ "When They Parted Company". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 22 October 1931. p. 12. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  24. ^ "Mr. J. H. Scullin". The Telegraph. Brisbane. 29 July 1932. p. 9 (Late City). Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  25. ^ "Federal Labor Leadership". The Barrier Miner. XLV (13,460). New South Wales. 29 July 1932. p. 1. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  26. ^ "S.A. Political Crisis". The Barrier Miner. XLV (13,482). New South Wales, Australia. 24 August 1932. p. 3. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  27. ^ "Mr. Makin as Labor Leader?". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 29 July 1932. p. 19. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  28. ^ "Mr. Makin's Comments". The Age (26374). Victoria, Australia. 27 October 1939. p. 8. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  29. ^ "Dr Evatt Defeated in Ballot". The Evening News (5770). Queensland. 23 October 1940. p. 2. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  30. ^ Macintyre, Stuart (2015). Australia's Boldest Experiment: War and Reconstruction in the 1940s. NewSouth Publishing. pp. 82, 84. 
  31. ^ "Six Ministers Get New Jobs". The News. 44 (6,712). Adelaide. 2 February 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 26 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  32. ^ Macintyre, Stuart (2015). Australia's Boldest Experiment: War and Reconstruction in the 1940s. NewSouth Publishing. p. 222. 
  33. ^ Macintyre, Stuart (2015). Australia's Boldest Experiment: War and Reconstruction in the 1940s. NewSouth Publishing. p. 283. 
  34. ^ "Makin Likely Minister To Washington Next Year". The Mercury. CLXII (23,415). Tasmania. 21 December 1945. p. 9. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  35. ^ "Federal Election Year Beginning". The Sydney Morning Herald (33,703). 31 December 1945. p. 2. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  36. ^ "Siam To Pay In Rice For Her Share Of Eastern War". The Mercury. CLXIII (23,424). Tasmania. 2 January 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  37. ^ "Commissioner to Singapore". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 4 January 1946. p. 7. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  38. ^ "Mr Makin to Lead Australian Team At United Nations Assembly". The Canberra Times. 20 (5,853). 10 January 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  39. ^ "Australian Representative". Mudgee Guardian And North-western Representative. New South Wales. 10 January 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  40. ^ "Makin Will Lead Aust. UNO Delegation; Leaves Shortly". The Telegraph. Queensland. 9 January 1946. p. 1 (City Final Last Minute News). Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  41. ^ ""Inadequate" Delegation". The Sydney Morning Herald (33,714). 12 January 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  42. ^ "Stronger Man Needed at U.N". The Mail. 34 (1,756). Adelaide. 19 January 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  43. ^ "Mr. N. Makin's Appointment Criticised". Daily Advertiser. New South Wales. 12 January 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  44. ^ "Australia Gains Seat on Security Council – Dramatic Gesture By Canada To Withdraw". The Argus (31,005). Melbourne. 14 January 1946. p. 16. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  45. ^ "Makin To Lead Security Council". The Daily News. LXIV (22,080) (Home ed.). Western Australia. 14 January 1946. p. 3. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  46. ^ "Makin Urges Full Use of Council Powers". The Sydney Morning Herald (33,719). 18 January 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  47. ^ "Makin Made President of Security Council". Morning Bulletin (26,400). Queensland. 19 January 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  48. ^ "Makin Arranging Session to Study Appeal by Persia". The Sun (11,231). Sydney. 21 January 1946. p. 2 (Late Final Extra). Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  49. ^ "Russia Wants Inquiry on Greece, Indonesia". The Sun (11,232). Sydney. 22 January 1946. p. 1 (Late Final Extra). Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  50. ^ "Secretary General Of U.N.O. Appointed". Daily Examiner. 36 (9003). New South Wales. 31 January 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  51. ^ "Critical Of Makin At UNO". The Sun (11,246). Sydney. 7 February 1946. p. 2 (Late Final Extra). Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  52. ^ "Delegates Openly Criticise Makin". Daily Examiner (9010). New South Wales. 8 February 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  53. ^ "Sneering Attacks on Makin". The Australian Worker. 55 (7). New South Wales. 13 February 1946. p. 12. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  54. ^ "Mr. Makin Again Chairman of Security Council". Daily Advertiser. New South Wales. 2 January 1947. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  55. ^ "Mr Makin for Washington". The Argus (30,983). Melbourne. 18 December 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  56. ^ "Washington Post for Makin: Aust's First Ambassador". Morning Bulletin (26,471). Queensland, Australia. 13 April 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  57. ^ "Mr. Makin Reaches Washington". Daily Advertiser. New South Wales. 6 September 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  58. ^ Macintyre, Stuart (2015). Australia's Boldest Experiment: War and Reconstruction in the 1940s. NewSouth Publishing. p. 356. 
  59. ^ "The Social Life Of Envoy Makin". The News. 48 (7,429). Adelaide. 27 May 1947. p. 2. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  60. ^ Mandel, Daniel (1999). "Dr H.V. Evatt at the united nations: A crucial role in the 1947 partition resolution for Palestine". Australian Historical Studies. 29 (112). 
  61. ^ "Mr. Makin Signs Up". Goulburn Evening Post. New South Wales. 6 August 1947. p. 5 (Daily and Evening). Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  62. ^ "Spender Replaces Makin As Ambassador In US". Northern Star. New South Wales. 3 March 1951. p. 5. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  63. ^ "Read Senate Prayers". Cairns Post (15,327). Queensland. 24 April 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  64. ^ "Mr. Makin to Support 'No' Campaign". The News. 57 (8,762). Adelaide. 7 September 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  65. ^ "Mr. Makin Back After Eight Years". The Age (30,912). Victoria, Australia. 31 May 1954. p. 6. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  66. ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Legislative Election of 29 May 1954". Psephos. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  67. ^ "Ten Seats Hit by Poll Plan". The Argus. Melbourne. 24 March 1955. p. 5. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  68. ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Legislative Election of 10 December 1955". Psephos. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  69. ^ Norman Makin (1961), Federal Labour Leaders, Union Printing, Sydney, New South Wales
  70. ^ "Labour Faces Split In S.A". The Canberra Times. 38 (10,669). 17 October 1963. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  71. ^ "Curtin was the noblest, PM says". The Canberra Times. 48 (13,732). 29 April 1974. p. 7. Retrieved 27 October 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  72. ^ "Makin, Norman John Oswald". It's An Honour. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  73. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Makin (SA)". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
William Archibald
Member for Hindmarsh
1919–1946
Succeeded by
Albert Thompson
Preceded by
Littleton Groom
Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
1929–1931
Succeeded by
George Mackay
Preceded by
Keith Wilson
Member for Sturt
1954–1955
Succeeded by
Keith Wilson
New division Member for Bonython
1955–1963
Succeeded by
Martin Nicholls
Political offices
Preceded by
Billy Hughes
Ministers for the Navy
1941–1946
Succeeded by
Arthur Drakeford
Preceded by
Philip McBride
Ministers for Munitions
1941–1946
Succeeded by
John Dedman
Preceded by
Don Cameron
Ministers for Aircraft Production
1945–1946
Diplomatic posts
New title Head of the Australian Delegation to the United Nations
1945–1946
Succeeded by
Paul Hasluck
as Permanent Representative
Preceded by
Sir Frederick Eggleston
Australian Ambassador to the United States
1946–1951
Succeeded by
Sir Percy Spender
New title President of the United Nations Security Council
1946
Succeeded by
Cyro de Freitas Valle
Preceded by
Herschel Johnson
President of the United Nations Security Council
January 1947
Succeeded by
Fernand van Langenhove