Norman toponymy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Place-names in Normandy have a variety of origins. Some belong to the common heritage of the Langue d'oïl extension zone in northern France and Belgium; this is called "Pre-Normanic". Others contain Old Norse and Old English male names and toponymic appellatives. They intermingle with romance male names and place-name elements to create a very specific superstratum, typical of Normandy within the extension zone of the Langue d'oïl. These are sometimes called "Normanic".[1]

Normandy's main towns and cities. Four have Normanic names: Dieppe, Cherbourg, Honfleur and Barfleur. Harfleur, which was an important port before le Havre's foundation, can be added.

Pre-Normanic place-names[edit]

There are still a significant number of Celtic (Gaulish) names, as there are throughout France and western Europe. These names, partly mixed with Latin elements, follow the Late Latin phonetic changes that lead to Langue d'oïl.

Traditional large cities[edit]

Almost all the main cities kept a Romanized Celtic name, that produced the modern toponym.

BC era[edit]

  • Rouen: from the Gallo-Romance ROTOMAGU (Latin Rotomagus),[2] in turn from the Gaulish Ratumacos (sometimes Ratómagos, on the coins of the Veliocassi tribe). The first part of the name might refer to roto-, the word for "wheel" or "race", cf. Old Irish roth or Welsh rhod ("wheel" or "race"). The meaning of the second part, Magos, is much clearer: "field", "plain", or later "market" cf. Old Irish mag (gen. maige), meaning "field" or "plain"; Old Breton ma, meaning "place". Taken together, the whole could mean "hippodrome", "racecourse", or "wheel market".[3]
  • Caen: probably *Catumagus, from the Old Celtic catu-, meaning "battle", "fight", or "combat"; or the Old Irish cath (gen. catho), meaning "combat", "battalion", or "troop"; the Breton -kad /-gad and the Welsh cad, both meaning "combat" or "troop". As a whole, the name could mean "battlefield".
  • Carentan: attested as Carentomagus.[4]
  • Vernon: probably *Vernomagus,[5] meaning "plain of the alder-trees", derived from uernā, meaning "alder-tree"; or, in Old Irish, fern; and in Breton and Welsh, gwern.

AD era[edit]

In the following examples, a Gaulish toponym was replaced by the name of the local tribe, according to a process well known in the later Roman Empire:

  • Bayeux: rooted in the civitas named Bajocassensis; which was formerly known as Augustodurum, meaning "forum dedicated to Augustus".
  • Evreux: rooted in the civitas named Eburovicensis, formerly known as Mediolanum.
  • Lisieux: rooted in the civitas named Lexoviensis, formerly known as Noviomagus,[6] meaning "new market", from the Old Celtic noviios, meaning "new".
  • Avranches: rooted in the civitas named Abrincatii; formerly known as Ingena or Legedia.

There were exceptions to this practice, such as:

Some of these would disappear later, replaced by Normanic names; thus Coriovallum became Cherbourg and Caracotinum became Harfleur. Such changes indicate that the older inhabitants who used the earlier name were displaced by newcomers, either leaving completely or becoming a small minority.

Some cities' Pre-Normanic names are not known, such as Honfleur or Dieppe.

Common northern French toponymic types[edit]

The most common suffix in northern France is -acum (written -acum, -acus or -aco in early Medieval Latin documents, but pronounced in vulgar Latin -acu), that means "place of" or "property". Its origin is the Celtic -āko(n). Originally, it was used to as the location of either a god or a people. Examples include Anualonacu, meaning "sanctuary of Anualō [a god]" and nautae Parisiaci, meaning "sailors of the Parisii [tribe]".[7]

In northern France and Belgium, –(i)acum became -ay, -ai, -ey, -é or -y. All of these variations are found in Normandy. Places with this suffix include Gournay, Bernay, Cernay, and Andilly.

Another, generally later, variation is composed of masculine names that can be either Gaulish or Latin, for example: Massy from Gaulish Mascius; Marcilly from Roman Marcellus; Fleury from Roman Florius; and Montigny from Roman Montanius.

However, the latest -acum formations are combined with a Christian or a Germanic masculine name, such as Repentigny, from the Christian name Repentin(i)us. The most common -acum place-name in Normandy is Glatigny, of which more than 40 exist.

Romance place-name elements[edit]

These come from the Vulgar Latin, but began only about 100 years after the fall of the Roman Empire, in the 6th century AD. In this province, it is sometimes difficult to know if these formations (-ville, -val, -mont, -mesnil, etc.) are Pre-Normanic or Normanic, due to similarities between the two.

The main romance appellatives are the following:

  • -ville or Ville-, meaning "farm", and later "village"
  • -court, Cour-, or Cor-, meaning "farm with a courtyard"
  • -val or Val-, meaning "small valley"
  • -mont or Mont-, meaning "hill"
  • -mesnil, -menil or Mesnil-, meaning "property"

General description[edit]

In France, including Normandy, the extension of -court, -ville, and -mesnil (including its variant spellings -maisnil and -ménil) corresponds generally to Frankish and other Germanic settlements. This is the most likely reason why the common word order is also from the Germanic: determinative (adjective, appellative or owner's name) plus determined (romance element). Examples include: Neuville, meaning "new village"; Bourville (Bodardi villa, 8th century) meaning "Bodard's farm"; Harcourt (Herolcurt, 11th century) meaning "Herulf's farm"; and Attemesnil (Ademesnil, 13th century) meaning "Adda's property".[8] Less than one-third of France, the north, makes use of the Germanic ordering.

In Vulgar Latin, as in Celtic, the opposite word order prevailed: determined (Romance appellative) plus determinative (adjective). This order dominates in Occitan toponymy, as well as in western France.[9] Instead of Neuville, in the south we find Villeneuve, derived either from Occitan, Vielanova, or from a more modern name.

Similarly, northern Neuchâtel, Neufchâtel,[10] or Neufchâteau, meaning "new castle", corresponding to southern Châteauneuf or Châtelneuf, a translation of Castelnau in Occitan.[11]

The local specificity[edit]

In the Norman toponymy, the most widespread appellative is -ville or Ville-, with an estimated 20% of the French communes of Normandy containing this appellative. The oldest recorded instance is Bourville, as Bodardi villa in 715.[12] This is in contrast to the much less frequently used -court.

The most widely used -ville toponyms are combined with either a male name or an adjective: Amfreville (Asfridr′s farm), Auzouville (Asulfr′s farm), Beuzeville (Bosi′s farm), Colleville (Koli′s farm), Épreville (Sprot′s farm), Sotteville (Soti′s farm), Tocqueville (Toki′s farm), Touffreville (Thorfridr′s farm), Tourville (Thori′s farm), Trouville (Thorold′s farm), Grainville (Grimr′s farm), Bretteville (Briton's farm) and Englesqueville or Anglesqueville (English farm).[13] These toponyms do not exist in France outside of Normandy, because their first element is a Scandinavian personal name or an adjective marking they came from Great-Britain, together with Anglo-Scandinavian farmers. In addition some typical Celtic male′s names can be found in Doncanville (Duncan′s farm), Quinéville or Quenneville (Kenneth′s farm), Néville (Niall′s farm).

The -court appellative is usually combined with either a Germanic masculine name, as in Hébécourt, from Herbert > Norman-French Hebert (today the surname Hébert), as in Sébécourt, from Sigebert > Sebert (today the surname Sébert).[14] It almost never appears as a suffix in the western part of Normandy, but as a prefix (Cour-, Gour-, Col-, Coul-): Gourfaleur from falor, the name of a people; Coulvain, meaning "Laipwin's court"; and Coulimer, meaning "Lietmar's court".[15] François de Beaurepaire observed that -court and Cour- were never used with an Anglo-Scandinavian male's name or element.[16]

Another common appellative is -mesnil or Mesnil- (written as ménil in the Orne département). They are mainly combined with masculine anthroponyms as in Aubermesnil or Avremesnil, much like the -ville place-names, and were later built according to the Romance order, for example Mesnil-Hermant and Mesnil-Esnard.[17]

The appellative -bosc or Bosc- (pronounced [bo:] or [bɔk]), meaning "wood", corresponds to the French word bois, and is specific to this Province. In Normandy, it is usually combined with a masculine name: Auberbosc and Colbosc, when following the Germanic order; while the later Romance order gives numerous examples, such as Bosc-Roger, Bosc-Renoult, and Bosc-Robert.[18]

-vast is the only one that never appears as *Vast-. The first element must be a personal name, like Martin in Martinvast, Soti in Sottevast (Sotewast, 12th century), and Tolir in Tollevast (Toberwast and Tolewast, 12th century).[19] Véraval, now often misspelled as Ver-à-Val, became a -val place-name by popular etymology. First recorded as Warelwast in 1024 (see William de Warelwast), utilizing the former appellative, -wast (meaning "bad land", or "unfertile or uncultivated land"),[20] which is now spelled -vast in the north and ga(s)t(te) in the south.[21]

Normanic place names[edit]

Normandy in 10th - 11th century, map based on the Normannic toponymy (in blue). Normandy is the only region in France with Scandinavian place-names


Old Norse and Old English settlement names began with the Norse settlement at the end of the ninth century, expanding in the tenth century with the creation of the Duchy of Normandy by Rollo in 911. Since the speakers of Old Norse were linguistically assimilated into Francophone society within a few generations, these settlement names most likely date prior to 11th century. Most of these settlers were most likely Danish, Norwegian, or Anglo-Saxon. These languages were quite similar to each other, making it difficult to distinguish the origin of the appellatives and accompanying adjective or male name.[22]

Old Norse and Old English appellatives[edit]

  • Bec- or -bec, derived from beck, meaning "stream" or "brook". It can also be found alone as in, le Bec. Examples of its combination with an adjective would be: Houlbec, meaning "hollow beck"; Foulbec, meaning "dirty beck"; and Caudebec 'cold beck' (Caldebec, 11th century), etc.[23][24][25]
  • -beuf or Boos, from Old Eastern Norse bóð or Old English bōth, meaning "booth". Examples are: Elbeuf-sur-Andelle, Elbeuf (Seine-Maritime, Wellebuot 1070 - 1081), Criquebeuf-en-Caux, Lindebeuf (Seine-Maritime, Lindebeod 1142), and Boos (Seine-Maritime, Bodas 1030 - 1040, Bothas ab 1049) -similar to Booths, Yorkshire-, Daubeuf-la-Campagne (Eure, Dalbuoth 1011).[26][27] Two cases at least are doubtful: Criquebeuf-la-Campagne (Eure, Crichebu 1203) and Carquebut, which probably derive not from Old Eastern Norsebóð but from the Old Norse .[28] Sometimes -beuf has been misspelled -bœuf, meaning "ox" in French, as in Cricquebœuf (Calvados, Crikeboe 1198).[29] The other -bœuf place-names throughout France refer to "ox", and clearly allude to slaughterhouses, such as Écorchebœuf ("flay-ox"), Tubœuf ("kill-ox") or Tombebœuf ("fall-ox"). The -beuf, -bu, -bot element corresponds to the place-names ending with -by in Great Britain. It explains the existence of parallel formations on both sides of the English Channel:[30]
Normandy Great Britain
Elbeuf (*Welleboth) Welby
Criquebeuf (*Kirkeboth) Kirkby
Daubeuf (*Dalboth) Dalby

A similar use can be found in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany : Haddeby (Hadæboth 1285).[31]

  • Bre(c)q- or -bre(c)que (sometimes Bricque-), from the Old Norse brekka, meaning "slope", "incline", or "hill". Found in the following place-names: Houllebrecque in (Saint-Aubin-de-Crétot), Brecqhou (England : Norbreck, Warbreck, and Scarisbrick).[32][33]
  • -cher or -quier, from the Old Norse kjarr meaning "marsh" or "swamp", which can be found in Villequier (combined with the Old English wiliġ, meaning "willow") and Orcher (Alrecher, 11th century, combined with the Old English alor, aler, meaning "alder").[34][35]
  • -clives, -lif, Clé- or Cli-, from the Old Norse klif or Old English clif, meaning "cliff".[36][37][38] Examples of which are: Risleclif, Witeclif (now Côte-Blanche "white cliff" at Évreux), Verclives, Clitourps, Cléville, Carquelif, and Clairefougère (Clivefeugeriam, 12th century).[39]
  • Crique- or -crique, from the Old Norse kirkja, meaning "church", but this should not be confused with the French term, la crique from Old Norse kriki, "creek". Examples of this appellative are la Crique, Criquetot-l'Esneval, Criquetot-le-Mauconduit or Yvecrique.[40]
  • Dalle-, -dalle, -dal, or Dau-, from the Old Norse dalr, meaning "valley", or the Old English dæl, meaning "dale". It can be seen on its own with a romance article as in la Dalle or Le Dallet; or in combination with an adjective, as in Dieppedalle (with the Old Norse djupr[41][42][43] or Old English dēop, meaning "deep"[44]), Croixdalle (with the Old English crāwe, meaning "crow"), and Oudalle (from the Norman ouf, meaning "wolf").
  • Escalle or -écal-, from either the Old Norse skali or Old English scale, meaning "shelter". Examples would be Touffrécal, Brecquécal, Écalles-Alix (Escales, 12th century), and Villers-Écalles (Escalis, 12th century).[45][46][47]
  • Étain-, Étan- or Étenne-, from the Old Norse steinn or Old English stān, meaning "stone". Examples would be: Grestain (combined with the Old English grēat, meaning "big"),[48] Étainhus (Stone house), Étaintot, Étheintot, Étalondes, and Étangval (Stone valley).
  • -gard, from the Old Norse garðr, meaning "yard" or "garden", found in the names: Auppegard (Appelgart ab. 1160) combined with æppel, meaning "apple") and Figard (Figart 1238, combined with fiskr, meaning "fish").[49]
  • -gate or -gathe, meaning "way", as in Houlgate, la Houlgate, Hôrgate (meaning "hollow way"), Hiégathe, etc.[50][51]
  • Hague, -hague, from the Old Norse or Old English haga, meaning "enclosure". Examples are: la Hague, le Tohague, Étauhague, and le Haguedic (combined with the Anglo-Norse dik).[52][53]
  • Hogue or Hougue from the Old Norse haugr, meaning "hill", found in names like Les Hogues, Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue, and la Hougue-Bie (Jersey).[54][55][56]
  • Houlme, Hom(me) or -homme, from the Old Norse word holmr, meaning "islet". The appellative, homme, is identical to the French word meaning, "man", but is pronounced differently: French [ɔm] (l'homme) versus Norman [χɔm] or [hɔm] (le homme). It is found in place-names such as Le Houlme, Robehomme, Saint-Quentin-sur-le-Homme, and les Échommes.[57][58][59]
  • -hus or -hurs from the Old Norse hús or Old English hūs, meaning "house". As found in: Sahurs (Salhus ab 1024, maybe from Sálúhús "kind of inn" like Salhus (disambiguation), Norway) and Étainhus (″stone house″).[60][61][62]
  • Londe, -lon or -ron, from the Old Norman londe, meaning "forest" or "wood". There are over 45 municipalities and hamlets named La Londe in Normandy, as well as several Les Londes (plural). It is also used in combination with other adjectives, such as Bouquelon (Eure, Buculun ab 1040), Bois de Boclon (Seine-Maritime, Bocolunda silva 1032), la Bouquelonde, combined with bók(i), meaning "beech tree"; Yquelon, Yclon (Seine-Maritime, Iquelont 1404), Iclon (Seine-Maritime, Ichelunt 1088) combined with eik(i), meaning "oak tree"; Écaquelon (Eure, Schacherlon 1174), Écaquelon (Eure, Escakerlon 1169), combined with the Old English sċeaċere, meaning "thief" or "brigand"; Catelonde (Calvados, Cathelunde 12th century) with personal name Káti; Yébleron (Seine-Maritime, Eblelont ab 1210); Ablon (Calvados, Eblelont w. d.) with epli "apple".[63][64][65]
  • Thuit or -tuit, from the Old Norse thveit, meaning "assart", English Thwaite (placename element). Several le Thuit exist, as well as other combined examples, such as Bracquetuit, Vautuit, and Bliquetuit.[66][67][68]
  • Torp, Torps, Tourp, Tourps, -tourp or -tour, from the Old Norse torp or the Old English thorp, meaning "settlement". There are several stand alone towns named either Torps or le Torp. Other examples are: le Torp-Mesnil, Clitourps, Saussetour (Sauxetorp end 12th century), Sauxtour (Sauxetourp 1292), similar as Saustrup (Schleswig-Holstein, Saxtorppe, 15th century[69]), meaning "Saxi's Torp".[70][71][72]
  • Tot or -tot, meaning "property", is the most common suffix of Old Norse origin, with more than 300 locations ending with -tot in Normandy. It is derived from the Old Norse topt (similar to the Old English toft, and Old Danish -toft[e]), meaning "site of a house". In later usages of the 11th century, it can also be found alone as in, le Tot. It can be combined with a male name, as in Yvetot, Routot, Martintot or Létantot, (respectively Yvo (Germanic), Hrolfr (Norse), Martin (Romance) and Lestan (Anglo-Saxon)); or a tree-name, as in Bouquetot (from boki, meaning "beech-tree"), and Ectot or Ecquetot (from eski, meaning "ash-tree") and Plumetot (from Old English plūme "plum tree"); or with another appellative or adjective, examples of which would be Martot (from marr or mere, meaning "pond"), Életot (from sletta, meaning "flat land"), and Hautot, Hottot or Hotot (from the Old English hōh, meaning "slope" or "incline").[73][74][75]
  • Veules or El-, from the Old Norse vella or OE wella, meaning "spring" or "stream", which can be found in place-names such as: Veules-les-Roses (Seine-Maritime, Wellas 1025), Elbeuf (Wellebuoth 1070 - 1081), Elbeuf-sur-Andelle, and Elbeuf-en-Bray.[76][77][78]
  • -vic or -vy, meaning "bay" or "beach", as in: le Vicq (Manche), Sanvic (Seine-Maritime, Sanwic 1035) see Sandwich or Sandvik, Brévy (Manche, see Breivik, Breidvik, and Breivika), Vasouy (Calvados, Wasewic w. d.), Cap-Lévi (Kapelwic 12th century).[79][80][81]

Old English appellatives[82][83][84][edit]

Old Norse and Old English masculine names[edit]

Old Norse -i names[edit]

The names in parentheses are the earlier forms of the place-names, with the century in which they appeared.

Old Norse simple and combined names[121][122][123][edit]

Anglo-Saxon -a names[126][edit]

Anglo-Saxon simple and combined names[127][edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ French normanique cf. RENAUD Jean, La toponymie normanique: Reflet d'une colonisation in FLAMBARD HÉRICHER Anne-Marie, La progression des Vikings, des raids à la colonisation, Publications de l'Université de Rouen, 2003.
  2. ^ Toponymic type that exists everywhere in France, for example Ruan (Rothomago 1233 / Rotomagus 5th century), Rom.
  3. ^ Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, éditions errance 2003, p. 261 - 262.
  4. ^ Idem Charenton, etc.
  5. ^ There are other Vernon in France, but they come from Vernō 'place of the alder-trees'.
  6. ^ See Noviomagus and Lexovii.
  7. ^ Pierre-Yves Lambert, La Langue gauloise, édition errance 1994, p.39.
  8. ^ François de Beaurepaire, Les noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de l'Eure, éditions Picard 1981.
  9. ^ François de Beaurepaire, op. mentioned.
  10. ^ Neufchâtel-en-Bray is a former Neufcastel 13th century → 15th century, with the Old Norman spelling of the word "castle": castel, that gave birth to the Mod. Norman câtel (sometimes written catel). For instance: Old Norman Castel, Guernsey, known in Modern Norman as Sainte-Marie-du-Câtel (Guernsey), le Câtel (Jersey), Manoir du Catel (Pays de Caux), Radicatel (Pays de Caux), etc. corresponding to French château. There are many derived words such as Le Catelier, etc.
  11. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  12. ^ De Beaurepaire
  13. ^ De Beaurepaire
  14. ^ De Beaurepaire
  15. ^ De Beaurepaire
  16. ^ De Beaurepaire
  17. ^ De Beaurepaire
  18. ^ De Beaurepaire
  19. ^ De Beaurepaire
  20. ^ De Beaurepaire
  21. ^ De Beaurepaire
  22. ^ De Beaurepaire
  23. ^ De Beaurepaire
  24. ^ Renaud
  25. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  26. ^ De Beaurepaire
  27. ^ Renaud
  28. ^ Fournier
  29. ^ Renaud
  30. ^ De Beaurepaire
  31. ^ LAUR (Wolfgang), Historisches Ortsnamenlexicon von Schelswig-Holstein, K. Wachtholtz Verlag, Neuműnster, 1992, p. 298.
  32. ^ De Beaurepaire
  33. ^ Renaud
  34. ^ De Beaurepaire
  35. ^ Renaud
  36. ^ De Beaurepaire
  37. ^ Renaud
  38. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  39. ^ Jean Adigard des Gautries & Fernand Lechanteur, « Les noms de communes de Normandie », in Annales de Normandie XIX (juin 1969), § 715.
  40. ^ De Beaurepaire
  41. ^ De Beaurepaire
  42. ^ Renaud
  43. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  44. ^ De Beaurepaire
  45. ^ De Beaurepaire
  46. ^ Renaud
  47. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  48. ^ De Beaurepaire
  49. ^ Ridel
  50. ^ De Beaurepaire
  51. ^ Renaud
  52. ^ De Beaurepaire
  53. ^ Renaud
  54. ^ De Beaurepaire
  55. ^ Renaud
  56. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  57. ^ De Beaurepaire
  58. ^ Renaud
  59. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  60. ^ De Beaurepaire
  61. ^ Renaud
  62. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  63. ^ De Beaurepaire
  64. ^ Renaud
  65. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  66. ^ De Beaurepaire
  67. ^ Renaud
  68. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  69. ^ Laur
  70. ^ De Beaurepaire
  71. ^ Renaud
  72. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  73. ^ De Beaurepaire
  74. ^ Renaud
  75. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  76. ^ De Beaurepaire
  77. ^ Renaud
  78. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  79. ^ De Beaurepaire
  80. ^ Renaud
  81. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  82. ^ De Beaurepaire
  83. ^ Renaud
  84. ^ Guinet
  85. ^ De Beaurepaire
  86. ^ Renaud
  87. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  88. ^ De Beaurepaire
  89. ^ Renaud
  90. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  91. ^ De Beaurepaire
  92. ^ Renaud
  93. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  94. ^ De Beaurepaire
  95. ^ Renaud
  96. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  97. ^ Nordic Names: Amundi
  98. ^ De Beaurepaire
  99. ^ Renaud
  100. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  101. ^ Nordic Names: Aghi
  102. ^ De Beaurepaire
  103. ^ Renaud
  104. ^ Nordic Names: Aki
  105. ^ De Beaurepaire
  106. ^ Renaud
  107. ^ Nordic Names: Api
  108. ^ De Beaurepaire
  109. ^ Renaud
  110. ^ Renaud
  111. ^ De Beaurepaire
  112. ^ Renaud
  113. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  114. ^ De Beaurepaire
  115. ^ Renaud
  116. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  117. ^ Fournier
  118. ^ De Beaurepaire
  119. ^ Renaud
  120. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  121. ^ De Beaurepaire
  122. ^ Renaud
  123. ^ Dauzat et Rostaing
  124. ^ Renaud
  125. ^ Renaud
  126. ^ De Beaurepaire
  127. ^ De Beaurepaire
  128. ^ Renaud

External links[edit]


  • François de Beaurepaire, Les noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de la Seine-Maritime, éditions Picard 1979.
  • François de Beaurepaire, Les noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de l'Eure, éditions Picard 1981.
  • François de Beaurepaire, Les noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de la Manche, éditions Picard 1986.
  • Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieu en France, Librairie Guénégaud, Paris, 1979.
  • Albert Hugh Smith, English Place-names Elements, 2 volumes, Cambridge, 1972.
  • Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary Of English Place-names, Oxford, 1947.
  • Åse Kari H. Wagner, Les noms de lieux issus de l'implantation scandinave en Normandie: le cas des noms en -tuit, in Les fondations scandinaves en occident et les débuts du duché de Normandie, actes publiés sous la direction de Pierre Bauduin.
  • W. Laur, Historisches Ortsnamenlexikon von Schleswig-Holstein, Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1992.
  • L'Héritage maritime des Vikings en Europe de l'ouest, Colloque international de la Hague, sous la direction d'Elisabeth Ridel, Presses Universitaires de Caen, 2002.
  • René Lepelley, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de communes de Normandie, Charles Corlet éditions / Presses universitaires de Caen 1994.
  • Jean Renaud, les Vikings et la Normandie, éditions Ouest-France Université 1989.
  • Jean Renaud, Vikings et noms de lieux de Normandie, OREP éditions 2009.
  • Georges Bernage, Vikings en Normandie, Éditions Copernic, 1979.
  • Jean Adigard des Gautries, Les noms de personnes scandinaves en Normandie de 911 à 1066, C. Bloms Boktryckeri, Lund, 1954.
  • Marie-Thérèse Morlet, Les noms de personnes sur le territoire de l’ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe siècle, Paris, CNRS, t. III (les noms de personnes contenus dans les noms de lieux), 1985.
  • Dominique Fournier, Dictionnaire des noms de rues et noms de lieux de Honfleur, éditions de la Lieutenance, Honfleur 2006.
  • Louis Guinet, Les Emprunts gallo-romans au germanique: du Ier à la fin du Ve siècle, éditions Klincksieck, 1982.
  • T. F. Hoad, English Etymology, Oxford University Press, 1993.