Normandy format

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Normandy leaders in Minsk with president Lukashenko, February 2015.

Normandy format (French: Format Normandie), also known as the Normandy contact group,[1] or the Normandy Four, is a diplomatic group of senior representatives of the four countries (Germany, Russia, Ukraine and France) to resolve the war in Eastern Ukraine.[2]

The group was created on June 6, 2014, when leaders from France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine met on the margins of the 70th anniversary of the D-Day allied landings in Normandy.[3] Since negotiations and talks have been stalled since 2016, the Normandy Format is considered on hiatus.

It operates mainly through telephone calls between the leaders and their respective ministers of foreign affairs. The Normandy Format has sometimes been expanded to include Italy and the UK.[4][5]

Meetings[edit]

Participants[edit]

Heads of state/government[edit]

Ministers of Foreign Affairs[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brewster, Murray (11 September 2016). "Friends and foes alike don't see Canada as unbiased on Ukraine, experts say". CBC News. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Russia's Putin says supports future Normandy format talks on Ukraine". news.trust.org. Thomson Reuters Foundation. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  3. ^ "The Impact of the Normandy Format on the Conflict in Ukraine: Four Leaders, Three Cease-fires, and Two Summits | Center for Strategic and International Studies". www.csis.org. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
  4. ^ a b "Accepting joint responsibility". bundesregierung.de. German government. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Kremlin confirms telephone conference between Putin, Merkel, Hollande and Cameron - Vestnik Kavkaza". vestnikkavkaza.net.