Normandy format

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Normandy leaders in Minsk with president Lukashenko, February 2015.

Normandy format (French: Format Normandie), also known as the Normandy contact group,[1] or the Normandy Four, is a diplomatic group of senior representatives of the four countries (Germany, Russia, Ukraine and France) to resolve the war in Eastern Ukraine.[2]

The group was created on June 6, 2014, when France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine leaders met on the margins of the 70th anniversary of the D-Day allied landings in Normandy.[3]

It operates mainly through telephone calls between the leaders and their respective ministers of foreign affairs. The Normandy Format has sometimes been expanded to include Italy and the UK.[4][5]

Meetings[edit]

Participants[edit]

Heads of state/government[edit]

Ministers of Foreign Affairs[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brewster, Murray (11 September 2016). "Friends and foes alike don't see Canada as unbiased on Ukraine, experts say". CBC News. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Russia's Putin says supports future Normandy format talks on Ukraine". news.trust.org. Thomson Reuters Foundation. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  3. ^ "The Impact of the Normandy Format on the Conflict in Ukraine: Four Leaders, Three Cease-fires, and Two Summits | Center for Strategic and International Studies". www.csis.org. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
  4. ^ "Accepting joint responsibility". bundesregierung.de. German government. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ "Accepting joint responsibility". bundesregierung.de. German government. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2017.