Normes del Puig

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The Normes del Puig ("Norms of El Puig"), also known as Normes de la RACV, are the orthographic rules developed by the Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana ("Royal Academy of Valencian Culture") proposed for Valencian treated as a singular language. They were presented in the Monastery of Santa Maria, El Puig, in 1981, and try to encompass the previous Valencian tradition to rule its linguistic reality.[1]

The Normes del Puig were the official Valencian normative in which the first Statute of Autonomy of Valencia was written in 1982.[2][3] Nevertheless, since then they were substituted by the Normes de Castelló. In 2015, they regained public recognition, protection, as well as its reintroduction in the educational system, enacted by the Valencian Government;[4] although it was removed the following year.[5] Nowadays, they are used by some publishers, associations and taught by the cultural society Lo Rat Penat that issues its own qualifications in Valencian.[2]

Use[edit]

The Normes del Puig have had a minority use.[3] They were developed by the Section of Language and Literature of the RACV in 1979 and presented in a formal act in El Puig in 1982. The Councilor of Education of the Valencian Community, Amparo Cabanes, made these Norms the official standard of Valencian, during the last stage of the government of UCD (1981-1983) when the Valencian Statue of Autonomy of 1982 was published using these norms for its version in Valencian.[6][7] The Valencian government enacted that language teachers of Valencian had to had a linguistic qualification in these norms, issued mainly by Lo Rat Penat.[8][9]

Some cultural organisations have used the Norms, like the Junta Central Fallera from 1992 to 1998. Nonetheless, the use of these rules has declined particularly since its substitution by the Normes de Castelló and the subsequent creation of the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua in 1998.[10]

In its first 25 years 656 works were published using these rules, although some of them without ISBN. Furthermore, there were more publications of the Fallas without ISBN and periodic publications that use the code ISSN.[10] The stage of largest production of works in the Normes del Puig is when the political party Unió Valenciana participated in the Valencian governments with the People's Party. Between 1992 and 2001 were published 403 works (61.4% of the total), with an average of 40.3 works per year. In 2004, the production in the Normes del Puig was two times the production of other minority languages like Aranese and Aragonese, although it was doubled by the production in Asturian.[10]

The Normes del Puig are still used in different publications related to the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture, association with the patronage of the Spanish Monarchy,[11] and the cultural association Lo Rat Penat that uses these norms in its publications.[12] It is also remarkable the production of the Editorial L’Oronella.[10] Besides, the rules are defended by a sector of the Valencian regionalism in favour of language secessionism. The Internet has also given new opportunities of diffusion to the Norms of El Puig.

In 2015, the Valencian government of the PPCV passed a law to protect Valencian identity features that protected and promoted the Valencian traditions and language. In this law the Norms of El Puig and the RACV were given public protection, promotion and teaching recognition.[13][4] The opposition accused the Valencian government of being biased and electioneering. A new Valencian coalition government abrogated the law in 2016.[14][5]

In 2020, Walter de Gruyter published the Manual of Standardization in the Romance Languages, in which devoted a subsection inside the Valencian normative grammars called Other attempts at standardization, where they analysed these rules as "an independent standard based on the secessionist orthography of Normes del Puig (1981)".[15] In their conclusion they showed the different codification attempts of Catalan and Valencian linguistics including the New Valencian Grammar (NGLV) (2015) of the RACV.[15] The academy highlighted the reference of De Gruyter and published the extract.[16]

In the year 2022 it was commemorated the 40th anniversary of the Normes del Puig in the Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia with the participation of several Valencian cultural and political personalities.[17]

Orthography[edit]

Alphabet[edit]

The Valencian alphabet, according to the Normes del Puig, is composed of 26 simple letters. Besides, there is a variation called cedeta.

Letter Name Note
A a a
B b be be baixa
C c ce variation ç
D d de
E e e
F f ef efe
G g ge
H h hac silent
I i i
J j jota
K k ka
L l el ele
M m em eme
N n en ene
O o o
P p pe
Q q cu
R r er erre
S s es ese
T t te
U u u
V v ve ve baixa
W w ve doble
X x eix xe
Y y i grega
Z z zeta

The forms ef, el, em, en, er are recommended because they represent their traditional Latin names. The forms efe, ele, eme, ene, erre are present in the spoken language and they are also accepted, although they have a Castillian origin. The names *efa, ela, ema, ena, erra, are adaptations made by Eastern Catalan of the pronuntiation of the Spanish names and they are not admitted by these rules. In addition, the h and the d of the termination -ada, -ades are silent.

Likewise, Valencian possesses digraphs which are the combination of two letters that represent the same sound.[18]

Digraph Name
ch che, ce hac
gu ge u
ig ig
ll ell, elle, doble el
ny eny, enye, en i grega
qu cu u
rr doble er, doble erre
ss doble es, doble esse

Apostrophe[edit]

The apostrophe is a punctuation mark used before or after a tonic word next to an atone word. There are three types of words that can be apostrophised according to these rules.

The weak pronouns me, te, se, lo, los, ne before or after a verb starting with a vowel or silent h, or a verb that ends in vocal. Furthermore, they can be apostrophised in a combination with other pronouns. For example: dona’m dos (give me two), yo l’òmplic (I fill it). Except the verbs with a semiconsonant: Tragau-me d’ací, (get me out of here). When the pronouns cannot be apostrophised they are written using a hyphen after the verb.

The definite articles el/lo, la are always apostrophised before a noun that starts with a vowel or a silent h. For instance: l’indústria (the industry), l’andana (the attic), l’home (the man), l’universitat (the university). The exceptions are only the names starting with a semiconsonant and the names of the letters. For example: la eme, el huit (eight).

The preposition de is apostrophised before a name starting with a vowel or a silent h, except the names starting by a semiconsonant. For instance: d’espàrrec (asparagus), d’albargina (aubergine), de hui (today).

In addition, the article el with the prepositions a (to), de (of), per (by) are contracted in al, del, pel. In spoken Valencian, the preposition per a (for) is frequently contracted in pa, it is considered as vulgarism.[19]

Accent mark[edit]

In Valencian, according to the rules, there are two types of accents, the acute accent (´) for the closed vowels, and the grave accent (`) for the opened vowels. There are seven vowels: a, e, [ɛ], i, o, [ɔ], u. The a is always opened, the e and the o can be opened or closed, and the i and the u are always closed. The monosyllabic words do not have accent mark.

If the stressed syllable is the last one and the word ends by vowel, vowel plus s, or by -en it has always accent mark: meló (melon), voràs (you will see), islandés (Icelandic).

If the stressed syllable is the penultimate and the word does not ends by vowel, vowel plus s, or by -en it has always accent mark: préstam (loan), orígens (origins), dòcil (docile).

The proparoxytone words always have accent mark: nòrdica (Nordic), séquia (irrigation canal), música (music).

Some words have accent mark to differentiate their meaning: Per favor, dòna, dona’m dèu mistos perque s’ha apagat el foc i vullc encendre el fòc. (Please, wife, give me ten matches because the lightbulb is burnt out, and I want to light the fire).

The iterrogative and exclamative pronouns are also accentuated when used in interrogative and exclamative sentences: ¿Qué? (What?) ¿A ón? (Where?) ¿Quàn? (When?) ¿Cóm? (How?) ¿Per qué? (Why?).[20]

Grammar[edit]

Determiners[edit]

The Article[edit]

The Valencian articles, according to the Normes del Puig, have the following form:

ARTICLES Defined Indefinite
Masculine el, lo / els, los un / uns
Feminine la / les una / unes
Neuter lo

The masculine article el (the) is the general form in Valencian: el dia (the day), el fardacho (the lizard). The other form for masculine the article, lo, is a classic form that is widely used only the northernmost parts of the Valencian Community. In general the Valencian article lo has remained used in some occasions after the prepositions en, per and the adverbs tot, dins et damunt : en lo camp, en lo coche, en lo forn, tot lo món, per lo matí. Therefore, its use is recommended in the forms where it has been conserved.

The personal article En, Na, N' has been used as a form of respect in formal contexts: El rei En Felip. Na Jordana.

The neuter lo is a current and classic genuine form in Valencian. Its use is correct in all registers: Lo millor és que hages vingut. Lo més bo es la bajoqueta. He trobat lo que buscava. Besides, the neuter lo is necessary, were it not for this form, there would be confusion in the Valencian grammar: lo bo (something good), el bo (someone good).[21]

Demonstratives[edit]

The demonstratives determiners mark the position of the object in relation to the speaker. According to these norms they have the following form:

Demonstratives Near Middle distance Far
Masculine singular este, est eixe, eix aquell
Feminine singular esta eixa aquella
Masculine plural estos eixos aquells
Feminine plural estes eixes aquelles
Neuter açò això allò

These are the current and also classic forms genuine Valencian forms accepted by this rules: esta botella, eixos mosquits, aquelles terres (this bottle, these mosquitoes, those lands). The variations est and eix are correct if the following word starts by a vowel or a silent h. Moreover, they are the recommended forms if the following word starts by e or an accentuated vowel: est estui (this summer), eix home (this man), est atre chic (this other guy), eix enterro (this burial).[22]

Possessives[edit]

The possessive determiners mark the relation of belonging of the designed object. Their tonic form according to these rules are :

Person Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
1º singular meu meua meus meues
2º singular teu teua teus teues
3º singular seu seua seus seues
1º plural nostre nostra nostres nostres
2º plural vostre vostra vostres vostres
3º plural seu seua seus seues

The possessifs can be placed before or after the noun: el meu veí, un veí meu. If they are placed before the noun they are always accompanied by the corresponding article: les meues carchofes (my artichokes), el seu got (his glass), les nostres accions (our actions), les vostres tendes (your shops).

There are also atonic possessives with the following form :

Person Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
1º singular mon ma mos mes
2º singular ton ta tos tes
3º singular son sa sos ses
1º plural nostre nostra nostres nostres
2º plural vostre vostra vostres vostres
3º plural son sa sos ses

They are always used before the nouns that indicate kinship: ma mare (my mother), mon yayo (my grandfather), sos tios (their uncles), ton cosí (your cousin). Likewise, they are used before the nouns casa (house) and vida (life), in some idioms and before some honorific tittles: ta casa, vostra vida, Sa Santitat, Sa Majestat, nostra Senyera.[22]

Numerals[edit]

The numerals express a numeric calculation. The cardinals and the ordinals are:

Cardinal Ordinal
0 zero
1 u, una (feminine) primer, primera
2 dos (invariable) segon, feminine segon/segona
3 tres tercer, tercera
4 quatre quart, quarta
5 cinc quint, quinta
6 sis sext, sexta
7 sèt sèptim, sèptima
8 huit octau, octava
9 nou nové, novena
10 dèu dècim, dècima
11 onze undècim, undècima
12 dotze duodècim, duodècima
13 tretze dècim tercer, dècima tercera
14 catorze dècim quart, dècima quarta
15 quinze dècim quint, dècima quinta
16 setze dècim sext, dècima sexta
17 dèsset dècim sèptim, dècima sèptima
18 díhuit dècim octau, dècima octava
19 dèneu dècim nové, dècima novena
20 vint vigèsim, vigèsima

These are the recognised ordinals in Valencian according to the Normes del Puig. They have genre and number variation: Elles foren les sèptimes (They were the seventh). Second in feminine has two possible forms, one without a which is the most used by the speakers: segon tirada, segon volta, and with final a: segona part. The construction of the ordinals adding a final e to the name of the number is not accepted because it has no have Latin base, it was vulgar in the past, and it has disappeared from Valencian.

There are also partitives: 12 un mig, una mija, 1/3 un terç, una terça, 1/8 un octau, 2/7 dos sèptims. The multiplicatives are: simple, doble, triple, quàdruple, etc.[23]

Personal pronouns[edit]

According to the El Puig's Norms there are two types of personal pronouns the stressed personal pronouns that can work as a subject, and the weak personal pronouns that always go with a verb.

The stressed personal pronouns have the following form:

Stressed personal pronouns
PERSON SUBJECT AFTER PREPOSITION
1.º pers. yo mi
2.º pers. tu, vosté tu, vosté
3.º pers. ell/ella ell/ella
1.º pers. pl. nosatros nosatros
2.º pers. pl. vosatros, vostés vosatros, vostés
3.º pers. pl. ells/elles ells/elles

For the first person plural these rules recognise three possibilities: nosatres in a formal context, nosatros as the general and standard form, and mosatros as a colloquial form. In spoken Valencian, nosatros is used in some dialects, although the most used form is mosatros, which is suitable for this context. Additionally, the same is applied to the weak pronouns nos and mos. Likewise, in the second person plural, the geneal form is vosatros, and vosatres is also used in formal contexts.

Vosté and vostés are used in formal contexts or like a sign of respect. When the verb is used, it is conjugated in the third person: ¿Vosté voldria assentar-se? (Would you like to sit down?)

When the personal pronouns have a reflexive function they go with the indefinite mateixa which is an invariable feminine form: S’ho comprà per ad ell mateixa. Elles pensaven en elles mateixa. (He bought it for himself. They thought in themselves).[24]

The weak personal pronouns have the following form:

Form Apostrophed form
Main form Inverse form Before After
1º pers. sing me em m' 'm
2º pers. sing te et t' 't
Reflexive se es s' 's
DO (masc) lo el l' 'l
DO (fem) la l'
Indirect Object li
DO indefinite ne en n' 'n
DO neuter/Attibute ho
Partitive ne en n' 'n
Comp. with de ne en n' 'n
1º pers. pl. nos
2º pers. pl. vos
3º pl. reflex. se es s' 's
DO (masc) los els 'ls
DO (fem) les
IO (masc et fem) los els 'ls
DO indefinite ne en n' 'n
DO neuter/Attribute ho
Partitive ne en n' 'n
Comp. with de ne en n' 'n

The verb[edit]

According to these norms, the Valencian verbs form the nucleus of the sentence. They are divided in three conjugations, the first conjugation ending in -ar, donar (to give), parlar (to speak); the second conjugation ending in -er, -re or -r témer (to fear), vore (to see); the third conjugation ending in -ir sentir (to feel), dormir (to sleep).[25]

First conjugation[edit]

Nonfinite (masc. sing., fem. sing., masc. pl., fem pl.).
Infinitive donar
Gerund donant
Participle donat, donada, donats, donades
Indicative yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present done dones dona donem doneu donen
Imperfect donava donaves donava donàvem donàveu donaven
Preterit perfect doní donares donà donàrem donàreu donaren
Periphrastic past vaig donar vares donar va donar vàrem donar vàreu donar varen donar
Future donaré donaràs donarà donarem donareu donaran
Conditional yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
  donaria donaries donaria donaríem donaríeu donarien
Subjunctive yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present done dones done donem doneu donen
Imperfect donara donares donara donàrem donàreu donaren
Imperative yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Affirmative   dona done donem doneu donen
Negative   no dones no done no donem no doneu no donen

Second conjugation[edit]

Nonfinite (masc. sing., fem. sing., masc. pl., fem pl.).
Infinitive témer
Gerund tement
Participle temut, temuda, temuts, temudes
Indicatif yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present tem tems tem temem temeu temen
Imperfect temia temies temia temíem temíeu temien
Preterit perfect temí temires temé temírem temíreu temiren
Periphrastic past vaig témer vares témer va témer vàrem témer vàreu témer varen témer
Future temeré temeràs temerà temerem temereu temeran
Conditional yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
  temeria temeries temeria temeríem temeríeu temerien
Subjontive yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present tema temes tema temam temau temen
Imperfect temera temeres temera temérem teméreu temeren
Imperative yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Affirmative   tem tema temam temau temen
Negative   no temes no tema no temam no temau no temen

Third conjugation[edit]

Formes non personnelles (masc. sing., fem. sing., masc. pl., fem pl.).
Infinitive sentir
Gerund sentint
Participle sentit, sentida, sentits, sentides
Indicative yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present senc/sent sents sent sentim sentiu senten
Imperfect sentia senties sentia sentíem sentíeu sentien
Preterit perfect sentí sentires sentí sentírem sentíreu sentiren
Periphrastic past vaig sentir vares sentir va sentir vàrem sentir vàreu sentir varen sentir
Future sentiré sentiràs sentirà sentirem sentireu sentiran
Conditional yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
  sentiria sentiries sentiria sentiríem sentiríeu sentirien
Subjontive yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Present senta sentes senta sentam/sentim sentau/sentiu senten
Imperfect sentira sentires sentira sentírem sentíreu sentiren
Imperative yo tu ell nosatros vosatros ells
Affirmative   sent senta sentam/sentim sentau/sentiu senten
Negative   no sentes no senta no sentam/sentiu no sentau/sentiu no senten

The adverb[edit]

The adverbs are a heterogeneous grammatical category that normally intervenes in the verbal action. The adverbs can by classified semantically as:

  • Adverbs that indicate location: damunt (on), davant (in front), darrerre (behind), avant (forward), arrere (backward), dins (inside), fòra (outside), prop (near), llunt (far), etc.
  • Adverbs that indicate temporary nature: ans/adés (after), en acabant (before), ahir (yesterday), hui (today), demà (tomorrow), despúsdemà (after tomorrow), pronte (soon), tart (late), mentres (while), etc.
  • Adverbs that express the modality: : sicerament (sincerely), honestament (honestly), aproximament (approximately).
  • Adverbs that indicate the negation: no (not), res/gens (anything), tampoc (neither), etc.
  • Adverbs that express method: aixina (so), be (good) etc.

In addition, the adverbs’ function can be expressed with an adverbial locution. For example: aixina aixina (so-so), de veres (really).[26]

Prepositions and conjunctions[edit]

The prepositions works as a link of the elements of the sentence and they are invariable in the Norms. The atonic prepositions are: a/ad, en (with), de, en (in), per, com (as), fins/hasda (until), cap, and also per a, des de, fins a, cap a, com a. The tonic prepositions are: Baix, barat a, cara, contra, entre, sense, segons, sobre, vora.[27]

The conjunctions work as links of equivalent elements. For example, the following words are conjunctions: i (and), ni (nor), o (or), pero (but), encara que (although), puix (well).[28]

Text compared[edit]

English Occitan (Languedocien) Valencian (N. del Puig) Catalan Spanish
Mince the meat in the machine (or ask the butcher to do it). Picatz la carn a la maquina (o demandatz al maselièr d’o far). Piqueu la carn en la màquina (o demaneu al carnisser que ho faça). Piqueu la carn a la màquina (o demaneu al carnisser que ho faci). Picad la carne en la máquina (o pedid al carnicero que lo haga).
Mix all the stuffing ingredients. Mesclatz tots los ingredients del fars. Mescleu tots els ingredients del farcit. Barregeu tots els ingredients del farciment. Mezclad todos los ingredientes del relleno.
Lay the hare on a good piece of gauze (it can be bought in the pharmacy). Espandissètz la lèbre sus un bon bocin de gasa (se pòt crompar en la farmacia). Estengau la llebre damunt d'un bon tros de gasa (se pot comprar en la farmàcia). Esteneu la llebre damunt d'un bon tros de gasa (es pot comprar a la farmàcia). Extended la liebre encima de un buen trozo de gasa (se puede comprar en la farmacia).
Spread the stuffing inside the animal, wrap it in the gauze. Repartissètz lo fars dintre l'animal, rotlatz lo dins la gasa. Repartiu el farcit dins de l'animal, enrolleu-lo en la gasa. Repartiu el farciment dins l'animal, enrotlleu-lo dins la gasa. Repartid el relleno dentro del animal, enrolladlo en la gasa.
Tie it not too firmly. Roast the ingredients in the oven. Ficelatz sensa sarrat tròp. Fasètz rostir los ingredients dins lo forn. Lligau-lo no massa fort. Feu rostir els ingredients dins del forn. Lligueu-lo no gaire fort. Feu rostir els ingredients dins el forn. Atadlo no demasiado fuerte. Haced rostir los ingredientes dentro del horno.

References[edit]

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  5. ^ a b Law 1/2016, 26 January. Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) no. 35, 10 February 2016, pg. 10393. (Reference: BOE-A-2016-1273) (in Spanish).
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  21. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Els determinants. L'artícul" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The determiners. The article.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  22. ^ a b "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Demostratius i possessius" [New Valencian Language Grammar: Demonstratives and possessives.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  23. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Els quantificadors: Els numerals" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The Quantifiers: The Numerals.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Els pronoms personals" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The Personal pronouns.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  25. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: El verp" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The verb.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  26. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: L'adverbi i la negació" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The adverb and the negative form.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  27. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Les preposicions" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The prepositions.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  28. ^ "Nova Gramàtica de la Llengua Valenciana: Les conjuncions" [New Valencian Language Grammar: The conjunctions.] (PDF). Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana (in Valencian). Retrieved 30 January 2022.

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