Norris Wright Cuney
|Norris Wright Cuney|
May 12, 1846|
Hempstead, Texas, U.S.
|Died||March 3, 1898
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.
|Resting place||Lake View Cemetery, Galveston, Texas, U.S.
|Residence||Galveston, Texas, U.S.|
|Other names||Wright Cuney|
|Known for||Leader of the Texas Republican Party, First Grand Master Prince Hall Masons Of Texas http://www.mwphglotx.org|
|Children||Maud Cuney Hare, Lloyd Garrison Cuney|
|Parent(s)||Philip Minor Cuney, Adeline Stuart|
|Website||TSHA: Cuney, Norris Wright|
Norris Wright Cuney, or simply Wright Cuney, (May 12, 1846 – March 3, 1898) was an American politician, businessman, union leader, and African-American activist in Texas in the United States. Following the American Civil War, he became active in Galveston politics, serving as an alderman and a national Republican delegate. Appointed as United States Collector of Customs in 1889 in Galveston, Cuney had the highest-ranking appointed position of any African American in the late 19th-century South. He was a member of the Union League and helped attract black voters to the Republican Party; in the 1890s, more than 100,000 blacks were voting in Texas.
Establishing his own business of stevedores, he helped to unionize black workers in Galveston, opening jobs for them on the docks. He substantially improved employment and educational opportunities for blacks in the city. He eventually rose to the chairmanship of the Texas Republican Party and became a national committeeman.
Cuney is regarded by many as the most important black leader in Texas in the 19th century and one of the most important in the United States. Born into slavery, he was freed by his white planter father and sent to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for his education. The war interrupted his plans to attend Oberlin College, but he continued to learn all his life. He also became active in black fraternal organizations, and was elected by black Masons as the grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1875.
Early life and education
Norris Wright Cuney was born on May 12, 1846 near Hempstead, Texas in the Brazos River valley. He was the fourth of eight children of Adeline Stuart, a mixed-race slave of African, European, and Native American ancestry. Among his siblings were his older brothers Joseph, who later became an attorney, and his younger brother Nelson, who became a building and painting contractor. Their father was Adeline's white master, Colonel Philip Cuney, a wealthy planter of English ancestry. He also had a white family, and eventually married a total of three wives. He was a politician and state senator.
By 1850 Philip Cuney was one of the largest landowners in the state, with 2,000 acres and 105 slaves, including Stuart. He was one of the 50 largest slaveowners in the state in 1860. Cuney raised cotton but also had a dairy operation, with several hundred cows, plus beef cattle brought to the marriage by his second wife, Adeline Ware, with whom he had three children before her death before 1850. He married for the third time in 1851. Cuney considered Houston his home, where he settled in 1853.
By the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, the mulatto Cuneys were all born into slavery, as their mother was a slave. Their father freed his mixed-race children and their mother, starting with Joseph in 1853, and sent his sons to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to the Wylie Street School for blacks for education. Norris was freed in 1859 and sent to Pittsburgh for schooling at that time. Jennie Cuney was freed and sent to Europe for her education; she later passed into white society. The Civil War interrupted Norris' plans to attend Oberlin College in Ohio, which was open to students of all races and both genders.
After the outset of the war, Norris Cuney gained work on a steamship that traveled between Cincinnati and New Orleans. Spending a great deal of time in New Orleans, he became friends with influential figures such as P. B. S. Pinchback, who after the war succeeded to the position of Louisiana's first black governor.
At the end of the war, Cuney moved back to Texas and settled in Galveston. He entered postwar society as a literate, educated mulatto son of a wealthy white father, which gave him advantages. His mother and brothers joined him in Galveston, where they lived a few blocks apart. Cuney began self-study in law and literature.
After the war, Cuney met George T. Ruby, a representative of the Freedmen's Bureau, the federal agency responsible for providing aid to former slaves. Its headquarters in Texas were in Galveston. Ruby was secretly a director of the Union League, an organization dedicated to attracting freedmen to the Republican Party. (It was a relatively small organization in Texas at the time, as the Democratic Party had dominated southern white politics). Cuney became increasingly involved with the Union League and Ruby's ideology. In 1870 there were 3,000 blacks in the city, nearly 25% of its 13,818 total in the US Census that year.
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Cuney's career rose with Galveston's growth as a port and progressive city. In 1870 he was appointed first sergeant-at-arms of the Texas Legislature. He befriended the Republican governor Edmund J. Davis. He was appointed as a state delegate to the 1872 national Republican convention and served in this role for every convention until 1892.
In 1871 Cuney's interest in educational opportunities for blacks led to his appointment as one of the school directors for Galveston County. The Reconstruction-era legislature established a public school system in Texas for the first time, and the state was setting it up. Cuney worked to ensure that tax allocations guaranteed education for black students in the segregated system.
Cuney was appointed head of the Galveston chapter of the Union League in 1871. As Ruby left Texas politics, Cuney gained much of his clout without some of his negative associations, as the man had been strongly connected to unpopular Reconstruction programs. In 1873 Cuney was appointed secretary of the Republican State Executive Committee. That same year he presided over the Texas convention of black leaders in Brenham.
In 1872 he was appointed the federal inspector of customs for the Port of Galveston and revenue inspector at Sabine Pass. He became a popular figure in the community; as reform efforts in the city were pushed forward by the community's business leaders, including the Galvston Cotton Exchange garnering support for harbor improvements, Cuney was asked to participate.
This was a period of dramatic growth in black fraternal organizations, part of the political organizing by freedmen. While not active in any church, Cuney joined the Prince Hall Lodge of the Freemasons, which struggled to be recognized by white chapters. He recruited new members and contributed to the growth in the number of black freemasons in Texas. Black lodges were recognized by orders in England and Germany, although not in the US South until the mid-20th century. In 1875 Cuney was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas organized by black Masons.
Cuney entered the race for Galveston mayor in 1875 but lost. He similarly lost bids for the state House of Representatives and Senate in 1876 and 1882, the latter after Reconstruction had officially ended in the South with the withdrawal of federal troops. Finally in 1883 he was elected alderman of the twelfth district on the Galveston City Council.
In 1882 he was advanced to the special inspector for customs at the port. In 1883 he began a stevedore business, employing 500 black dock workers loading and unloading ships. He later organized the black dockworkers into a labor union known as the "Colored Screwmen's Benevolent Association". At the time white unions controlled the labor market on the docks. Cuney pushed black workers to cross white picket lines and accept lower wages in order to increase black presence on the docks and weaken white bargaining power against them. He recruited additional black dock workers from New Orleans. Though inequities remained, the Trades Assembly was gradually forced to re-evaluate its racial policies and grant concessions. In 1889 Cuney was appointed as the US Collector of Customs for the port, the highest-ranking federal appointee position of a black in the late 19th-century South.
In 1886 Cuney was elected as the Texas national committeeman in the Republican Party and became the Texas party chairman, the most powerful position of any African American in the South during that century. Cuney's popularity enabled him to shape the party in Texas; his opponents, white and black, were initially unable to challenge his authority in most matters. His role and his importance became nationally recognized, and his accomplishments were reported by the New York Times.
Cuney's elevation to the Texas Republican chairmanship aggravated some white Republicans in Texas and nationwide. Since Emancipation, many whites in the young Republican party had worried about alienating Southern whites if blacks were allowed to gain too much influence in the party. Although initially the power of the black vote was seen favorably by the party leaders, this sentiment gradually changed. At the 1888 Republican convention, a group of conservative whites attempted to have a number of important black leaders expelled, leading Cuney to coin the term Lily-White Movement to describe the trend. Cuney maintained control of the party in Texas for a time.
On July 5, 1871 Cuney married Adelina Dowdie, a local school teacher. Beautiful with grey eyes, she was also the daughter of a mother who was a mulatto slave and a white planter father. The couple had two children, Maud and Lloyd Garrison Cuney (the boy was named after prominent abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison of Massachusetts). The parents were both musical: Cuney played the violin and Adelina was a soprano singer. They filled their house with music and art, emphasized education for their children, had them learn Shakespeare, and worked to shelter them from the racism of Galveston society. With two of Cuney's brothers and their families nearby, the children and their cousins regularly enjoyed each other. The families organized regular gatherings and events.
Maud Cuney (later known as Maud Cuney Hare after her marriage), studied in Boston at the New England Conservatory of Music. She wrote a biography of her father, published in 1913, and became an accomplished pianist, musicologist, writer, and community organizer in Boston. Lloyd Cuney was also well educated and became an official in the Congregational Church.
Some Texas historians refer to the period between 1884 and 1896 as the "Cuney era". It is noted as a time of significant political gains by blacks in Texas. His efforts to recruit and register blacks were part of efforts that resulted in more than 100,000 blacks voting annually in the state during the 1890s. The increased power of unionized black dock workers eventually led to interracial unions in Galveston during the 1890s and early 1900s (decade).
Cuney's passing coincided with efforts by white Democrats across the South to disfranchise black and poor white voters to reduce their influence after being unseated by Populist-Republican coalitions. They passed new constitutions and laws making voter registration more difficult. For instance, Texas instituted poll taxes and white primaries, which resulted in dramatically reducing the number of black voters in Texas from 100,000 in the 1890s to less than 5,000 in 1906. By the 1930s and the Great Depression, racial strife in the unions, in part encouraged by the employers as well as segregationists, had broken much of the labor cooperation between blacks and whites.
Cuney's example continued to inspire other black leaders. Following his being removed from the Texas Republican chairmanship, William M. McDonald, a black Fort Worth banker, formed an alliance with multimillionaire Edward H. R. Green to recapture the party. (After blacks became disfranchised and closed out of politics, from 1912 on the "Lily White Movement" dominated the Texas Republicans. Passage in the 1960s of federal civil rights laws was needed before Texas blacks fully recovered their ability to exercise their constitutional right to vote.
Cuney is the namesake for various places and organizations.
- Wright Cuney Park is located between Broadway and Harborside Drive near the wharfs in Galveston. It is the site of the city's annual Juneteenth celebration of emancipation.
- The small town of Cuney, Texas, originally settled by freed slaves, was named after Cuney Price, the son of the H.L. Price, who incorporated the town. The younger Price (and thus the town) were named for Wright Cuney.
- The Order of the Eastern Stars, Prince Hall Affiliated, renamed its Grand Chapter the Norris Wright Cuney Grand Chapter of Texas (PHA).
- Cuney Homes, a public housing complex owned and operated by the Housing Authority of Houston (HACH), was named for the politician. It is located near the campuses of Texas Southern University and the University of Houston.
- African-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1895)
- List of civil rights leaders
- Galveston, Texas
- Racism in the United States
- Texas Republican Party
- Union League
- Hales (2003), p.16
- Hare (1913), p. 3
- Hales, Douglas (2003). A Southern Family in White & Black: The Cuneys of Texas. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 1-58544-200-3.
- Cartwright (1998), p. 131
- Hales (2003), pp. 6
- Hales (2003), pp. x, 6
- Hare (1913), p. 8
- Hales (2003), p. 12
- Gatewood (2000), p. 20
- Hales (2003), pp. xi, 17
- Ruby, George Thompson from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Democratic Party from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Hales (2003), pp. 15-16
- Cuney, Norris Wright from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Hare (1913), p. 14
- Hales (2003), p. 58
- Hales (2003), p. 48
- Hales (2003), p. 20
- Obadele-Starks (2001), p. 39
- Obadele-Starks (2001), p. 40
- Hare (1913), p. 174
- "Southern Negro Progress: What the Race has done in Wealth and Education." (PDF). New York Times. 13 August 1893.
- Lily White Movement from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Winegarten (1997), p. 20
- Hales (2003), Southern White and Black, p. 17
- Hales (2003), Southern White and Black, p. 18
- Cuney-Hare, Maud from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Mason, Kenneth (1998). African Americans and race relations in San Antonio, Texas, 1867–1937. Routledge. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0-8153-3076-6.
- African-American Pioneers of Texas: From the Old West to the New Frontiers (Teacher’s Manual) (PDF). Museum of Texas Tech University: Education Division. p. 25.
- Obadele-Starks (2001), pp. 43–44
- Obadele-Starks (2001), pp. 47–50
- McDonald, William Madison from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Cartwright, Gary (1998). Galveston: A History of the Island. TCU Press. ISBN 0-689-11991-7.
- Gatewood, Willard B. (2000). Aristocrats of Color: the Black Elite, 1880–1920. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 0-253-20850-5.
- Hales, Douglas (2003). A Southern Family in White & Black: The Cuneys of Texas. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-200-3.
- Hare, Maud Cuney (1913). Norris Wright Cuney: A Tribune of the Black People. Crisis Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7838-1397-X.
- Obadele-Starks, Ernest (2001). Black Unionism in the Industrial South. Texas A&M University Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-89096-912-4.