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{{Expand Danish|Nordisk mytologi|date=April 2011}}
{{Refimprove|date=April 2011}}
'''Norse mythology''' is the overall term for the myths, legends and beliefs about supernatural beings of [[Norse paganism|Norse pagans]]. It flourished prior to the [[Christianization of Scandinavia]], during the [[Early Middle Ages]], and passed into [[Nordic folklore]], with some aspects surviving to the modern day. The mythology from the [[Romanticist]] [[Viking revival]] came to be an [[Norse mythological influences on later literature|influence on modern literature]] and [[Norse mythology in popular culture|popular culture]].
[[Image:Mjollnir.png|thumb|left|[[Mjolnir]] pendants were worn by Norse pagans during the 9th to 10th centuries. This Mjolnir pendant was found at Bredsätra in [[Öland]], [[Sweden]].]]
[[Image:The Tree of Yggdrasil.jpg|thumb|The title page of Olive Bray's English translation of the ''Poetic Edda'' depicting the tree [[Yggdrasil]] and a number of its inhabitants (1908) by W. G. Collingwood.]]
Most of the existing records on Norse mythology date from the 11th to 18th century, having gone through more than two centuries of oral preservation in what was at least officially a Christian society. At this point scholars started recording it, particularly in the ''[[Edda]]s'' and the ''[[Heimskringla]]'' by [[Snorri Sturluson]], who believed that pre-Christian deities trace real historical people. There is also the Danish ''[[Gesta Danorum]]'' by [[Saxo Grammaticus]], where the Norse gods are more strongly [[Euhemerus|Euhemerized]].
The [[Prose Edda|''Prose'' or ''Younger Edda'']] was written in the early 13th century by [[Snorri Sturluson]], who was a leading [[skáld]], chieftain, and [[diplomacy|diplomat]] in [[Iceland]]. It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring skálds. It contains [[prose]] explications of traditional "[[kennings]]," or compressed metaphors found in poetry. These prose retellings make the various tales of the Norse gods systematic and coherent.
The ''[[Poetic Edda]]'' (also known as the ''Elder Edda'') was committed to writing about 50 years after the ''Prose Edda.'' It contains 29 long poems, of which 11 deal with the Germanic deities, the rest with legendary heroes like [[Sigurd the Volsung]] (the [[Sigurd|Siegfried]] of the German version ''[[Nibelungenlied]]''). Although scholars think it was transcribed later than the other Edda, the language and poetic forms involved in the tales appear to have been composed centuries earlier than their transcription.
Besides these sources, there are surviving legends in Norse folklore. Some of these can be correlated with legends appearing in other Germanic literature e.g. the tale related in the [[Anglo-Saxon language|Anglo-Saxon]] ''[[Finnsburg Fragment|Battle of Finnsburgh]]'' and the many allusions to mythological tales in ''[[Deor]]''. When several partial references and tellings survive, scholars can deduce the underlying tale. Additionally, there are hundreds of place names in the Nordic countries named after the gods.
A few runic inscriptions, such as the [[Rök Runestone]] and the [[Kvinneby amulet]], make references to the mythology. There are also several [[runestone]]s and [[image stone]]s that depict scenes from Norse mythology, such as [[Thor]]'s fishing trip, [[Sigurd stones|scenes depicting Sigurd (Sigfried) the dragon slayer]], [[Odin]] and [[Sleipnir]], Odin being devoured by Fenrir, and one of the surviving stones from the [[Hunnestad Monument]] appears to show [[Hyrrokkin]] riding to [[Baldr]]'s funeral ([ DR 284]).
In Denmark, one image stone depicts [[Loki]] with curled dandy-like mustaches and lips that are sewn together and the British [[Gosforth cross]] shows several mythological images.
{{cleanup|section|date=April 2010}}
[[Image:The Wolves Pursuing Sol and Mani.jpg|thumb|right|"The Wolves Pursuing [[Sól (Sun)|Sol]] and [[Máni|Mani]]" (1909) by [[John Charles Dollman|J. C. Dollman]].]]
{{Main|Norse cosmology}}
In Norse mythology there are '[[nine worlds]]' (''níu heimar''), that many scholars{{who|date=January 2011}} summarize as follows:
*[[Asgard]], world of the [[Æsir]]
*[[Midgard]], world of average human experience
*[[Álfheimr]], world of the Álfar ([[elves]]).
*[[Svartálfaheim]] or [[Niðavellir]], world of the Svartálfar ([[black elves]])
*[[Vanaheimr]], world of the [[Vanir]]
*[[Muspellheim]], world of fire
*[[Jötunheimr]], world of the [[Jötunn|jötnar]]
*[[Niflheim]], world of ice, Hel is located within Niflheim.
*[[Hel (location)|Hel]], world of the inglorious dead, netherworld.
Each world also had significant places within. [[Valhalla]] is [[Odin]]'s hall located in [[Asgard]]. It was also home of the [[Einherjar]], who were the souls of the greatest warriors. These warriors were selected by the [[Valkyries]]. The [[Einherjar]] would help defend the gods during [[Ragnarok]].
These worlds are connected by [[Yggdrasil]], the world tree, a giant tree with [[Asgard]] at its top. Chewing at its roots in [[Niflheim]] is [[Nidhogg]], a ferocious [[Serpent (symbolism)|serpent]] or [[dragon]]. Asgard can also be reached by [[Bifrost]], a rainbow bridge guarded by [[Heimdall]], a god who can see and hear for a thousand miles.
===Supernatural beings===
[[Image:Ydun (1858) by H. W. Bissen - angle.jpg|thumb|"[[Iðunn|Ydun]]" (1858) by [[Herman Wilhelm Bissen]].]]
There are several "clans" of [[Vættir]] or animistic nature spirits: the [[Æsir]] and [[Vanir]], understood as gods, plus the [[Jötunn|Jötnar]], the [[light elves|Álfar]] and [[Norse dwarves|Dvergar]]. The distinction between Æsir and Vanir is relative, for the two are said to have made peace, exchanged hostages and reigned together after the events of the [[Æsir–Vanir War]].
In addition, there are many other beings: [[Fenrir]] the gigantic [[wolf]], [[Jörmungandr]] the sea-serpent (or "worm") that is coiled around Midgard, and [[Hel (being)|Hel]], ruler of [[Hel (location)|Helheim]]. These three monsters are described as the progeny of [[Loki]]. Other creatures include [[Huginn and Muninn]] (thought and memory, respectively), the two ravens who keep Odin, the chief god, apprised of what is happening on earth, since he gave an eye to the [[Well of Mimir]] in his quest for wisdom, [[Geri and Freki]] Odin's two wolfs, [[Sleipnir]], Loki's eight legged horse son belonging to Odin and [[Ratatoskr]], the squirrel which scampers in the branches of Yggdrasil.
{{Main|List of Norse gods and goddesses}}
In the ''Poetic Edda'' poem ''[[Völuspá]]'' ("Prophecy [''spá''] of the [[völva]]"), Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future. She is reluctant; she cries, "What do you ask of me? Why tempt me?" Since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him, "Well, would you know more?" But Odin insists: if he is to fulfill his function as king of the gods, he must possess all knowledge. Once the völva has revealed the secrets of past and future, she falls back into oblivion: "I sink now".
====Abiogenesis and anthropogenesis====
According to Norse myth, the beginning of life was fire and ice, with the existence of only two worlds: Muspelheim and Niflheim. When the warm air of Muspelheim hit the cold ice of Niflheim, the jötunn [[Ymir]] and the icy cow [[Audhumla]] were created. Ymir's foot bred a son and a man and a woman emerged from his armpits, making Ymir the progenitor of the [[Jötunn|Jötnar]]. Whilst Ymir slept, the intense heat from Muspelheim made him sweat, and he sweated out [[Surtr]]{{Citation needed|date=December 2009}}, a jötunn of fire. Later Ýmir woke and drank Auðhumla's milk. Whilst he drank, the cow Audhumbla licked on a salt stone. On the first day after this a man's hair appeared on the stone, on the second day a head and on the third day an entire man emerged from the stone. His name was [[Búri]] and with an unknown jötunn female he fathered [[Borr]] (Bor), the father of the three gods [[Odin]], [[Vili]] and [[Ve]].
When the gods felt strong enough they killed Ymir. His [[Ymir's blood|blood]] flooded the world and drowned all of the jötunn, except two. But jötnar grew again in numbers and soon there were as many as before Ymir's death. Then the gods created seven more worlds using Ymir's flesh for dirt, his blood for the Oceans, rivers and lakes, his bones for stone, his brain as the clouds, his skull for the heaven. Sparks from Muspelheim flew up and became stars.
One day when the gods were walking they found two tree trunks. They transformed them into the shape of humans. Odin gave them life, Vili gave them mind and Ve gave them the ability to hear, see, and speak. The gods named them [[Ask and Embla|Askur and Embla]] and built the kingdom of Middle-earth for them; and, to keep out the jötnar, the gods placed a gigantic fence made of Ymir's eyelashes around Middle-earth.
The völva goes on to describe [[Yggdrasill]] and three [[norn]]s; [[Urður]] (Wyrd), [[Verðandi]] and [[Skuld]]. She then describes the war between the Æsir and Vanir and the murder of [[Baldur]], Óðinn's (Odin) handsome son whom everyone but Loki loved. (The story is that everything in existence promised not to hurt him except mistletoe. Taking advantage of this weakness, Loki made a projectile of [[mistletoe]] and tricked [[Höður]], Óðinn's (Odin) blind son and Baldur's brother, into using it to kill Baldur. [[Hel]] said she would revive him if everyone in the nine worlds wept. A female jötunn - [[Thokk]], who may have been Loki in shape-shifted form - did not weep.) After that she turns her attention to the future.
'''Ragnarök''' refers to a series of major events, including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the [[Æsir|gods]] [[Odin]], [[Thor]], [[Freyr]], [[Heimdall]], and the [[jötunn]] [[Loki]]), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in fire. Afterwards, the world resurfaces anew and fertile, the surviving gods meet, and the world is repopulated by two human survivors.
==Kings and heroes==
{{Main|Legendary sagas}}
[[Image:Sigurd.svg|thumbnail|250px|The [[Ramsund carving]] depicting passages from the [[Völsunga saga]]]]
The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings (citation needed), as well as supernatural creatures. These clan and kingdom founding figures possessed great importance as illustrations of proper action or national origins. The heroic literature may have fulfilled the same function as the [[national epic]] in other European literatures, or it may have been more nearly related to tribal identity. Many of the legendary figures probably existed, and generations of Scandinavian scholars have tried to extract history from myth in the [[Norse saga|sagas]].
Sometimes the same hero resurfaces in several forms depending on which part of the Germanic world the epics survived such as [[Weyland]]/[[Völund]] and [[Siegfried]]/[[Sigurd]], and probably [[Beowulf (hero)|Beowulf]]/[[Bödvar Bjarki]]. Other notable heroes are [[Hagbard]], [[Starkad]], [[Ragnar Lodbrok]], [[Sigurd Ring]], [[Ivar Vidfamne]] and [[Harald Hildetand]]. Notable are also the [[shieldmaiden]]s who were ordinary women who had chosen the path of the warrior. These women function both as heroines and as obstacles to the heroic journey.
==Norse worship==
{{Off-topic|date=May 2010}}
{{Main|Norse paganism|Blót}}
===Centres of faith===
[[Image:Gamla uppsala.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Gamla Uppsala]], the centre of worship in Sweden until the temple was destroyed in the late 11th century.]]
The Germanic tribes rarely or never had temples in a modern sense. The Blót, the form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian people, resembled that of the [[Celtic mythology|Celts]] and [[Balts]]. It occurred either in [[sacred grove]]s, at home, or at a simple altar of piled stones known as a "[[horgr]]." However, there seem to have been a few more important centres, such as [[Kaupang|Skiringssal]], [[Lejre]] and [[Gamla Uppsala|Uppsala]]. [[Adam of Bremen]] claims that there was a [[temple at Uppsala]] with three wooden statues of Odin, Thor and Freyr.
While a kind of priesthood seems to have existed, it never took on the professional and semi-hereditary character of the Celtic [[Druidry|druid]]ical class. This was because the [[shamanistic]] tradition was maintained by women, the [[Völva]]s. It is often said that the [[Germanic king]]ship evolved out of a priestly office. This priestly role of the king was in line with the general role of [[gothi]], who was the head of a kindred group of families (for this social structure, see [[norse clans]]), and who administered the sacrifices.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}
===Human sacrifice===
[[File:Midvinterblot.jpeg|right|250px|thumb|"[[Midvinterblot]]" (1915) by [[Carl Larsson]].]]
A unique eye-witness account of Germanic [[human sacrifice]] survives in [[Ibn Fadlan]]'s account of a [[Rus' (people)|Rus]] [[ship burial]], where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world. More indirect accounts are given by [[Tacitus]], [[Saxo Grammaticus]] and [[Adam von Bremen]].
However, the [[Ibn Fadlan]] account is actually a burial ritual. Current understanding of Norse mythology suggests an ulterior motive to the slave-girl's 'sacrifice'. It is believed that in Norse mythology a woman who joined the corpse of a man on the funeral pyre would be that man's wife in the next world. For a slave girl to become the wife of a lord was an obvious increase in status. Although both religions are of the Indo-European tradition, the sacrifice described in the [[Ibn Fadlan]] account is not to be confused with the practice of [[Sati (practice)|Sati]].
The ''Heimskringla'' tells of Swedish King [[Aun]] who sacrificed nine of his sons in an effort to prolong his life until his subjects stopped him from killing his last son [[Egil]]. According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the [[Yule]] sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala. The Swedes had the right not only to elect kings but also to depose them, and both king [[Domalde]] and king [[Olof Trätälja]] are said to have been sacrificed after years of famine.
Odin was associated with death by hanging, and a possible practice of Odinic sacrifice by strangling has some archeological support in the existence of bodies such as [[Tollund Man]] that perfectly preserved by the acid of the [[Jutland]] [[peat]]bogs, into which they were cast after having been strangled. However, scholars possess no written accounts that explicitly interpret the cause of these stranglings, which could obviously have other explanations.
==Interactions with Christianity==
[[Image:Ansgarius predikar Christna läran i Sverige by Hugo Hamilton.jpg|thumb|250px|"Ansgarius predikar Christna läran i Sverige" (1839) by Hugo Hamilton. An 1830 portrayal of [[Ansgar]], a Christian missionary invited to Sweden by its king [[Björn at Hauge]] in 829.]]
{{See also|Christianization of Scandinavia}}
An important note in interpreting this mythology is that often the closest accounts that scholars have to "pre-contact" times were written by Christians. The ''Younger Edda'' and the ''Heimskringla'' were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, over two hundred years after Iceland became [[Christianized]]. This results in Snorri's works carrying a large amount of [[Euhemerism#Euhemerism and the Early Christians Christian Euhemerism|Euhemerism]].<ref>Faulkes, Anthony. "Introduction" In Snorri Sturlusson, ''Prose Edda'' (Ed.) page xviii. Everyman, 1987. ISBN 0-460-87616-3</ref>
Virtually all of the saga literature came out of [[Iceland]], a relatively small and remote island, and even in the climate of religious tolerance there, Snorri was guided by an essentially Christian viewpoint. The ''[[Heimskringla]]'' provides some interesting insights into this issue. Snorri introduces Odin as a mortal warlord in Asia who acquires magical powers, settles in Sweden, and becomes a [[demi-god]] following his death. Having undercut Odin's divinity, Snorri then provides the story of a pact of Swedish King [[Aun]] with Odin to prolong his life by sacrificing his sons. Later in the Heimskringla, Snorri records in detail how converts to Christianity such as [[Saint Olaf]] Haraldsson brutally converted Scandinavians to Christianity.
[[Image:Sejdmen.jpg|250px|thumb|One form of [[Execution (legal)|execution]] occurred during the Christianization of [[Norway]]. King [[Olaf Tryggvason]] had male [[völva]]s (sejdmen) tied and left on a [[skerry]] at ebb to drown in the sea. (1897 illustration by Halfdan Egedius)]]
Trying to avert civil war, the Icelandic parliament voted in Christianity, but for some years tolerated heathenry in the privacy of one's home. Sweden, on the other hand, had a series of civil wars in the 11th century, which ended with the burning of the [[Temple at Uppsala]].{{Citation needed|date=December 2007}} In [[England]], Christianization occurred earlier and sporadically, rarely by force. Conversion by coercion was sporadic throughout the areas where Norse gods had been worshipped. However, the conversion did not happen overnight. Christian clergy did their utmost to teach the populace that the Norse gods were demons, but their success was limited and the gods never became ''evil'' in the popular mind in most of Scandinavia.
The length of time Christianization took is illustrated by two centrally located examples of Lovön and Bergen. Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of [[Lovön]] have shown that the Christianisation took 150–200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops. Likewise in the bustling trading town of Bergen, many runic inscriptions have been found from the 13th century, among the [[Bryggen inscriptions]]. One of them says ''may Thor receive you, may Odin own you'', and a second one is a [[galdra]] which says ''I carve curing runes, I carve salvaging runes, once against the elves, twice against the trolls, thrice against the [[thurs]]''. The second one also mentions the dangerous [[Valkyrie]] [[Skögul]]. Another contrast in Norse beliefs is the [[Gimle]], the supposed "high heaven, which is thought to be a Christian addition to Norse mythology, and the [[Ragnarokk]], the "fate" of [[Æsir]] gods. This seems to be a Christian addition to the native mythology, since it ends the "reign" of the [[Æsir]] gods.
There are few accounts from the 14th to the 18th century, but the clergy, such as [[Olaus Magnus]] (1555) wrote about the difficulties of extinguishing the old beliefs. The story related in ''[[Þrymskviða]]'' appears to have been unusually resilient, like the romantic story of [[Hagbard and Signy]], and versions of both were recorded in the 17th century and as late as the 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th century Swedish folklorists documented what commoners believed, and what surfaced were many surviving traditions of the gods of Norse mythology. However, the traditions were by then far from the cohesive system of Snorri's accounts. Most gods had been forgotten and only the hunting Odin and the jötunn-slaying Thor figure in numerous legends. [[Freyja]] is mentioned a few times and Baldr only survives in legends about place names.
Other elements of Norse mythology survived without being perceived as such, especially concerning supernatural beings in [[Scandinavian folklore]]. Moreover, the Norse belief in destiny has been very firm until modern times. Since the Christian [[hell]] resembled the abode of the dead in Norse mythology one of the names was borrowed from the old faith, ''Helvíti'' i.e. ''Hel's punishment''. Many elements of the [[Yule]] traditions persevered, such as the Swedish tradition of slaughtering the pig at Christmas ([[Christmas ham]]), which originally was part of the sacrifice to Freyr.
==Modern influences==
{| style="float: right; margin: 1em 0 1em 1em" class="wikitable"
! Day (Old Norse)
! Meaning
| Mánadagr || Moon's day
| Týsdagr || Tyr's day
| Óðinsdagr || Odin's day
| Þórsdagr || Thor's day
| Frjádagr || Freyja's day
| Laugardagr || Washing day
| Sunnudagr/Dróttinsdagr || Sun's day/The Lord's day
The Germanic gods have left numerous traces in modern vocabulary and elements of every day western life in most [[Germanic language]] speaking countries. An example of this is some of the names of the days of the week: modelled after the names of the days of the week in [[Latin]] (named after Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn), the names for Tuesday through to Friday were replaced with Germanic equivalents of the Roman gods and the names for Monday and Sunday after the Sun and Moon. In English, Saturn was not replaced.
===Viking revival===
[[Image:Freya and Heimdall by Blommer.jpg|thumbnail|"[[Heimdallr]] returns the necklace [[Brísingamen]] to [[Freyja]]" by [[Swedish people|Swedish]] painter [[Nils Blommér]].]]
{{Main|Viking revival}}
Early modern editions of Old Norse literature begins in the 16th century, e.g. ''Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus'' (Olaus Magnus, 1555) and the first edition of the
13th century ''[[Gesta Danorum]]'' ([[Saxo Grammaticus]]), in 1514. The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the [[Edda]] (notably Peder Resen's ''Edda Islandorum'' of 1665). The renewed interest of [[Romanticism]] in the Old North had political implications. Myths about a glorious and brave past is said to have given the Swedes the courage to retake [[Finland]], which had been lost in 1809 during the [[Finnish War|war between Sweden and Russia]]. The [[Geatish Society]], of which Geijer was a member, popularized this myth to a great extent.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}
A focus for early British enthusiasts was George Hicke, who published a ''Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus'' in 1703&ndash;5. In the 1780s, [[Denmark]] offered to cede [[Iceland]] to Britain in exchange for [[Crab Island]] ([[West Indies]]), and in the 1860s Iceland was considered as a compensation for British support of Denmark in the [[Slesvig-Holstein]] conflicts. During this time, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and Nordic culture grew dramatically.'''
===Germanic Neopaganism===
{{Main|Germanic Neopaganism}}
Romanticist interest in the Old North gave rise to [[Germanic mysticism]] involving various schemes of occultist "Runology", notably following [[Guido von List]] and his ''[[Das Geheimnis der Runen]]'' (1908) in the early 20th century.
Since the 1970s, there have been revivals of the old Germanic religion as [[Germanic Neopaganism]] (''Ásatrú'') in both [[Europe]] and the [[United States]].
===Modern popular culture===
{{Main|Norse mythology in popular culture}}
Norse mythology influenced [[Richard Wagner]]'s use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that make up ''[[Der Ring des Nibelungen]]'' (''The Ring of the Nibelung'').
Subsequently, [[J. R. R. Tolkien]]'s writings, especially ''[[The Silmarillion]]'', were heavily influenced by the indigenous beliefs of the pre-Christian Northern Europeans. As his related novel ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' became popular, elements of its fantasy world moved steadily into popular perceptions of the fantasy genre. In many fantasy novels today can be found such Norse creatures as elves, dwarves, and frost jötnar. In J.K. Rowling's ''[[Harry Potter]]'', the character Fenrir Greyback was derived from Norse mythology, as seen above. Norse mythology has also greatly influenced popular culture, in literature and modern fiction. (See Marvel Comics' ''[[Thor (Marvel Comics)|The Mighty Thor]]'' or Neil Gaiman's ''[[The Sandman (Vertigo)]]'' also Neil Gaiman's novel ''[[American Gods]]'')
<!-- Trivia about movies, video games, TV shows, bands etc. is NOT notable enough to be here, and will be removed on sight. Add it to the lists in the article "Norse mythology in popular culture" instead. -->
Norse mythology is a recurring theme in [[Black metal music|black metal]] and [[Folk_metal|Folk Metal]] lyrics. Bands like [[Bathory (band)|Bathory]], [[Manowar]], [[Burzum]], [[Amon Amarth]], and [[Tyr (band)|Tyr]] among others, composed concept albums with songs based on the Eddas and Norse paganism.
Many video games, especially RPG and strategies, are based on or inspired by Norse mythology, and feature certain elements of it. Examples of games influenced by Norse mythology include [[Final Fantasy]], [[Max Payne]], [[Alan Wake]], [[Too Human]], [[Age of Conan]], [[Age Of Mythology]], [[World of Warcraft: Cataclysm]], [[Ragnarok Online]], [[Valkyrie Profile Series]] from Square Enix, [[Viking: Battle for Asgard]], [[Dark Age of Camelot]], [[Odin Sphere]], [[Guild Wars]], [[Tomb Raider Underworld]], [[Aion: The Tower of Eternity]], [[Darkfall]], [[Dept. Heaven]], [[Starcraft 2]], [[Tales of Symphonia]], and many others. The [[Halo (series)|Halo]] games make occasional use of words from Norse mythology, including "Mjollnir," the name of Thor's hammer.
In 2011, a television show called [[The Almighty Johnsons]] was released in New Zealand, which depicts the reincarnations of the Norse Gods, and their subsequent semi-mortal lives in Auckland.
=== Primary sources ===
* ''[[Prose Edda|The Prose Edda]]''
* ''[[Poetic Edda|The Poetic Edda]]''
* ''[[Gesta Danorum]]''
* ''[[Ynglinga saga]]''
* [[Saga]]s
=== General secondary works ===
* {{aut|Abram, Christopher}} (2011). ''Myths of the Pagan North: the Gods of the Norsemen''. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-18-47252-47-0.
* {{aut|Aðalsteinsson, Jón Hnefill}} (1998). ''A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources'' (translated by Terry Gunnell & Joan Turville-Petre). Reykjavík: Félagsvísindastofnun. ISBN 9979-54-264-0.
* {{aut|Andrén, Anders. Jennbert, Kristina. Raudvere, Catharina.}} (editors) (2006). ''[ Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions]''. Lund: Nordic Academic Press. ISBN 91-89116-81-X.
* {{aut|Branston, Brian}} (1980). ''Gods of the North''. London: Thames and Hudson. (Revised from an earlier hardback edition of 1955). ISBN 0-500-27177-1.
* {{aut|Christiansen, Eric}} (2002). ''The Norsemen in the Viking Age''. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-4964-7.
* {{aut|Clunies Ross, Margaret}} (1994). ''Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse Myths in Medieval Northern Society, vol. 1: The Myths''. Odense: Odense Univ. Press. ISBN 87-7838-008-1.
* {{aut|[[Hilda Ellis Davidson|Davidson, H. R. Ellis]]}} (1964). ''Gods and Myths of Northern Europe''. Baltimore: Penguin. New edition 1990 by Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013627-4. (Several [[runestone]]s)
* —— (1969). ''Scandinavian Mythology''. London and New York: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-87226-041-0. Reissued 1996 as ''Viking and Norse Mythology''. New York: Barnes and Noble.
* —— (1988). ''Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe''. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8156-2438-7.
* —— (1993). ''The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe''. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04937-7.
* {{aut|[[Jan de Vries (linguist)|de Vries, Jan]].}} ''Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte'', 2 vols., 2nd. ed., Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, 12–13. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.
* {{aut|DuBois, Thomas A.}} (1999). ''[ Nordic Religions in the Viking Age]''. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1714-4.
* {{aut|[[Georges Dumézil|Dumézil, Georges]]}} (1973). ''Gods of the Ancient Northmen''. Ed. & trans. Einar Haugen. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03507-0.
* {{aut|[[Jacob Grimm|Grimm, Jacob]]}} (1888). ''Teutonic Mythology'', 4 vols. Trans. S. Stallybras. London. Reprinted 2003 by Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-7742-4, ISBN 0-7661-7743-2, ISBN 0-7661-7744-0, ISBN 0-7661-7745-9. Reprinted 2004 Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43615-2 (4 vols.), ISBN 0-486-43546-6, ISBN 0-486-43547-4, ISBN 0-486-43548-2, ISBN 0-486-43549-0.
** [ Northvegr: Grimm's Teutonic Mythology]
* {{aut|[[John Lindow|Lindow, John]]}} (1988). ''Scandinavian Mythology: An Annotated Bibliography'', Garland Folklore Bibliographies, 13. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-9173-6.
* —— (2001). ''[ Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs]''. Oxford: [[Oxford University Press]]. ISBN 0-19-515382-0. (A dictionary of Norse mythology.)
* {{aut|Mirachandra}} (2006). ''Treasure of Norse Mythology Volume I'' ISBN 978-3-922800-99-6<!--good ISBN - book in German-->.
* {{aut|[[Lotte Motz|Motz, Lotte]]}} (1996). ''The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth''. Wien: Fassbaender. ISBN 3-900538-57-3.
* {{aut|O'Donoghue, Heather}} (2007). ''From Asgard to Valhalla : the remarkable history of the Norse myths''. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-357-8.
* {{aut|Orchard, Andy}} (1997). ''Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend''. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36385-5.
* {{aut|Page, R. I.}} (1990). ''Norse Myths (The Legendary Past)''. London: British Museum; and Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75546-5.
* {{aut|Price, Neil S}} (2002). ''The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia''. Uppsala: Dissertation, Dept. Archaeology & Ancient History. ISBN 91-506-1626-9.
* {{aut|Simek, Rudolf}} (1993). ''Dictionary of Northern Mythology''. Trans. Angela Hall. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-369-4. New edition 2000, ISBN 0-85991-513-1.
* {{aut|[[Karl Joseph Simrock|Simrock, Karl Joseph]]}} (1853–1855) ''Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie''.
* {{aut|Svanberg, Fredrik}} (2003). ''Decolonizing the Viking Age''. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-22-02006-3(v. 1); 9122020071(v. 2).
* {{aut|[[Gabriel Turville-Petre|Turville-Petre, E O Gabriel]]}} (1964). ''Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia''. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Reprinted 1975, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-7420-1.
{{See|Viking revival}}
* {{aut|[[Rasmus B. Anderson|Anderson, Rasmus]]}} (1875). ''Norse Mythology, or, The Religion of Our Forefathers''. Chicago: S.C. Griggs.
* {{aut|[[H. A. Guerber|Guerber, H. A.]]}} (1909). ''Myths of the Norsemen: From the Eddas and Sagas''. London: George&nbsp;G. Harrap. Reprinted 1992, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover. ISBN 0-486-27348-2.
* {{aut|Keary, A & E}} (1909), ''The Heroes of Asgard''. New York: Macmillan Company. Reprinted 1982 by Smithmark Pub. ISBN 0-8317-4475-8. Reprinted 1979 by Pan Macmillan ISBN 0-333-07802-0.
** [ Baldwin Project: The Heroes of Asgard]
* {{aut|[[Hamilton Wright Mabie|Mable, Hamilton Wright]]}} (1901). ''Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas''. Mead and Company. Reprinted 1999, New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0770-0.
** [ Baldwin Project: Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas]
* {{aut|Mackenzie, Donald A}} (1912). ''Teutonic Myth and Legend''. New York: W H Wise & Co. 1934. Reprinted 2003 by University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 1-4102-0740-4.
** [ Sacred Texts: Teutonic Myth and Legend].
* {{aut|[[Viktor Rydberg|Rydberg, Viktor]]}} (1889). ''Teutonic Mythology'', trans. Rasmus B. Anderson. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Reprinted 2001, Elibron Classics. ISBN 1-4021-9391-2. Reprinted 2004, Kessinger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7661-8891-4.
** [ Rydberg's Teutonic Mythology] (Displayed by pages)
* {{aut|[[Laurence Waddell|Waddell, L. A.]]}} (1930). ''The British Edda''. London: Chapman & Hall.
=== Modern retellings ===
{{See|Norse mythology in popular culture}}
* {{aut|[[Padraic Colum|Colum, Padraic]]}} (1920). ''The Children of Odin: A Book of Northern Myths'', illustrated by [[Willy Pogány]]. New York, Macmillan. Reprinted 2004 by Aladdin, ISBN 0-689-86885-5.
** [ Sacred Texts: The Children of Odin]. (Illustrated.)
* {{aut|[[Kevin Crossley-Holland|Crossley-Holland, Kevin]]}} (1981). ''The Norse Myths''. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-74846-8. Also released as ''The Penguin Book of Norse Myths: Gods of the Vikings''. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025869-8.
* {{aut|[[Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire|d'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar]]}} (1967). "d'Aulaire's Book of Norse Myths". New York, New York Review of Books.
* {{aut|[[Peter Andreas Munch|Munch, Peter Andreas]]}} (1927). ''Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes'', Scandinavian Classics. Trans. Sigurd Bernhard Hustvedt (1963). New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation. ISBN 0-404-04538-3.
**[ etext of Munch]
==See also==
{{Commons category|Norse mythology}}
''Spelling of names in Norse mythology often varies depending on the nationality of the source material. For more information see [[Old Norse orthography]]''.
*[[Alliterative verse]]
*[[Numbers in Norse mythology]]
*[[Project Runeberg]] - a Nordic equivalent to Project Gutenberg
==External links==
* [ Old Norse Prose and Poetry] (
* [ Jörmungrund: Skálda- & vísnatal Norrœns Miðaldkveðskapar Index of Old Norse/Icelandic Skaldic Poetry] (in Icelandic)
* [ Bibliography of recent scholarship on Norse Mythology & Religion]
* [ Old texts in original languages]
{{Norse paganism topics}}
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Revision as of 13:16, 19 May 2011