North–South express railway (Vietnam)

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North–South express railway (Vietnam)
StatusOn hold
Servicesnot available
Operator(s)Vietnam Railway Corporation
Line length1,570 km (980 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Operating speed350 km/h (220 mph)

The North–South express railway (Vietnamese: Đường sắt cao tốc Bắc-Nam) is a proposed high speed railway in Vietnam. The line would begin in Hanoi, crossing provinces and municipalities of Hanoi, Hà Tây, Hà Nam, Ninh Bình, Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Đà Nẵng, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa, Ninh Thuận, Bình Thuận, Đồng Nai, Bình Dương, and coming to an end in Ho Chi Minh City. The rail line would connect the two most developed areas in Vietnam which are Hanoi in the North's Red River Delta in the north and Ho Chi Minh City in the South's Mekong River Delta. The total proposed length would be 1,570 kilometres (980 mi), compared with the 1,729-kilometre (1,074 mi) of the old railway line.[1] The cost of the line is estimated at US$55.85 billion,[2] to be funded by official development assistance from Japan and by the Vietnamese government itself. The project is planned to be implemented in three phases: Hanoi to Vinh city (285 km); Vinh City to Nha Trang (364 km); and Nha Trang to Ho Chi Minh City (896 km). Construction activities on the first phase are expected to commence in 2020 and the whole project is scheduled for completion in 2050. This project is part of the country's railway transport development strategy by 2020 with a vision to 2050. The project is also part of the Trans-Asian railway network.


Japanese Shinkansen technology has been suggested for use in the express railway project. (Photo: Taiwan High Speed Rail)

With preliminary topographical and geological surveillance already carried out by a joint Japanese-Vietnamese team, two sections of the railway—the 295-kilometre (183 mi) HanoiVinh section and the 362-kilometre (225 mi) Ho Chi Minh CityNha Trang section—were initially slated for implementation in stages between 2011 and 2015, with the implementation of the remaining Vinh–Nha Trang section starting in 2020. Japanese Shinkansen bullet train technology was proposed for use on this line; its technology—and its actual geographical track—would be completely independent of the existing North–South Railway line. The express line would be built as a double-track standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)) line, with a design speed of 300 km/h (compared to an average of 50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) on the existing North–South Railway line). Once completed, passengers travelling between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City would see transit times reduced from 32 hours to around 7 hours.[3][4]

The Japanese government has, following the visit of Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng to Japan in 2006, pledged to offer official development assistance for the project. The memorandum of understanding for the project (along with a related project, the North–South Expressway) was mutually signed by the two governments at that time.[5]

Vietnam-Japan Consultancy Joint Venture (VJC), an alliance between Japanese and a Vietnamese consultancy firm has been chosen first to study the feasibility of a high-speed railway project to link Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. VJC consists of Transport Investment and Construction Consultant Joint Stock Company (TRICC), Japan Transportation Consultants (JTC), the Japan Railway Technical Service (JARTS) and the Nippon Koei Co. Ltd.

The project was rejected by the National Assembly in 2010. By 2015, the latest feasibility of the project has being studied by the consortium of Transport Engineering Design Incorporated (TEDI), Transport Investment & Construction Consultant JSC (TRICC), and Transport Engineering Design Sub - Institute (TEDI SOUTH). Ministry of Transport is in the process of reviewing studies in order to complete the pre-feasibility study for the project and planning to submit the pre-feasibility study report to the Government in 2019 so that it could be passed to the National Assembly (NA) for approval.

Once approval is granted, the project is expected to (i) reduce the demand for intercity transportation in Vietnam, traffic congestion and increase traffic safety; (ii) make the full use of geographical advantages and improve the connectivity among transport means to maximize the capacity of the transport system in Vietnam; (iii) play its rightful role as the backbone of transport sector, contributing to the reduction of logistics expenses and enhancement of national competitiveness. The project also can be seen as a nation-building project of Vietnam’s government.


The project involves the construction of a 1,570Km rail line from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City comprising 27 stations. The project is planned to be implemented in three phases: Hanoi to Vinh City (285 km); Vinh City to Nha Trang (364 km); and Nha Trang to Ho Chi Minh City (896 km). The express line would be built as a double-track standard gauge of 1.435m line with a design speed of 300km/h. Existing railway lines are to be upgraded, with priority given to modernizing the north-south line to increase the average speed to 80-90 km/h for passenger trains and 50-60 km/h for goods trains and improving transport capacity and quality.

Vietnam-Japan Consultancy Joint Venture (VJC), an alliance between Japanese and a Vietnamese consultancy firm has been chosen to study the feasibility of a high-speed railway project to link Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. VJC consists of Transport Investment and Construction Consultant Joint Stock Company (TRICC), Japan Transportation Consultants (JTC), the Japan Railway Technical Service (JARTS) and the Nippon Koei Co. Ltd. In April 2010, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Mitsubishi Corp., Sumitomo Corp., and other Japanese companies had requested the Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) (MoT) to adopt their bullet train technology for the development of the project. On April 15, 2010, Vietnam government approved to undertake the Japan's Shinkansen bullet train technology for the project. In June 2010, the National Assembly of Vietnam (NAV) did not approve planning application of the project as the project is found to be costly following which the project was put on hold. Transport Engineering Design Inc has been appointed as the financial adviser. In September 2010, the proposal was again reviewed and a detailed study was started by the JICA. The project would be funded from the State budget and JICA conducted the study from May 2011 to March 2013.

In March 2013, JICA submitted a report to concerned authorities for the development of the project. In October 2013, JICA suggested the proposed route with an investment of US$10.2 billion. On the evaluation of JICA studies, the Vietnam Railways Corporation advised Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) and the government of Vietnam to approve JICA’s scheme and build the proposed rail line. The project is planned to be implemented through public-private partnership (PPP) mode. However, the model is yet to be finalized. Siemens is appointed as the technology consultant for the project.

In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) submitted a proposal to the federal government. In 2015 the government approved the development strategy for Vietnam’s railway transport to 2020 and vision to 2050, targeting the development of railway infrastructure and the high-level management of transport and services.

In September 2016, the Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) started updating three feasibility studies, which were submitted by the Japan Consultancy Joint Venture (JCJV), Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the JICA in the year 2013. During October 2016, Hanoi General Export-Import JSC (Geleximco) and Hong Kong United Investors Holding (HUI) have expressed interest in co-developing the project and are waiting for the approval from the Ministry of Transport (Vietnam).

In June 16 2017, the National Assembly of Vietnam (NAV) officially approved the Revised Railway Laws which supplements many preferential and breakthrough mechanisms and policies.[6]

Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) is in the process of reviewing studies in order to complete the pre-feasibility study for the project and planning to submit the pre-feasibility study report to the Government in 2019 so that it could be passed to the National Assembly of Vietnam (NAV) for approval. Construction activities on the first phase is expected to commence in 2020 and the whole project is scheduled for completion in 2050.[7]

Rejection (2010) and Project re-evaluation[edit]

On June 19, 2010, after a month of deliberations, Vietnam's National Assembly rejected the current high-speed rail proposal, reportedly due to the US$56 billion cost involved. National Assembly deputy Nguyễn Minh Thuyết reportedly stated that the proposed cost was equal to about 50 per cent of the country's gross domestic product, and that ordinary Vietnamese citizens would not be able to afford the high fares.[8] Senior economist Pham Chi Lan, who described the proposal as "economically unsound", noted that it would not serve the majority of Vietnamese citizens, 70 per cent of whom live in rural areas.[8] National Assembly members are said to have asked for further study of the project.[9] As late as August 2010, the Ministry of Transport confirmed that plans for the express railway were on hold pending further research.[10] At that time, Nguyen Huu Bang, the chairman and CEO of national railway company Vietnam Railways, stated that the government was expected to resubmit the project after new leaders of the Communist Party are selected in 2011, and that the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) would likely be asked to examine the feasibility of two priority sections from Hanoi to Vinh and from Ho Chi Minh City to Nha Trang.[4] After a meeting with the Ministry of Transport in October 2010, Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai was reported to have authorized the reception of Japanese technical assistance for those two sections.[10]

Shuji Eguchi, a director at the Japanese Transport Ministry's railway bureau, noted that the Japanese government has recently put more focus on exporting Japanese infrastructure systems such as the shinkansen to jump-start economic growth, but that the Vietnamese express railway project is considered a long-term one. In an August 2010 interview, Eguchi was quoted as saying "We need a step-by-step approach. The conventional Vietnamese railway is single track and not electrified yet ... To jump from that stage to the shinkansen, Vietnam needs to train personnel and enact necessary legislation."[4]

In November 2017, Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc announced that the Ministry of Transport's final plan for the express railway system will be completed and submitted to the National Assembly's consideration in 2019. The Assembly will then hold a final vote on whether to approve or reject funding for the project.[11]

The consortium at a conference on November 12, 2018 chaired by the Ministry of Transport (MOT) said that the ratio of private investment is reasonable after they referred to investment models in Japan, France, China, and Taiwan. Speaking at the meeting, some experts said that the cost of US$38 million for a kilometer of express railway is too high in comparison with US$27 million in China and US$26 million in Spain. Deputy Minister of Transport Nguyen Ngoc Dong said that the rate in Vietnam is high due to site clearance and a lack of expertise and technologies. The MOT’s representatives said that the express railway, which is designed to operate at the speed of 200-320 kilometers/hour, is able to compete with aviation but safer. But the experts cared for the internal rate of return (IRR) of the costly project. Reports at the event showed that the IRR would range from 8.9% to 10.6% if the fare is equal to 50% and 100% of air tickets of economy class, respectively. But no data of transport capacity and demand for the express railway has mentioned.[12]

Railway projects and the Nation (Vietnam)[edit]

Infrastructure, Transportation, Economic[edit]

Vietnam is a country with a relatively complete and early railway system in the Southeast Asia region. Experiencing ups and downs over a hundred years of history, with the breakthrough of other modes of transport, the railway network is still stuck in place, not only no further extension but also being dismantled.[6] The building of infrastructure has been extremely delayed in Vietnam. Vietnam also has a tremendous number of motorcycles, It is aging now in which there is on motorcycle for every two people. Motorization will speed up and if average incomes rise the number of cars will also keep growing. What's happening can also be seen in the history of neighboring countries. Therefore, as a solution, a high-speed mass transport system will become necessary.

Another reason for developing infrastructure in Vietnam especially the high-speed railway is due to the nation’s topography of narrow and long shape as well as hilly geography, there are some difficulties in the performance of the intercity transportation to connecting developed areas via north-south corridor in such development situation. To traveling from Hanoi to Hochiminh City for the distance of around 1700 km with the current intercity transportation situation, it takes about 30 hours by conventional rail and intercity bus, while travel time by airlines is almost 2 hours. The frequency per day is eight and 10 for the two formers and about 16 for the latter. During the holiday, there is a possibility for increasing of frequency and capacity. The demand for intercity transportation in Vietnam has been increasing year by year as a result of economic development and rising population. Moreover, traffic congestion has occurred in many routes, bus terminals, railway stations, and airports, especially in vacation time, with higher frequency and longer congestion time than that of the past. In addition, traffic safety has also become more and more serious with about 12 thousand fatal people in 2012. Traffic congestion and traffic safety will derive negative influences on regional economic development, national productivity, and competitiveness, and environmental quality.[13]

From an economic approach, Vietnam has recently become a popular location; both as a travel destination and as a country that is seeing a high level of redevelopment projects. In fact, the realty of infrastructure investment in Vietnam is very positive and it just keeps growing. With a large amount of money set aside from the Vietnamese government for redevelopment purposes, the projects underway are exciting and aim at putting Vietnam on the map for everybody. The approved amount that was announced recently by the Vietnamese government for the redevelopment is of $921 million. The amount will be distributed for different purposes that will all ultimately improve many different aspects of Vietnam’s current realty. The developments have been narrowed down to focus on 8 specific zones around Vietnam, all of which can be found on the coasts. The reason behind this is to improve these areas so to attract both foreign and domestic investors. The developments also aim at inviting private investors to consider Vietnam for the building of new technology hubs and industrial parks. As a consequence of all the investments, both on Vietnam’s behalf and the future private ones that will come along, Vietnam aims at improving their economic and competitive position in respect to their neighboring South East Asian adversaries.

Among the main redevelopment projects, one of the main plans is improving the transportation in Vietnam, and getting it up to speed for both its residents and tourists. One of the first projects announced will be the new road network that will extend itself for 250 kilometers. In fact, as stated by the 2016-2017 World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, Vietnam classified as 79th out of 138 different countries for its infrastructure quality, 77th for its ports, and 89th for the level of its roads. With this data out, it is obvious that in order for Vietnam to improve its international standing and attract investors, the roads and infrastructures must be developed further. Steps have already been taken, and are in the plans, to improve transportation between Vietnamese cities.[14] The North-South express railway project is one of these transportation plans.

Vietnam's History of Railway and Nation-building[edit]

Struggle for unification (DRV postage stamp)

Railways are also considered as a symbol of nation-building in Vietnam. Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state.[15][16] As a collective phenomenon, national identity can arise as a direct result of the presence of elements from the common points in people's daily lives: national symbols, language, the nation's history, national consciousness, and cultural artifacts. (Kelman, 1997)

The construction of the railway responded to, shaped, and ultimately became inseparable from the colonial and postcolonial reformulation of Vietnamese national identity. Basically, the interactive history of railways and a sense of identity has evolved over time since the French colonial period of the 1880s. The first railroad in Vietnam was constructed under the French colonial in 1881. The earliest Saigon-My Tho (71km) railway was completed in 1885. In 1902, France completed the construction of the Hanoi-Dong Dang Railway and the Chinese Railway. In 1902, France built the Hanoi - Hai Phong railway; In 1906, France completed the construction of Hanoi - Lao Cai and Kunming - Yunnan China Railway; In 1931, France built the Thap Cham - Da Lat Railway; In 1933, France built the Sai Gon - Loc Ninh Railway; In 1936, the French built the North-South railway with a length of 2600 km. The parallel roads with these railway lines have also been upgraded, becoming inter-provincial roads. Roads are built together with steel bridges that share railways. In the north of the roads of the country (Tonkin), parallel with the railway lines also opened. Road No. 2 (Hanoi - Tuyen Quang - Lao Cai) Road No. 3 (Hanoi - Thai Nguyen - Cao Bang), Road No. 5 (Hanoi - Hai Phong). By 1931 Vietnam had 2389 km of railway. With the north-south routes, Hanoi goes to: Hai Phong, Dong Dang Lang Son, Lao Cai, Thai Nguyen, Cham Towers - Da Lat and Sai Gon - Loc Ninh.[17]

When the French brought railways technology to colonial Indochina, they wanted the locals to see the railways as a symbol of the French power with advanced technology, modernity, civilized. However, to construct the entire railway system in Vietnam under their protectorate, the French has mobilized thousands of Vietnamese labors working in severe conditions or unwholesome environment. Many Vietnamese labors have died in the construction. Generations of farmers from Vietnam’s countryside were mobilized to serve the construction of railway system. According to Del Testa (2001), railroads became an important symbol of unity in the face of oppression within the context of colonial Vietnam. The Railways “helped produce the overwhelming disappointment, division, dissension, and bitterness that marked France’s presence in Indochina during the 1920s and 1930s, and inspired many Vietnamese to act on their negative feelings about France.”[18]

Reconstruction the Trans Vietnamese Railway (RVN postage stamp)

During World War II and the wars with the French and the Americans the tracks were the target of countless attacks. In the Vietnam War, Vietnam divided into 2 entities (Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) in the North and Republic of Vietnam (RVN) in the South). Even in that situation, both entities were both seen railways as one of the symbols of a united Vietnam. Postage stamps of both sides can be seen as the illustration of their ideas. After the end of the American War there was not much left of the tracks, the new government who viewed the railway as the symbol of the unification, therefore invested a lot of manpower in rebuilding it. The new state after 1975 that in a sense does not have the kind of long relations with the people in the South that it is talking about. It needs to produce legitimacy overnight in some cases it is possible in other cases the military comes in. And so technology is legitimacy becomes one of those themes that constantly repeated and reframed and reformed in particularly in places like Vietnam. Post-colonial context means (i) postcolonial countries are the latecomers in technology. These countries became independent after the WWII. As a result of being latecomers in relations to technology, they had the options it appeared of bypassing certain stages in technological development and jumping to some higher more advanced more contemporary form of technology as a way of furthering development; (ii) the second meaning of post-colonial context is state-led. It was understood for the most part that the state was the critical factor in the generation of the technology because it was the only entity large enough and endowed enough to actually make something happen on the scale that needed to be done. On December 31st, 1976 the reunification express was opened. Railways helped to create the legitimacy of the Vietnam communist (DRV) government over the united sovereignty. Railways is the symbol of a new independent Vietnam, unity. Railways become a part of Vietnamese identity as Vietnamese appropriated and localized those Western imported technologies among themselves, their land and their others. Therefore, railways have a very important meaning in Vietnam's society. Railways is the national symbol in which the government constructs national identity. Through the North-South express railway project, the Vietnamese government possibly creates new national identities in the new milieu.

Vietnam's North-South Express Railway in Japanese-Sino Competition for Infrastructure (Railway) Projects in Southeast Asia[edit]

Many studies have suggested that there is a pressing need to develop infrastructure across Asia, especially across Southeast Asia. However, Southeast Asian countries do not have the budget enough for infrastructure development. According to a report by the Asia Development Bank (ADB), Southeast Asia needs US$1.7 trillion annually from 2016 to 2030 on infrastructure to maintain its growth momentum. Therefore, these countries are looking for supports from Asian big powers. In this context, Japan and China have increasingly emerged as regional technical and economic competitors, as evidenced by their rivalry for infrastructure projects through funding entities and large-scale technological systems (especially mass rapid transit and high-speed railway) in Southeast Asia.

Japan has had a decades-long head start in the high-speed rail business rolling out the first concern passenger service in 1964. It has not stopped innovating as demonstrated by a test run of a magnetically levitated train exceeding 600 km/h. The Chinese who entered the business in 2007 now boasts of more than half of the world's 23,000 km of the high-speed rail track. They are reported to be in talks with 15 countries to sell their rail technology. In an interview with Voice of America (VOA), Richard Lawless, chairman of the Nation Texas Central Railroad Project which enjoys Japanese backing sees Japan is offering the better trains. He thought that "On the technology, operational experience, safety side certainly as the Japanese, they have really an unprecedented record of operational performance and safety. They are the golden bar now." But Lawless and others acknowledge China is more aggressive than Japan on financing aging rollout of The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is certain to give it up a further advantage. And China is seen as virtual compelled to export its high-speed rail technology."[19] The Chinese is exhausting itself with the build-out of their currently undertaking they have to go overseas.

In Thailand, Japan’s firms are going to construct the Bangkok-Chiang Mai HSR project in 2019, a meter-gauge double-track line linking Bangkok and Kanchanaburi province to Laem Chabang, and possibly the two east-west corridors (1st corridor - “lower east-west corridor” - 574 km from the Thai province of Kanchanaburi on the border with Myanmar to the eastern province of Aranyaprathet on the Cambodia border; 2nd corridor - “the upper east-west corridor” - from Mae Sot in Tak Province, bordering Myanmar, to Mukdahan province, bordering Laos).[20] Meanwhile, China’s firms are constructing the construction of 874 km of Thailand - China railway project.

In Indonesia, China won against Japan the bid on the Jakarta-Bandung HSR project in the Jakarta-Surabaya HSR, while Japan is working with the Indonesian government in constructing the mass rapid transit (MRT) in Jakarta.

In Malaysia, Chinese firms have a dominant market share in the rail sector in Malaysia, supplying some 80 percent of the rolling stock in the use.[21] China firms won RM55 billion contract to build the East Coast Rail Line. Japan and China are the front-runners in the 350km HSR between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

In Vietnam, the line in Ho Chi Minh City is largely backed by funding and expertise from the JICA, as well as Sumitomo Corp. and Shimizu-Maeda, two huge Japanese conglomerates. The inaugural Hanoi line, on the other hand, relies on major support from a consortium of Chinese companies headed by the China Railways Sixth Group.[22]

Le Hong Hiep, a research fellow at the ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute (Singapore) emphasized that while working with Vietnamese partners to make the project more sellable to the Vietnamese public and lawmakers, Japanese companies may also need to keep an eye on their Chinese competitors who benefit from China’s large funds available for overseas high-speed rail projects under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Although Chinese contractors and China-funded projects have a poor track record in Vietnam and are perceived negatively by the Vietnamese public, if China can provide the desired technology and offer favorable financing conditions for the project, this may tip the balance in their favor, especially given that China’s high-speed train technologies have witnessed major advances in recent years.[23]

Other High-speed Railway Projects in Vietnam[edit]

Tuoi Tre News[24] and Saigon Times[25] reported that Ho Chi Minh City–Cần Thơ Express Railway will be funded by Canadian private company. Canada's MorFund Financial Inc. will contribute 6.3 billion Canadian dollars (US$5 billion) in a high-speed railway connecting Ho Chi Minh City with the Mekong Delta region, with its last stop in Can Tho. The public-private partnership (PPP) has been formalized in a memorandum of understanding signed between MorFund Financial Inc. and Phuong Nam Science and Technology Institute (PNSTI), which was in charge of the project. PNSTI said that the investment deal was the last legal step needed to complete the project, which would be submitted to the Ministry of Transport, the head administrator and the lawmaking National Assembly (Vietnam) soon for endorsement. The high-speed rail is expected to be done late this year and promise a travel time of 45 minutes between Ho Chi Minh City and Can Tho.

The PNSTI and Southern Transport Engineer Designing (TEDI South) has planned the project for five years with the proficient help from local specialists. The up-and-coming high-speed rail will run 139 kilometers from Tan Kien metro station in Ho Chi Minh City to Cai Cui port in Can Tho with stops in Long An, Tien Giang, and Vinh Long provinces. They are also planning to develop new urban areas. Each stop will have its own industrial park, residential neighborhoods, schools, hospitals, and supermarkets. The passenger high-speed train will run 200 kilometers per hour and take approximately 45 minutes to venture to every part of the whole length of the course. As indicated by Prof. Dr. Tran Cong Hoang Quoc Trang, leader of PNSTI, the Canadian Consulate General in Ho Chi Minh City has sworn to give proficient and specialized help to project development with its modern rail technologies expertise. At the moment the Mekong Delta region in Southern Vietnam is not associated with the nation's North-South railroad network which has its last station in Ho Chi Minh City. Traveling by road from Ho Chi Minh City to Can Tho takes roughly three and a half hours.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sơ sài dự án ngàn tỉ. Nguoi Lao Dong. May 12, 2010.
  2. ^ "Sẽ có đường sắt cao tốc 300km/h Hà Nội - TP HCM". Dat Viet News. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
  3. ^ "Rail boss: Vietnam to begin high-speed line in 2010". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2007-10-23. Archived from the original on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
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  5. ^ "The visit to Japan successful: says PM Nguyen Tan Dung". Communist Party of Vietnam. 2006-10-22. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  6. ^ a b Vu Anh Minh (2017-06-20). "Vietnam Railways: Challenges, Opportunities and Development". Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (UIC) News. Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (UIC). Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  7. ^ Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) North-South Express Railway Vietnam, Project Profile, Timetric, London: Progressive Media Group.
  8. ^ a b "Vietnamese legislators reject $56B bullet train in rare move against Communist leaders". Metro News. Vancouver. Associated Press. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-06-21.[permanent dead link]
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  10. ^ a b "Transport Ministry moves on with two express railways". 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
  11. ^ "National Assembly to vote on high-speed train in 2019". VietNamNet Bridge. 2017-11-22. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  12. ^ Linh Pham (2018-11-13). "Private capital suggested for Vietnam's whopping north-south express railway". The Hanoi Times. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  13. ^ Le, T. V., Zhang, J., Chikaraishi, M., & Fujiwara, A. (2018). Influence of introducing high-speed railways on intercity travel behavior in Vietnam. arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.00155
  14. ^ Matt Harrison (2018-09-12). "Large infrastructure investment promises to upgrade Vietnam's transportation". Transport Designed. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  15. ^ Karl Wolfgang Deutsch, William J. Folt, eds, Nation Building in Comparative Contexts, New York, Atherton, 1966.
  16. ^ Mylonas, Harris (2017),“Nation-building,” Oxford Bibliographies in International Relations. Ed. Patrick James. New York: Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ Doling, Tim (2012), The Railways and Tramways of Việt Nam, Bangkok: White Lotus Press.
  18. ^ Del Testa, David Willson (2001), Paint the Trains Red: Labor, Nationalism, and the Railroads in French Colonial Indochina, 1898—1945, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.
  19. ^ VOA (2015-04-22). "Japan, China in Race for Asia High-Speed Rail Projects". VOANews. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  20. ^ Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (2009). [Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia: "The Comprehensive Asia Development Plan"] Check |url= value (help). Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  21. ^ Zhao H. (2017-02-25). "Chinese and Japanese infrastructure investment in Southeast Asia: from rivalry to cooperation?". Institute of Developing Economies. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  22. ^ Michael Tatarski (2017-07-30). "Vietnam's Tale of Two Metros, One Built by the Japanese and the other by the Chinese". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  23. ^ Le Hong Hiep (2018-08-21). "Vietnam's North-South High-speed Rail Project: A Renewed Opportunity for Japan?". ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute Commentaries. ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  24. ^ Tuan Son (2018-03-07). "Canadian fund to invest in Saigon-Mekong high-speed rail". TuoiTreNews. Tuổi Trẻ. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  25. ^ The Saigon Times Daily (2018-09-24). "HCMC proposes adjusting HCMC-Can Tho express railway project". The Saigon Times. Retrieved 2010-11-01.


  • Del Testa, David Willson (2001), Paint the Trains Red: Labor, Nationalism, and the Railroads in French Colonial Indochina, 1898—1945, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.
  • Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang & Folt, William J., eds (1966), Nation Building in Comparative Contexts, New York, Atherton.
  • Doling, Tim (2012), The Railways and Tramways of Việt Nam, Bangkok: White Lotus Press.
  • Le, T. V., Zhang, J., Chikaraishi, M., & Fujiwara, A. (2018), Influence of introducing high-speed railways on intercity travel behavior in Vietnam, arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.00155
  • Mylonas, Harris (2017),“Nation-building,” Oxford Bibliographies in International Relations. Ed. Patrick James. New York: Oxford University Press.

External links[edit]