North American Leaders' Summit

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North American Leaders' Summit
Canada, Mexico and the United States


Prime Minister Justin Trudeau


President Andrés Manuel López Obrador

 United States

President Donald Trump

The North American Leaders' Summit (NALS), sometimes called the Three Amigos Summit in the popular press,[1][2][3] is the trilateral annual summit between the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of Mexico, and the President of the United States.[4] The summits were initially held as part of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), a continent-level dialogue between the three countries established in 2005, and continued after SPP became inactive in 2009.[5][6]

The most recent North American Leaders' Summit was hosted by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on June 29, 2016 at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Trudeau hosted US President Barack Obama and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto.[7] The three leaders discussed a shared commitment to LGBT rights (with Trudeau highlighting their importance after the recent attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando), renewable energy development, and free trade.[8] The leaders also announced the creation of a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership and associated action plan.[9] The 2016 summit was the first and last time all three of the leaders met, as Trudeau had just been elected in November 2015 and Obama's term as president ended in January 2017 with the swearing in of Donald Trump. Trudeau described the meeting as "friendly, as you might expect among friends, but also a little poignant".[8]


U.S. President Barack Obama, left, Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, centre, and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, right, at the North American Leaders' Summit in Toluca, Mexico, on February 19, 2014.
Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, left, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, centre, and U.S. President Barack Obama, right, at the North American Leaders' Summit in Ottawa, Canada, on June 29, 2016
Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, left, U.S. President Donald Trump, right, and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, right, signed the United States Mexico Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on November 30, 2018

Until 2009, the summits were held as part of the wider Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. There are no fixed dates for the summits and in some years a summit has not been held for varying reasons.[10]

Year Country Dates City Host leader
2005  United States March 23 Waco, Texas George W. Bush
2006  Mexico March 31 Cancún, Quintana Roo Vicente Fox
2007  Canada August 20–21 Montebello, Quebec Stephen Harper
2008  United States April 21–22 New Orleans, Louisiana George W. Bush
2009  Mexico August 8–11 Guadalajara, Jalisco Felipe Calderon
2010 No meeting held[notes 1][10]
2011 No meeting held[notes 2][11]
2012  United States April 2 Washington, D.C. Barack Obama
2013 No meeting held[10]
2014  Mexico February 19 Toluca, State of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto
2015 No meeting held[notes 3][12]
2016  Canada June 29 Ottawa, Ontario Justin Trudeau
2017 No meeting held
2018 No meeting held
2019 TBD


Canada Prime Minister of Canada United States President of the United States Mexico President of Mexico
2005 Paul Martin
George W. Bush
Vicente Fox
2006 Stephen Harper
2007 Felipe Calderón
2009 Barack Obama
2013 Enrique Peña Nieto
2016 Justin Trudeau
2017 Donald Trump
2019 Andrés Manuel López Obrador

See also[edit]

Bilateral relations
Trilateral relations


  1. ^ A planned 2010 summit in Wakefield, Quebec was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper.
  2. ^ The planned November 13, 2011 summit in Honolulu, Hawaii was cancelled by Barack Obama after the death of Mexican Foreign Minister Francisco Blake Mora and several other Mexican government officials in a helicopter crash
  3. ^ The planned 2015 summit in Canada was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper over tensions with the administration of Barack Obama over the Keystone XL oil pipeline


  1. ^ Cheadle, Bruce (April 3, 2012). "Three Amigos summit not so chummy". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  2. ^ Potter, Mitch (April 2, 2012). "Analysis: Stephen Harper faces tricky terrain during 'Three Amigos' summit". Toronto Star.
  3. ^ Horsley, Scott (June 29, 2016). "Obama To Meet Mexican-Canadian Counterparts In Ottawa". Morning Edition. NPR. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  4. ^ "North American Leaders' Summit (NALS)". North American Commercial Platform. International Trade Administration, US Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  5. ^ "President Bush to Attend North American Leaders' Summit in Canada". News Archive. Office of the White House Press Secretary. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  6. ^ Baril, Sophie-Anne; Cicchitelli, Ernesto (July 1, 2016). "Three Amigos Convene Again: The 2016 North American Leaders' Summit". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  7. ^ "Canada hosts North American Leaders' Summit". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  8. ^ a b Reilly, Katie (June 29, 2016). "Read the Remarks From the 'Three Amigos' Summit Press Conference". Time. New York, NY.
  9. ^ "Leaders' Statement on a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c "Stephen Harper postpones North American Leaders' Summit to late 2015". CBC News. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2017. "There is no fixed time of year for the three leaders to meet. Dates for the summit have been prone to change. The three countries rotated hosting duties between 2005 and 2009, but in 2010, Canada postponed a meeting that had been scheduled to be held in Wakefield, Que., and then did not host it at all... There was no summit in 2013.
  11. ^ Fekete, Jason (November 12, 2011). "Tragic deaths force cancellation of Three Amigos summit in Hawaii". Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia News. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  12. ^ Proudfoot, Shannon (June 28, 2016). "A cheat sheet for the Three Amigos summit". Maclean's. Retrieved January 27, 2017. Harper cancelled the 2015 summit amid mounting tension with the U.S. over the Keystone XL pipeline, which Obama ultimately rejected

External links[edit]