North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is a set of principles that has guided wildlife management and conservation decisions in the United States and Canada. Although not formally articulated until 2001, the model has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class. Beginning in the 1860s sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles – fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever.
The North American model has no direct legal powers, but rather has become the basis for policies developed by the Boone and Crockett Club, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, The Wildlife Society, and other conservation groups. The model has been widely accepted by wildlife professionals, incorporated into U.S. state agencies, and endorsed by professional organizations and teaching institutions.
The core principles of the Model are elaborated upon in the seven major tenets:
- Wildlife as Public Trust Resources
- Elimination of Markets for Game
- Allocation of Wildlife by Law
- Wildlife Should Only be Killed for a Legitimate Purpose
- Wildlife is Considered an International Resource
- Science is the Proper Tool for Discharge of Wildlife Policy
- Democracy of Hunting
Wildlife as Public Trust Resources
In the North American Model, wildlife is held in the public trust. This means that fish and wildlife are held by the public through state and federal governments. In other words, though an individual may own the land upon which wildlife resides, that individual does not own said wildlife. Instead, the wildlife is owned by all citizens. With origins in Roman times and English Common law, the public trust doctrine has at its heart the 1842 Supreme Court ruling Martin V. Waddell.
Elimination of Markets for Game
Commercial hunting and the sale of wildlife is prohibited to ensure the sustainability of wildlife population. This principle holds that unregulated economic markets for game and non-game wildlife are unacceptable because they privatize a common resource and lead to declines. The Lacey Act of 1900 effectively made market hunting illegal in the United States, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 provided international protections from the market.
Allocation of Wildlife by Law
Wildlife is allocated to the public by law, as opposed to market principles, land ownership, or other status. Democratic processes and public input into law-making help ensure access is equitable. Laws regulating access to wildlife include the 1940 Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, Endangered Species Preservation Act and Fur Seal Act of 1966, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, and the 1973 Endangered Species Act.
Wildlife Should Only be Killed for a Legitimate Purpose
Under the North American Model, the killing of game must be done only for food, fur, self-defense, and the protection of property (including livestock). In other words, it is broadly regarded as unlawful and unethical to kill fish or wildlife (even with a license) without making all reasonable effort to retrieve and make reasonable use of the resource.
Wildlife is Considered an International Resource
As wildlife do not exist only within fixed political boundaries, effective management of these resources must be done internationally, through treaties and the cooperation of management agencies.
Science is the Proper Tool for Discharge of Wildlife Policy
The North American Model recognizes science as a basis for informed management and decision-making processes. This tenet draws from the writings of Aldo Leopold, who in the 1930s called for a wildlife conservation movement facilitated by trained wildlife biologists that made decisions based on facts, professional experience, and commitment to shared underlying principles, rather than strictly interests of hunting, stocking, or culling of predators. Science in wildlife policy includes studies of population dynamics, behavior, habitat, adaptive management, and national surveys of hunting and fishing.
Democracy of Hunting
This tenet is inspired by Theodore Roosevelt's idea that open access to hunting would result in many benefits to society. This tenet supports access to firearms and the hunting industry, of which much funding for conservation is derived.
Some authors have questioned whether the North America Model is inclusive of all wildlife conservation interests or exclusively narrow in its application. The North American model has also been criticized as presenting an "inadequate history" and prescribing "inadequate ethics" of conservation, and in giving recreational hunting disproportionate credit for its role in conservation. Critics say some tenets are flawed or misguided, for example that the tenet Elimination of Markets for Game overlooks the conservation success of Europe- where wildlife is privatized and commercialized- and ignores the role of sustainable harvest strategies, or that some hunting activity may be inherently contradictory to the tenet Wildlife Should Only be Killed for a Legitimate Purpose.
Much debate has occurred over the tenet Science is the Proper Tool for Discharge of Wildlife Policy. Some authors suggest that by and large the scientific foundation is missing from the process of managing wildlife. However, their interpretation of "science-based management" has been challenged as being too limiting to encompass the nuances of wildlife management in North America.
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- Mahoney, Shane (September–October 2004). "The Seven Sisters". Bugle. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. 21 (5).
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- "Scientists Call North American Wildlife Conservation Model Flawed". NewsWise. Newswise, Inc. 2011-06-17. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Artelle, Kyle A.; Reynolds, John D.; Treves, Adrian; Walsh, Jessica C.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T. (2018-03-07). "Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife management". Science Advances. 4 (3): eaao0167. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aao0167. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 5842039. PMID 29532032.
- Artelle, Kyle A.; Reynolds, John D.; Treves, Adrian; Walsh, Jessica C.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T. (2018-10-03). "Working constructively toward an improved North American approach to wildlife management". Science Advances. 4 (10): eaav2571. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2571. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 6170033. PMID 30306136.
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