North American T-6 Texan variants
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This article describes the different variants of the North American T-6 Texan.
- Basic Trainer with 400hp Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind and new canopy. Dangerous stall resulted in a variety of unsuccessful fixes. 42 built.
- Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and modified canopy. 40 built.
- Minor changes from BT-9, unarmed. 117 built. 1 modified as sole BT-9D which was modified as a prototype for BT-14 with new outer wing panels and other alterations.
- Wright R-975-7, similar to the BT-9A with minor changes. 66 built
- One prototype only, Intermediate step in development of the BT-14.
- 600hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41. First aircraft of batch of BT-9C completed as Y1BT-10.
- Production version of Y1BT-10 - cancelled
- lengthened all metal fuselage and new canopy, Pratt & Whitney R-985-25, 251 built.
- 27 BT-14s were re-engined with 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11.
- North American BC-1
- Basic Combat trainer version initial production version with 600hp R-1340-47 engine, Early examples had round rudder, later examples had square bottom rudder. 177 built
- New longer semi-monocoque fuselage, new outer wing panels angled forward slightly, squared-off wingtips and triangular rudder, 93 built. Identifiable from later types by blister fairing between undercarriage.
- One BC-1A fitted with an AT-6A wing centre section.
- BC-1s converted to instrument trainers, 30 modified
- Similar to BC-1A and AT-6, modified from NA-36 with details from NA-44, 3 bladed propeller.
AT Series (Texan)
- AT-6 Texan
- Advanced Trainer - same as BC-1A with minor changes, powered by a 600hp R-1340-47 and armed with forward-firing 0.3in machine gun, nine original started as BC-1As and 85 built.
- Same as AT-6 but with 600hp R-1340-49 and removable wing centre section fuel tanks, 1847 built with 298 transferred to the United States Navy as the SNJ-3. Survivors re-designated T-6A in 1948.
- Same as AT-6A but with 600hp R-1340-AN-1 and dorsal gun fitted as standard, 400 built.
- Same as AT-6B but with material changes to low-alloy steel and plywood, 2970 built including transfers to the United Kingdom as the Harvard III.
- Same as AT-6B but with a 24V DC electrical system, 4388 built including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-5 and to the United Kingdom as the Harvard IIA. Redesignated T-6D in 1948.
- One AT-6D re-engined with a 575hp V-770-9 V-12 inline engine for trials.
- Same as AT-6D but with a strengthened airframe and minor modifications, 956 built including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-6, Redesignated T-6F in 1948. Clear fixed rear canopy. Some went to Russia via Lend-Lease.
- Noorduyn built lend-lease Harvards, 1800 built
- North American A-27
- Two-seat attack version of AT-6 with a 785hp R-1820-75 engine and five 0.3in machine guns (two in nose, one on each wing and one dorsal). Designation used for ten aircraft for Thailand impressed into United States Army Air Corps use.
- AT-6As re-designated in 1948.
- AT-6Cs re-designated in 1948 including 68 re-builds with new serial numbers.
- AT-6D re-designated in 1948 including 35 re-builds with new serial numbers.
- AT-6F re-designated in 1948.
- Earlier model AT-6/T-6s re-built between 1949-1953 with improved cockpit layout, increased fuel capacity, steerable tailwheel, updated radios and a 600hp R-1340-AN-1 engine. Identifiable by simplified canopy framing. 2068 modified.
- T-6Gs converted for battlefield surveillance and forward air controller duties, 97 modified. Nicknamed Mosquito.
- T-6Fs converted T-6G standard.
- Designation claimed to have been used for Canadian-built Harvard Mk 4s, however no proof has ever surfaced that this designation was ever used, and aircraft record cards and markings on aircraft called them Harvard 4s. Supplied to Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal and West Germany, 285 aircraft.
- A single T-6F damaged in a crash during the Korean War that was rebuilt as a floatplane by the Republic of Korea Navy.
- Bacon Super T-6
- A single AT-6F converted in 1956 with tricycle gear, bubble canopy and tip tanks; no production followed.
- United States Navy specification advanced trainer powered with 550hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6. Some re-engined with later versions of R-1340. Similar to BT-9, 40 built.
- Similar to Harvard I but with BC-1 wing center section, metal-covered fuselage and late T-6 type wing, 16 built.
- Same as SNJ-1 but with a R-1340-56 engine and changes to carburetor and oil cooler scoops, 61 built.
- Same as AT-6A, 270 built and 296 transferred from USAAC.
- SNJ-3 converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear, twelve modified.
- Same as AT-6C, 1240 built.
- SNJ-4s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
- AT-6Ds transferred from the USAAC, 1573 aircraft.
- SNJ-5s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
- AT-6Fs transferred from the USAAF, 411 aircraft.
- Early models modified to T-6G standards in 1952.
- An armed variant of the SNJ-7.
- Order for 240 cancelled.
- Harvard I
- Similar to BC-1 but without rear gun and with a 600hp R-1340-S3H1 engine, 400 aircraft.
- Harvard II
- Similar to BC-1A, 526 built, again without provision for rear gunner.
- Harvard IIA (RAF & Commonwealth)
- AT-6C, many with wooden rear fuselages when first delivered.
- Harvard IIA (RCAF)
- 'Armed' Harvard II - Any RCAF Harvard II or IIB fitted with wing guns, rockets or bombs.
- Harvard IIB
- Noorduyn built Mk.II's, some to US orders as AT-16's for lend-lease. Transfers back from the USAAF (1800) and 757 built.
- Harvard T.T. IIB
- Target Tug - 42 aircraft built for the RAF by Noorduyn. Number probably included in II totals.
- Harvard IIF
- Bombing/gunnery trainer - One-off modified from Mk.II with bomb aimer's blister and AT-6 type cockpit.
- Harvard III
- AT-6D, 537 aircraft for RAF.
- Harvard 4
- Canadian development of Harvard II paralleling the T-6G, and built by Canadian Car & Foundry, 270 for the RCAF and 285 for USAF. Some publications refer to these as T-6J however the aircraft record cards do not use this designation.
- Harvard 4K
- Belgian designation for Harvard IIs and IIIs upgraded to roughly Harvard 4 specifications.
- Harvard 4KA
- Belgian designation for armed variant of 4K.
North American company designations
|Customer||Engine Installed||Number built/
|NA-16||NA-16||USAAC (trials)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||1||Prototype NX-2080, was open cockpit, received greenhouse canopy for trials|
|NA-18||NA-18||USAAC (trials)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||1 (modified)||Ex-NA-16, won against Seversky BT-8 and Curtiss-Wright CW-19R, to Argentina in 1937|
|NA-19||NA-19/BT-9||USAAC||Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp (300 kW))||42||Minor changes from NA-18, new canopy|
|NA-19A||NA-19A/BT-9A||USAAC||Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp (300 kW))||40||Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and suitably modified canopy.|
|NA-20||NA-16-2H||Trials, to Fuerza Aérea Hondureña (Honduras - FAH)||Wright R-975 Whirlwind (Unknown sub-type)||1||NC16025 originally intended as demonstrator for China|
|NA-22||NA-22||USAAC (rejected)||Wright R-760ET (225 hp (168 kW))||1||Dangerously underpowered|
|NA-23||NA-23/BT-9B||USAAC||Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp (300 kW))||117||Unarmed. 1 modified as sole BT-9D as BT-14 prototype with new outer wings and other alterations.|
|NA-26||BC-1||Trials, to Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp (410 kW))||1||Basic Combat Demonstrator NX18990 - no relation to later BC-1, first retractable gear variant, later modified with Yale parts.|
|NA-27||NA-16-2H||to Fokker and
Koninklijke Luchtmacht (KLu) (Netherlands)
|Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S2H1 Wasp (500 hp (370 kW))||1||European demonstrator armed NA-26 with fixed gear.|
|NA-28||NJ-1||USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp (550 hp (410 kW))||40||USN specification up engined BT-9 as advanced trainer, some reengined with later R-1340 versions.|
|NA-29||BT-9C||USAAC||Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp (300 kW))||67||as per BT-9A with minor changes. First aircraft completed as Y1BT-10.|
|NA-30||BT-10||USAAC (Cancelled)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||0||cancelled production version of Y1BT-10|
|Flygvapnet (Sweden)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))/
Piaggio P.VIIc (525 hp (391 kW))
|137||BT-9C but different engine variant. Licence production (NAA built 1, ASJA 76, SAAB 60), Trialled undercarriage for Saab 21.|
|NA-32||NA-16-1A||Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||1||Fixed gear pattern aircraft similar to NJ-1 or Y1BT-10, not followed up.|
|Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S1H1G (600 hp (450 kW))||756||Retractable gear pattern aircraft for Australia, 1 built by NAA and 755 by Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation)|
|NA-34||NA-16-4P||Fuerza Aérea Argentina (FAA- Argentina)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||29||First major export order (not licence), had 2 cowl guns, a flexible rear gun and a radio mast|
|NA-36||BC-1||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp(500 hp (370 kW))||177||Retractable undercarriage and first aircraft with square bottom rudder. Large DF loop between undercarriage, blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells.legs.|
|NA-37||NA-16-4R/KXA1||Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN - Evaluation)||Pratt & Whitney R-985-9CG Wasp Junior (500 hp (370 kW))||1||Technology demonstrator, unarmed, fixed landing gear and three bladed prop.|
|NA-38||NA-16-4M||Flygvapnet (Sweden)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||1||same as NA-31|
|NA-41||NA-16-4||Republic of China Air Force (RoCAF)||Wright R-975 Whirlwind||35||Similar to BT-9C with short fabric covered fuselage, combat aircraft with two fixed forward guns and one flexible rear gun.|
|NA-42||NA-16-2A||Fuerza Aérea Hondureña (FAH - Honduras)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp (520 hp (390 kW))||2|
|NA-43||NA-16-1G||Exército Brasileiro (Brazilian Army) (Cancelled)||Wright R-975 Whirlwind||0||Similar to BT-9C|
|NA-44||NA-44||to Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)||Wright SG-1820-F52 Cyclone (750 hp (560 kW))||1||Prototype two-seat export combat aircraft similar to BC-1A|
|NA-45||NA-16-1GV||Aviación Militar Nacional Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuela)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||3||Possibly originally built to Brazilian contract|
|NA-46||NA-16-4||Marinha do Brasil (Brazilian Navy)||Wright R-975-53 Whirlwind (400 hp (300 kW))||12||Similar to BT-9C with wingtip slats, small DF loop under fuselage.|
|NA-47||NA-16-4RW/KXA-2||Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (Evaluation)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||1||Technology demonstrator|
|NA-48||NA-16-3C||Republic of China Air Force (RoCAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||15||Similar to NA-45|
|Royal Air Force (RAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||400||Straight wing trailing edge, square rudder, short fabric covered fuselage, fixed rear canopy, no blister under wing center section|
|NA-50||NA-50||Fuerza Aérea del Perú (FAP - Perú)||Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone||7||Single-seat fighter, NA-16-5|
|NA-52||SNJ-1||USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp (500 hp (370 kW))||16||Short metal fuselage, square rudder, late wings, fixed rear on canopy|
|NA-54||BC-2||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-45 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||3||Based on NA-36 with some improvements from NA-44, 3 bladed prop and two blister under wing center section.|
|NA-55−1||BC-1A||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47/-49 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||83||Bought for researve and Air National Guard units.|
|NA-56||NA-16-4||Republic of China Air Force (RoCAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||50||Similar to NA-55 (long metal fuselage, fixed gear and engine differences)|
NAA 57 P-2
|Armée de l'Air (France)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||230||Improved NA-23, many captured and used by Germany, some retained by Vichy France|
|NA-58||BT-14/BT-14A||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 Wasp Junior||251||Similar to Harvard II except for fixed undercarriage and smaller engine. 27 re-engined with 400 hp (300 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11 as BT-14A|
|NA-59||AT-6-NA||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||94||First examples converted from NA-55 while still on production line, some examples had small DF loop installed|
|Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||30||Later fitted with extended exhaust for cabin heater|
|Armée de l'Air (France)||Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp (310 kW))||230||119 to Royal Canadian Air Force as Yale I, briefly used by France, many captured by Germany|
|NA-65||SNJ-2||USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-36 Wasp||36||Blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells|
|NA-66||Harvard II||Royal Air Force (RAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||600||as per NA-59 but fixed rear canopy and no rear gun, also to RNZAF and RCAF, Southern Rhodesia|
|NA-68||NA-50A/P-64||Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF - Thailand)||Wright R-1820-77 Cyclone (870 hp (650 kW))||6||Short outer wing panel angled much further forward than earlier types. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as P-64|
|NA-69||NA-44/A-27||Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF - Thailand)||Wright R-1820-75 Cyclone (745 hp (556 kW))||10||Fully armed as attack aircraft. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as A-27|
|NA-71||NA-16-3||Aviación Militar Nacional Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuela)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp (410 kW))||3||Two nose guns and rear gun, no wing guns.|
|NA-72||NA-44||Exército Brasileiro (Brazilian Army)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN1/S1H1 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||30||Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.|
|NA-74||NA-44||Fuerza Aérea de Chile (FACh)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||12||Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.|
|NA-75||Harvard II||Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||100||Follow on order to NA-66|
|NA-76||Harvard II||Royal Air Force (RAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||450||Originally ordered by France, taken over by RAF, many to RCAF|
|NA-77||AT-6A/SNJ-3||USAAC, USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||637|
|NA-78||AT-6A/SNJ-3/3C||USAAC, USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||568||As NA-77, first aircraft built in Texas, and to use name "Texan"|
|NA-79||SNJ-2||USN / Flygvapnet (Sweden) as Sk 16C||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-56 Wasp||25|
|NA-81||Harvard II||Royal Air Force (RAF)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||125||same as previous RAF Harvard II order.|
|NA-84||AT-6B||USAAC||Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp (600 hp (450 kW))||400|
|NA-85||SNJ-3||USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||0||Cancelled duplicate of NA-78 for record purposes.|
|USAAC/USAAF, USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp/Ranger V-770||9331||(last 800 as NA.121) AT-6D used 24 volt electrics, vs previous 12 volt systems. XAT-6E used Ranger V-770.|
|NA-119||AT-6D||Força Aérea Brasileira (FAB - Brazil)||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||81||20 examples built in Brazil under licence|
|NA-121||AT-6D/AT-6F||USAAF, USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||4378||800 AT-6Ds, 211 SNJ-5, 956 AT-6F and 411 SNJ-6. AT-6F and SNJ-6 have clear fixed rear canopy section|
|NA-128||AT-6D||USAAF, USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||0||Canceled orders to have been built in Texas.|
|NA-168||T-6G/LT-6G||USAF/Air National Guard||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||109||Re-manufactured and updated from earlier versions. Mostly internal but canopy simplified slightly.|
|NA-182||T-6G/LT-6G||USAF/Air National Guard||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||824||as per NA-168, Re-manufactured/updated.|
|NA-186||Harvard 4||Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)/Major Defense Acquisition Program||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||555||Design Data for Canadian Car and Foundry possibly to build Harvard IV or T-6G, sole new post war production.|
|NA-188||T-6G/LT-6G||USAF/Air National Guard||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||107||Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.|
|NA-195||T-6G/LT-6G||USAF/Air National Guard||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||11||Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.|
|NA-197||T-6G||USAF/Air National Guard||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||110||Re-manufactured and converted from T-6D.|
|NA-198||SNJ-8||USN||Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp||0||Cancelled Contract for SNJ-8 (similar to T-6G)|
- Davis 1989, p.54.
- Hagedorn 2009, p.169.
- Andrade, John M. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909, Midland Counties Publications, England, 1979, ISBN 0-904597-22-9
- Davis, Larry. T-6 Texan in action. Aircraft in Action Number 94. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1989. ISBN 0-89747-224-1
- Fletcher, David C. & Doug MacPhail. Harvard! The North American Trainers in Canada, DCF Flying Books, San Josef, BC, Canada, ISBN 0-9693825-0-2
- Hagedorn, Dan. North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ - WarbirdTech Series Volume 11, Specialty Press, USA, 1997, ISBN 0-933424-76-0
- Hagedorn, Dan (2009). North American's T-6: A Definitive History of the World's Most Famous Trainer. North Branch, MN: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-124-6.
- "North American AT-6 Texan", USWarplanes.net. Accessed 3 May 2010.